Ø

Ø (or minuscule: ø) is a vowel and a letter used in the Danish, Norwegian, Faroese, and Southern Sami languages. It is mostly used as a representation of mid front rounded vowels, such as [ø] and [œ], except for Southern Sami where it is used as an [oe] diphthong.

The name of this letter is the same as the sound it represents (see usage). Though not its native name, among English-speaking typographers the symbol may be called a "slashed o"[1] or "o with stroke". Although these names suggest it is a ligature or a diacritical variant of the letter o, it is considered a separate letter in Norwegian and Danish, and it is alphabetized after "z"—thus z, æ, ø, and å.

In other languages that do not have the letter as part of the regular alphabet, or in limited character sets such as ASCII, ø is frequently replaced with the digraph "oe".

ø (lower case) is also used in the International Phonetic Alphabet to represent a close-mid front rounded vowel.

Latin alphabet Øø
Ø in Helvetica and Bodoni

Language usage

Bible of Christian III 1550
Title page of the Christian III Bible, employing the spelling "Københaffn".
OwithStrokeandacute
O with Stroke and acute in Doulos SIL
  • In modern Danish, Faroese, and Norwegian, the letter is a monophthongal close-mid front rounded vowel, the IPA symbol for which is also [ø] (Unicode U+00F8). As with so many vowels, it has slight variations of "light" quality (in Danish, søster ("sister") is pronounced as [ø], like the "eu" in the French word bleu) and "dark" quality (in Danish, bønne ("bean") is pronounced as [œ], like the "œu" in the French word bœuf).[2] Listen to a Danish speaker reciting the Danish alphabet. In the Suðuroy-dialect of Faroese, the short ø is pronounced [ʏ], e.g. børn [bʏdn] ("children"). The letter was used in both Antiqua and Fraktur from at least as early as the Christian III Bible. Under German influence, the letter ö appeared in older texts (particularly those using Fraktur) and was preferred for use on maps (e.g., for Helsingör or Læsö) until 1957.[3]
  • The Southern Sami language uses the letter ø in Norway. It is used in the diphthongs [yo] and øø [oe]. In Sweden, the letter ö is preferred.
  • Ø is used in the orthographies of several languages of Africa, such as Lendu, spoken in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Koonzime, spoken in Cameroon.
  • In Danish, ø is also a word, meaning "island". The corresponding word is spelled ö in Swedish and øy in Norwegian.
  • Ø is used as the party letter for the left-wing Danish political party Red-Green Alliance (Enhedslisten).
  • Ǿ (Ø with an acute accent, Unicode U+01FE) may (very seldom) be used in Danish to distinguish its usage from a similar word with Ø. Example: hunden gǿr, "the dog barks" against hunden gør (det), "the dog does (it)". This distinction is not mandatory and the first example can be written gǿr or gør, the first variant (with ǿ) would only be used to avoid confusion. The second example cannot be spelled gǿr. In Danish, hunden gør, "the dog barks", may sometimes be replaced by the non-authorised spelling hunden gøer. This is, however, usually based on a misunderstanding of the grammatic rules of conjugation of verbs ending in the letters ø and å. These idiosyncratic spellings are not officially sanctioned. On Danish keyboards and typewriters, the acute accent may be typed above any vowel, by pressing the acute key before pressing the letter, but Ǿ is not implemented in the Microsoft Windows keyboard layout for Danish.
  • Ø is used in Old Icelandic texts, when written with the standardized orthography, denoting, among other things the umlauts o > ø and ǫ > ø.
  • In Old Polish texts, the letter Ø represented a nasal vowel (after all nasal vowels had merged).

Similar letters

  • The Turkish, Azerbaijani, Turkmen, Tatar, Swedish, Icelandic, Rotuman, German, Finnish, Estonian, and Hungarian alphabets use the letter Ö instead of Ø. Hungarian uses Ő for the same sound lengthened.
  • Ø/ø is not related to, and should not be confused with, the similar-looking Greek Φ/φ or the Cyrillic Ф/ф.
  • The Cyrillic script has Ө as the equivalent letter, which is used in the Cyrillic alphabets for Kazakh, Mongolian, Azerbaijani, etc. This is not to be confused with the Early Cyrillic letter fita Ѳ.
  • The letter Ø-with-umlaut (Ø̈, ø̈) was used by the Øresund bridge company, as part of their logotype, to symbolize its union between Sweden and Denmark. Since Ø-with-umlaut did not exist in computer fonts, it was not used in text. The logotype now uses the spelling Øresundsbron, with Øresunds- being Danish and -bron being Swedish. The letter Ø-with-umlaut sometimes appears on packaging meant for the Scandinavian market so as to prevent printing the same word twice. For example, liquorice brand Snøre/Snöre's logo on the packaging is Snø̈re. The letter is rarely used on maps (e.g.: Grø̈nland).[4]

