Ø (or minuscule: ø) is a vowel and a letter used in the Danish, Norwegian, Faroese, and Southern Sami languages. It is mostly used as a representation of mid front rounded vowels, such as [ø] and [œ], except for Southern Sami where it is used as an [oe] diphthong.
The name of this letter is the same as the sound it represents (see usage). Though not its native name, among English-speaking typographers the symbol may be called a "slashed o" or "o with stroke". Although these names suggest it is a ligature or a diacritical variant of the letter o, it is considered a separate letter in Norwegian and Danish, and it is alphabetized after "z"—thus z, æ, ø, and å.
The letter arose to represent an /ø/ sound resulting primarily from i-mutation of /o/. There are at least two theories about the origin of the letter ø:
|Unicode name||LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH STROKE||LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH STROKE|
|UTF-8||195 152||C3 98||195 184||C3 B8|
|Numeric character reference||Ø||Ø||ø||ø|
|Named character reference||Ø||ø|
Not to be confused with the mathematical signs:
As with the metal umlaut, the symbol Ø is used stylistically in place of the letter O in many contexts, although they typically do not change the actual spelling or pronunciation.
In music, it is used by artists such as Danish singer-songwriter MØ and Leathermouth in their logos and on tour posters. Underoath based their album art for both Ø (Disambiguation) and the Rebirth Tour Double Vinyl on the symbol and customarily stylises their band name by featuring the character in place of the "o". Nick Jonas also uses a reverse of the symbol in his logo.
The close-mid front rounded vowel, or high-mid front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. Acoustically, it is a close-mid front-central rounded vowel. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the sound is ⟨ø⟩, a lowercase letter o with a diagonal stroke through it, borrowed from Danish, Norwegian, and Faroese, which sometimes use the letter to represent the sound. The symbol is commonly referred to as "o, slash" in English.
For the close-mid front rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʏ⟩ or ⟨y⟩, see near-close front rounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨ø⟩, the vowel is listed here.Code page 865
Code page 865 (also known as CP 865, IBM 00865, OEM 865, DOS Nordic) is a code page used under DOS to write Nordic languages (except Icelandic, for which code page 861 is used).
Code page 865 differs from code page 437 in three points: 0x9B (ø instead of ¢), 0x9D (Ø instead of ¥) and 0xAF (¤ instead of »). The letter Ø is required for the Danish and Norwegian languages.
In the BBS software MBBS and its descendant BBBS, code page 865 was referred to as IBN (by contrast with IBM, which was used for code page 437).Formosan languages
The Formosan languages are the languages of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, all of which are Austronesian. The Taiwanese aborigines recognized by the government are about 2.3% of the island's population. However, far fewer can still speak their ancestral language because of centuries of language shift. Of the approximately 26 languages of the Taiwanese aborigines, at least ten are extinct, another four (perhaps five) are moribund, and several others are to some degree endangered.
The aboriginal languages of Taiwan have significance in historical linguistics since in all likelihood, Taiwan was the place of origin of the entire Austronesian language family. According to linguist Robert Blust, the Formosan languages form nine of the ten principal branches of the Austronesian language family, while the one remaining principal branch contains nearly 1,200 Malayo-Polynesian languages found outside Taiwan. Although some other linguists disagree with some details of Blust's analysis, a broad consensus has coalesced around the conclusion that the Austronesian languages originated in Taiwan. The theory has been strengthened by recent studies in human population genetics, supporting also the matrilineal nature of the migration.French orthography
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language. It is based on a combination of phonemic and historical principles. The spelling of words is largely based on the pronunciation of Old French c. 1100–1200 CE and has stayed more or less the same since then, despite enormous changes to the pronunciation of the language in the intervening years. This has resulted in a complicated relationship between spelling and sound, especially for vowels, a multitude of silent letters, and a large number of homophones (e.g., saint/sein/sain/seing/ceins/ceint (all pronounced [sɛ̃]), sang/sans/cent (all pronounced [sɑ̃])). Later attempts to respell some words in accordance with their Latin etymologies further increased the number of silent letters (e.g., temps vs. older tens – compare English "tense", which reflects the original spelling – and vingt vs. older vint). Nevertheless, there are rules governing French orthography which allow for a reasonable degree of accuracy when pronouncing French words from their written forms. The reverse operation, producing written forms from a pronunciation, is much more ambiguous.Indo-European sound laws
As the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) broke up, its sound system diverged as well, as evidenced in various sound laws associated with the daughter Indo-European languages.
Especially notable is the palatalization that produced the satem languages, along with the associated ruki sound law. Other notable changes include:
Grimm's law and Verner's law in Proto-Germanic
an independent change similar to Grimm's law in Armenian
loss of prevocalic *p- in Proto-Celtic
Brugmann's law in Proto-Indo-Iranian
Winter's law and Hirt's law in Balto-Slavic
merging of voiced and breathy-voiced stops, and /a/ and /o/, in various "northern" languagesBartholomae's law in Indo-Iranian, and Sievers' law in Proto-Germanic and (to some extent) various other branches, may or may not have been common Indo-European features. A number of innovations, both phonological and morphological, represent areal features common to the Italic and Celtic languages; among them the development of labiovelars to labial consonants in some Italic and Celtic branches, producing "p-Celtic" and "q-Celtic" languages (likewise "p-Italic" and "q-Italic", although these terms are less used). Another grouping with many shared areal innovations comprises Greek, Indo-Iranian, and Armenian; among its common phonological innovations are Grassmann's law in Greek and Indo-Iranian, and weakening of pre-vocalic /s/ to /h/ in Greek, Iranian and Armenian.Jan Ø. Jørgensen
Jan Østergaard Jørgensen (born December 31, 1987 in Aalborg) is a male badminton player from Denmark. He plays in the Denmark Badminton league representing SIF (Skovshoved).
He is married to the Danish Handball player Stine Jørgensen.KPS 9566
KPS 9566 is a North Korean standard which specifies an ISO 2022-compliant 94x94 two-byte coded character set for the Chosŏn'gŭl (Hangul) writing system used for the Korean language.
First published in 1993, it has since undergone several revisions in 1997, 2000 and 2003, mainly to enhance compatibility with Unicode. These are commonly indicated by specifying the year (KPS 9566-97, 9566-2000 and 9566-2003).
In principle, KPS 9566 is similar to the South Korean KS X 1001 encoding, except that it uses a different ordering of characters to conform with North Korean lexicographical ordering standards. It is also notable for its inclusion of several special characters from North Korean political life, including the following:
the logo of the Workers' Party of Korea, uncircled and circled (code points 12-01 and 12-02);
and two groups of three special-purpose characters which spell out the names of the North Korean leaders Kim Il-sung (김일성) and Kim Jong-il (김정일) respectively, in a special decorative font (code points 04-72 to 04-74 and 04-75 to 04-77, respectively). The syllables for Kim and Il, which are identical in the spelling of both names, are encoded twice.Due to these special characters, there is currently no full round-trip compatibility between KPS 9566 and Unicode. This would require adding these characters to the Universal Character Set, which the Unicode Consortium refused in 2000.KS X 1001
KS X 1001 (Hankuk Gyugyeok Munja Pyo for Information Interchange), formerly called KS C 5601, is a South Korean coded character set standard to represent hangul and hanja characters on a computer.
KS X 1001 is encoded by the most common legacy (pre-Unicode) character encodings for Korean, including EUC-KR and Microsoft's Unified Hangul Code (UHC). It contains Korean Hangul syllables, CJK ideographs (Hanja), Greek, Cyrillic, Japanese (Hiragana and Katakana) and some other characters.