Similar symbols

  • The letter "Ø" is sometimes used in mathematics as a replacement for the symbol "∅" (Unicode character U+2205), referring to the empty set as established by Bourbaki, and sometimes in linguistics as a replacement for same symbol used to represent a zero. The "∅" symbol is always drawn as a slashed circle, whereas in most typefaces the letter "Ø" is a slashed ellipse.
  • The diameter symbol () (Unicode character U+2300) is similar to the lowercase letter ø, and in some typefaces it even uses the same glyph, although in many others the glyphs are subtly distinguishable (normally, the diameter symbol uses an exact circle and the letter o is somewhat stylized). The diameter symbol is used extensively in engineering drawings, and it is also seen anywhere that abbreviating "diameter" is useful, such as on camera lenses. For example, a lens with a diameter of 82 mm would be labeled ⌀ 82 mm.
  • Ø or is sometimes also used as a symbol for average value, particularly in German-speaking countries. ("Average" in German is Durchschnitt, directly translated as cut-through.)[5]
  • Slashed zero is an alternate glyph for the zero character. Its slash does not extend outside the ellipse (except in handwriting). It is often used to distinguish "zero" ("0") from the Latin script letter "O" anywhere that people wish to preempt confounding of the two, particularly in encoding systems, scientific and engineering applications, computer programming (such as software development), and telecommunications. It is also used in Amateur Radio call signs, such as XXØXX, XØXXX, and so on in the United States and in other countries. See, also, [6] for information on international amateur radio call signs.
  • The letter "Ø" is often used in trapped key interlock sequence drawings to denote a key trapped in a lock. A lock without a key is shown as an "O".
  • The letter "Ø" is also used in written music, especially jazz, to type an ad‐hoc chord symbol for a half‐diminished chord, as in "Cø". The typographically correct chord symbol is spelled with the root name, followed by a slashed degree symbol, as in "C𝆩". The slashed degree symbol is found in the musical symbols block of Unicode but is unsupported by some fonts. 𝆩 can always be included with handwriting, however.

History

The letter arose to represent an /ø/ sound resulting primarily from i-mutation of /o/. There are at least two theories about the origin of the letter ø:

  • It possibly arose as a version of the ligature, Œ, of the digraph "oe", with the horizontal line of the "e" written across the "o".
  • It possibly arose in Anglo-Saxon England as an O and an I written in the same place: compare Bede's Northumbrian Anglo-Saxon period spelling Coinualch for standard Cēnwealh (a man's name) (in a text in Latin). Later the letter ø disappeared from Anglo-Saxon as the Anglo-Saxon sound /ø/ changed to /e/, but by then use of the letter ø had spread from England to Scandinavia.

Computers

Illuminated keyboard 2
Danish keyboard with keys for Æ, Ø, and Å. On Norwegian keyboards the Æ and Ø switch places.
Character Ø ø
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH STROKE LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH STROKE
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 216 U+00D8 248 U+00F8
UTF-8 195 152 C3 98 195 184 C3 B8
Numeric character reference Ø Ø ø ø
Named character reference Ø ø
EBCDIC family 128 80 112 70
ISO 8859-1/4/9/10/13/16 216 D8 248 F8
TeX \O \o
  • In Unicode, Ǿ and ǿ have the code points U+01FE and U+01FF.
  • On Microsoft Windows, using the "United States-International" keyboard setting, it can be typed by holding down the Alt-Gr key and pressing "L". It can also be typed under any keyboard setting by pressing NumLock, holding down the Alt key while typing 0216 (for uppercase) or 0248 (for lowercase) on the numeric keypad, provided the system uses code page 1252 as system default. (Code page 1252 is a superset of ISO 8859-1, and 216 and 248 are the decimal equivalents of hexadecimal D8 and F8.)
  • In macOS, it can be typed by holding O, or o, and then typing 6. In MacOS and earlier systems, using a US English-language keyboard, the letter can be typed by holding the [Option] key while typing O, or o, to yield Ø, or ø.
  • In the X Window System environment, one can produce these characters by pressing Alt-Gr and o or O, or by pressing the Multi key followed with a slash and then o or O.
  • In some systems, such as older versions of MS-DOS, the letter Ø is not part of the widely used code page 437. In Scandinavian codepages, Ø replaces the yen sign (¥) at 165, and ø replaces the ¢ sign at 162.
  • On an Amiga operating system using any keyboard map, the letter can be typed by holding the [Alt] key while typing O, or o, to yield Ø, or ø.
  • Using Microsoft Word, ø and Ø may be typed by pressing Ctrl-/ followed by either minuscule or majuscule O.

Encoding

In Unicode:

  • U+00D8 Ø LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH STROKE (HTML Ø · Ø)
  • U+00F8 ø LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH STROKE (HTML ø · ø)

Not to be confused with the mathematical signs:

  • U+2205 EMPTY SET (HTML ∅ · ∅)
  • U+2300 DIAMETER SIGN (HTML ⌀)

In popular culture

As with the metal umlaut, the symbol Ø is used stylistically in place of the letter O in many contexts, although they typically do not change the actual spelling or pronunciation.

In music, it is used by artists such as Danish singer-songwriter and Leathermouth in their logos and on tour posters.[7] Underoath based their album art for both Ø (Disambiguation) and the Rebirth Tour Double Vinyl on the symbol and customarily stylises their band name by featuring the character in place of the "o".[8] Nick Jonas also uses a reverse of the symbol in his logo.[9]

This letter is also used in a stylised manner by the Australian microphone brand RØDE, and was also used in a similar manner by the now defunct American software company Brøderbund.

The letter is also used by alternative band Twenty Øne Piløts in most stylized versions of their name, and is used on their official art for their Bandito Tour and album "Blurryface".

This symbol can also be used to form an ASCII dab: ø/ .

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Pullum, Geoffrey K., & William A. Ladusaw. 1996. Phonetic Symbol Guide, 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, p. 136.
  2. ^ Faqs.org.
  3. ^ Den Store Danske. "Ø, ø".
  4. ^ Die Erde: Haack Kleiner Atlas; VEB Hermann Haack geographisch-kartographische Anstalt, Gotha, 1982; p. 78
  5. ^ Beeton, Barbara; Freytag, Asmus; Iancu, Laurențiu; Sargent III, Murray (30 October 2015). "Proposal to Represent the Slashed Zero Variant of Empty Set" (PDF). The Unicode Consortium. p. 6.
  6. ^ "ITU Table of Allocation of International Call Sign Series". ARRL, the national association for Amateur Radio.
  7. ^ "LeATHERMØUTH - news". leathermouth.com. Retrieved 2017-01-28.
  8. ^ "Underoath Rebirth Tour 2017". UNDERØATH. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  9. ^ "Nick Jonas". nickjonas.com. Retrieved 2016-06-10.

References

Close-mid front rounded vowel

The close-mid front rounded vowel, or high-mid front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. Acoustically, it is a close-mid front-central rounded vowel. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the sound is ⟨ø⟩, a lowercase letter o with a diagonal stroke through it, borrowed from Danish, Norwegian, and Faroese, which sometimes use the letter to represent the sound. The symbol is commonly referred to as "o, slash" in English.

For the close-mid front rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʏ⟩ or ⟨y⟩, see near-close front rounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨ø⟩, the vowel is listed here.

Code page 865

Code page 865 (also known as CP 865, IBM 00865, OEM 865, DOS Nordic) is a code page used under DOS to write Nordic languages (except Icelandic, for which code page 861 is used).

Code page 865 differs from code page 437 in three points: 0x9B (ø instead of ¢), 0x9D (Ø instead of ¥) and 0xAF (¤ instead of »). The letter Ø is required for the Danish and Norwegian languages.

In the BBS software MBBS and its descendant BBBS, code page 865 was referred to as IBN (by contrast with IBM, which was used for code page 437).

Formosan languages

The Formosan languages are the languages of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, all of which are Austronesian. The Taiwanese aborigines recognized by the government are about 2.3% of the island's population. However, far fewer can still speak their ancestral language because of centuries of language shift. Of the approximately 26 languages of the Taiwanese aborigines, at least ten are extinct, another four (perhaps five) are moribund, and several others are to some degree endangered.