KS X 1001 is arranged as a 94×94 table, following the structure of 2-byte code words in ISO 2022 and EUC. Therefore, its code points are pairs of integers 1–94. However, some encodings (UHC and JOHAB), in addition to providing codes for every code point, provide additional codes for characters otherwise representable only as code point sequences.Kangeq
Kangeq or Kangek (Kalaallisut: "Promontory") is a former settlement in the Sermersooq municipality in southwestern Greenland. It is located on the same island that formed the first Danish colony on Greenland between 1721 and 1728.Kiatassuaq Island
Kiatassuaq Island (old spelling: Kiatagssuaq, Danish: Holm Ø, Holm Island) is an uninhabited island in the northern Upernavik Archipelago in the Qaasuitsup municipality in northwestern Greenland. It marks the southern border of Melville Bay.Kiataussaq Island
Kiataussaq Island (Danish: Amdrup Ø) is an uninhabited island in the Qaasuitsup municipality in northwestern Greenland.List of Ligue 1 records and statistics
The following is a list of records attained in French Football Ligue 1 since the league foundation in 1932.Longest common subsequence problem
The longest common subsequence (LCS) problem is the problem of finding the longest subsequence common to all sequences in a set of sequences (often just two sequences). It differs from the longest common substring problem: unlike substrings, subsequences are not required to occupy consecutive positions within the original sequences. The longest common subsequence problem is a classic computer science problem, the basis of data comparison programs such as the diff utility, and has applications in computational linguistics and bioinformatics. It is also widely used by revision control systems such as Git for reconciling multiple changes made to a revision-controlled collection of files.Mie Nielsen
Mie Østergaard Nielsen (born 25 September 1996) is a Danish competitive swimmer who holds the Danish record in several backstroke events.O
O (named o , plural oes) is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.Old Norse
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
The Proto-Norse language developed into Old Norse by the 8th century, and Old Norse began to develop into the modern North Germanic languages in the mid- to late 14th century, ending the language phase known as Old Norse. These dates, however, are not absolute, since written Old Norse is found well into the 15th century.Old Norse was divided into three dialects: Old West Norse, Old East Norse, and Old Gutnish. Old West and East Norse formed a dialect continuum, with no clear geographical boundary between them. For example, Old East Norse traits were found in eastern Norway, although Old Norwegian is classified as Old West Norse, and Old West Norse traits were found in western Sweden. Most speakers spoke Old East Norse in what is present day Denmark and Sweden. Old Gutnish, the more obscure dialectal branch, is sometimes included in the Old East Norse dialect due to geographical associations. It developed its own unique features and shared in changes to both other branches.
The 12th-century Icelandic Gray Goose Laws state that Swedes, Norwegians, Icelanders, and Danes spoke the same language, dǫnsk tunga ("Danish tongue"; speakers of Old East Norse would have said dansk tunga). Another term, used especially commonly with reference to West Norse, was norrœnt mál or norrǿnt mál ("Nordic/Northern speech"). Today Old Norse has developed into the modern North Germanic languages Icelandic, Faroese, Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish, of which Norwegian, Danish and Swedish retain considerable mutual intelligibility.Oslo Central Station
Oslo Central Station (Norwegian: Oslo sentralstasjon, abbreviated Oslo S) is the main railway station in Oslo, and the largest railway station within the entire Norwegian railway system. It is the terminus of Drammen Line, Gardermoen Line, Gjøvik Line, Hoved Line and Østfold Line. It serves express, regional and local rail services by four companies. The railway station is operated by Bane NOR while its real estate subsidiary, Bane NOR Eiendom owns the station, and was opened in 1980.
Oslo Central was built on the site of the older Oslo East Station (Oslo Østbanestasjon, Oslo Ø), the combining of the former east and west stations being made possible by the opening of the Oslo Tunnel. Oslo Central has nineteen tracks, thirteen of which have connections through the Oslo Tunnel. The station has two buildings, the original Oslo East building and the newer main building for Oslo Central. Each building houses a large shopping centre. The square in front of the station is called Jernbanetorget.Ö
Ö, or ö, is a character that represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter o modified with an umlaut or diaeresis. In many languages, the letter ö, or the o modified with an umlaut, is used to denote the non-close front rounded vowels [ø] or [œ]. In languages without such vowels, the character is known as an "o with diaeresis" and denotes a syllable break, wherein its pronunciation remains an unmodified [o].
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