The aboriginal languages of Taiwan have significance in historical linguistics since in all likelihood, Taiwan was the place of origin of the entire Austronesian language family. According to linguist Robert Blust, the Formosan languages form nine of the ten principal branches of the Austronesian language family, while the one remaining principal branch contains nearly 1,200 Malayo-Polynesian languages found outside Taiwan. Although some other linguists disagree with some details of Blust's analysis, a broad consensus has coalesced around the conclusion that the Austronesian languages originated in Taiwan. The theory has been strengthened by recent studies in human population genetics, supporting also the matrilineal nature of the migration.

French orthography

French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language. It is based on a combination of phonemic and historical principles. The spelling of words is largely based on the pronunciation of Old French c. 1100–1200 CE and has stayed more or less the same since then, despite enormous changes to the pronunciation of the language in the intervening years. This has resulted in a complicated relationship between spelling and sound, especially for vowels, a multitude of silent letters, and a large number of homophones (e.g., saint/sein/sain/seing/ceins/ceint (all pronounced [sɛ̃]), sang/sans/cent (all pronounced [sɑ̃])). Later attempts to respell some words in accordance with their Latin etymologies further increased the number of silent letters (e.g., temps vs. older tens – compare English "tense", which reflects the original spelling – and vingt vs. older vint). Nevertheless, there are rules governing French orthography which allow for a reasonable degree of accuracy when pronouncing French words from their written forms. The reverse operation, producing written forms from a pronunciation, is much more ambiguous.

Indo-European sound laws

As the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) broke up, its sound system diverged as well, as evidenced in various sound laws associated with the daughter Indo-European languages.

Especially notable is the palatalization that produced the satem languages, along with the associated ruki sound law. Other notable changes include:

Grimm's law and Verner's law in Proto-Germanic

an independent change similar to Grimm's law in Armenian

loss of prevocalic *p- in Proto-Celtic

Brugmann's law in Proto-Indo-Iranian

Winter's law and Hirt's law in Balto-Slavic

merging of voiced and breathy-voiced stops, and /a/ and /o/, in various "northern" languagesBartholomae's law in Indo-Iranian, and Sievers' law in Proto-Germanic and (to some extent) various other branches, may or may not have been common Indo-European features. A number of innovations, both phonological and morphological, represent areal features common to the Italic and Celtic languages; among them the development of labiovelars to labial consonants in some Italic and Celtic branches, producing "p-Celtic" and "q-Celtic" languages (likewise "p-Italic" and "q-Italic", although these terms are less used). Another grouping with many shared areal innovations comprises Greek, Indo-Iranian, and Armenian; among its common phonological innovations are Grassmann's law in Greek and Indo-Iranian, and weakening of pre-vocalic /s/ to /h/ in Greek, Iranian and Armenian.

Jan Ø. Jørgensen

Jan Østergaard Jørgensen (born December 31, 1987 in Aalborg) is a male badminton player from Denmark. He plays in the Denmark Badminton league representing SIF (Skovshoved).

He is married to the Danish Handball player Stine Jørgensen.

KPS 9566

KPS 9566 is a North Korean standard which specifies an ISO 2022-compliant 94x94 two-byte coded character set for the Chosŏn'gŭl (Hangul) writing system used for the Korean language.

First published in 1993, it has since undergone several revisions in 1997, 2000 and 2003, mainly to enhance compatibility with Unicode. These are commonly indicated by specifying the year (KPS 9566-97, 9566-2000 and 9566-2003).

In principle, KPS 9566 is similar to the South Korean KS X 1001 encoding, except that it uses a different ordering of characters to conform with North Korean lexicographical ordering standards. It is also notable for its inclusion of several special characters from North Korean political life, including the following:

the logo of the Workers' Party of Korea, uncircled and circled (code points 12-01 and 12-02);

and two groups of three special-purpose characters which spell out the names of the North Korean leaders Kim Il-sung (김일성) and Kim Jong-il (김정일) respectively, in a special decorative font (code points 04-72 to 04-74 and 04-75 to 04-77, respectively). The syllables for Kim and Il, which are identical in the spelling of both names, are encoded twice.Due to these special characters, there is currently no full round-trip compatibility between KPS 9566 and Unicode. This would require adding these characters to the Universal Character Set, which the Unicode Consortium refused in 2000.

KS X 1001

KS X 1001 (Hankuk Gyugyeok Munja Pyo for Information Interchange), formerly called KS C 5601, is a South Korean coded character set standard to represent hangul and hanja characters on a computer.

KS X 1001 is encoded by the most common legacy (pre-Unicode) character encodings for Korean, including EUC-KR and Microsoft's Unified Hangul Code (UHC). It contains Korean Hangul syllables, CJK ideographs (Hanja), Greek, Cyrillic, Japanese (Hiragana and Katakana) and some other characters.

KS X 1001 is arranged as a 94×94 table, following the structure of 2-byte code words in ISO 2022 and EUC. Therefore, its code points are pairs of integers 1–94. However, some encodings (UHC and JOHAB), in addition to providing codes for every code point, provide additional codes for characters otherwise representable only as code point sequences.

Kangeq

Kangeq or Kangek (Kalaallisut: "Promontory") is a former settlement in the Sermersooq municipality in southwestern Greenland. It is located on the same island that formed the first Danish colony on Greenland between 1721 and 1728.

Kiatassuaq Island

Kiatassuaq Island (old spelling: Kiatagssuaq, Danish: Holm Ø, Holm Island) is an uninhabited island in the northern Upernavik Archipelago in the Qaasuitsup municipality in northwestern Greenland. It marks the southern border of Melville Bay.

Kiataussaq Island

Kiataussaq Island (Danish: Amdrup Ø) is an uninhabited island in the Qaasuitsup municipality in northwestern Greenland.

List of Ligue 1 records and statistics

The following is a list of records attained in French Football Ligue 1 since the league foundation in 1932.

Longest common subsequence problem

The longest common subsequence (LCS) problem is the problem of finding the longest subsequence common to all sequences in a set of sequences (often just two sequences). It differs from the longest common substring problem: unlike substrings, subsequences are not required to occupy consecutive positions within the original sequences. The longest common subsequence problem is a classic computer science problem, the basis of data comparison programs such as the diff utility, and has applications in computational linguistics and bioinformatics. It is also widely used by revision control systems such as Git for reconciling multiple changes made to a revision-controlled collection of files.

Mie Nielsen

Mie Østergaard Nielsen (born 25 September 1996) is a Danish competitive swimmer who holds the Danish record in several backstroke events.

O

O (named o , plural oes) is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

Old Norse

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.

The Proto-Norse language developed into Old Norse by the 8th century, and Old Norse began to develop into the modern North Germanic languages in the mid- to late 14th century, ending the language phase known as Old Norse. These dates, however, are not absolute, since written Old Norse is found well into the 15th century.Old Norse was divided into three dialects: Old West Norse, Old East Norse, and Old Gutnish. Old West and East Norse formed a dialect continuum, with no clear geographical boundary between them. For example, Old East Norse traits were found in eastern Norway, although Old Norwegian is classified as Old West Norse, and Old West Norse traits were found in western Sweden. Most speakers spoke Old East Norse in what is present day Denmark and Sweden. Old Gutnish, the more obscure dialectal branch, is sometimes included in the Old East Norse dialect due to geographical associations. It developed its own unique features and shared in changes to both other branches.

The 12th-century Icelandic Gray Goose Laws state that Swedes, Norwegians, Icelanders, and Danes spoke the same language, dǫnsk tunga ("Danish tongue"; speakers of Old East Norse would have said dansk tunga). Another term, used especially commonly with reference to West Norse, was norrœnt mál or norrǿnt mál ("Nordic/Northern speech"). Today Old Norse has developed into the modern North Germanic languages Icelandic, Faroese, Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish, of which Norwegian, Danish and Swedish retain considerable mutual intelligibility.

Oslo Central Station

Oslo Central Station (Norwegian: Oslo sentralstasjon, abbreviated Oslo S) is the main railway station in Oslo, and the largest railway station within the entire Norwegian railway system. It is the terminus of Drammen Line, Gardermoen Line, Gjøvik Line, Hoved Line and Østfold Line. It serves express, regional and local rail services by four companies. The railway station is operated by Bane NOR while its real estate subsidiary, Bane NOR Eiendom owns the station, and was opened in 1980.

Oslo Central was built on the site of the older Oslo East Station (Oslo Østbanestasjon, Oslo Ø), the combining of the former east and west stations being made possible by the opening of the Oslo Tunnel. Oslo Central has nineteen tracks, thirteen of which have connections through the Oslo Tunnel. The station has two buildings, the original Oslo East building and the newer main building for Oslo Central. Each building houses a large shopping centre. The square in front of the station is called Jernbanetorget.

Ö

Ö, or ö, is a character that represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter o modified with an umlaut or diaeresis. In many languages, the letter ö, or the o modified with an umlaut, is used to denote the non-close front rounded vowels [ø] or [œ]. In languages without such vowels, the character is known as an "o with diaeresis" and denotes a syllable break, wherein its pronunciation remains an unmodified [o].

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