Öskjuhlíð is a hill in the centre of Reykjavík, Iceland. It is 61 metres (200 ft) above sea level. The hill is a designated outdoors area and is covered with trees. At the top of the hill stands Perlan, a landmark building set on top of six water tanks. It is a city landmark built during Davíð Oddsson's period as mayor.
Atli Guðjón Helgason (born 7 March 1967) is an Icelandic lawyer and former footballer who played three games for the Iceland national football team. In 2001 he was sentenced to 16 years in prison for the murder of his business partner.Björk discography
The Icelandic singer Björk made her first public appearance in 1976 on Radio One, an Icelandic radio station, singing "I Love to Love (But My Baby Loves to Dance)". She secured a deal with a record company through which she released her first solo album, Björk, in 1977 when she was twelve years old.
She went on to form several bands, including Tappi Tíkarrass, KUKL, and The Sugarcubes, the last being the most successful. After The Sugarcubes disbanded in 1992, Björk resumed her solo career and in 1993 she released an album called Debut. Since that album, she has been signed to One Little Indian Records in the United Kingdom and Polydor Records and Universal Records in Europe and other territories. In North America she was signed with Elektra Records and Atlantic Records until 2007, and afterwards signed under another Warner Music Group division, Nonesuch Records, distributed by Warner Bros. Records, which she remained with until 2013. The release of Vulnicura in 2015 was handled by Megaforce in association with RED Distribution, a division of Sony.Davíð Oddsson
Davíð Oddsson (pronounced [ˈtaːvið ˈɔtːsɔn]; born 17 January 1948) is an Icelandic politician, and the longest-serving Prime Minister of Iceland, in office from 1991 to 2004. From 2004 to 2005 he served as Foreign Minister. Previously, he was Mayor of Reykjavík from 1982 to 1991, and he chaired the board of governors of the Central Bank of Iceland from 2005 to 2009. The collapse of Iceland's banking system led to vocal demands for his resignation, both from members of the Icelandic public and from the new Icelandic Prime Minister Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir, which resulted in his being replaced as head of the Central Bank in March 2009. In September 2009 he was hired as the editor of Morgunblaðið, one of Iceland's largest newspapers, a decision that caused nationwide controversy and was followed by resignations and widespread terminated subscriptions. He contested the election for President of Iceland on 25 June 2016 but lost to Guðni Jóhannesson.Heathenry (new religious movement)
Heathenry, also termed Heathenism, contemporary Germanic Paganism, or Germanic Neopaganism, is a modern Pagan religion. Scholars of religious studies classify Heathenry as a new religious movement. Its practitioners model it on the pre-Christian belief systems adhered to by the Germanic peoples of Iron Age and Early Medieval Europe. To reconstruct these past belief systems, Heathenry uses surviving historical, archaeological, and folkloric evidence as a basis, although approaches to this material vary considerably.
Heathenry does not have a unified theology but is typically polytheistic, centering on a pantheon of deities from pre-Christian Germanic Europe. It adopts cosmological views from these past societies, including an animistic view of the cosmos in which the natural world is imbued with spirits. The religion's deities and spirits are honored in sacrificial rites known as blóts in which food and libations are offered to them. These are often accompanied by symbel, the act of ceremonially toasting the gods with an alcoholic beverage. Some practitioners also engage in rituals designed to induce an altered state of consciousness and visions, most notably seiðr and galdr, with the intent of gaining wisdom and advice from the deities. Although many solitary practitioners follow the religion by themselves, members of the Heathen community often assemble in small groups, usually known as kindreds or hearths, to perform their rites outdoors or in specially constructed buildings. Heathen ethical systems emphasize honor, personal integrity, and loyalty, while beliefs about an afterlife vary and are rarely emphasized.
A central division within the Heathen movement concerns the issue of race. Some groups adopt a "universalist" perspective which holds that the religion is open to all, irrespective of ethnic or racial identity. Others adopt a racialist attitude—often termed "folkish" within the community—by viewing Heathenry as an ethnic or racial religion with inherent links to a Germanic race that should be reserved explicitly for people of Northern European descent or white people in general. Some folkish Heathens further combine the religion with explicitly racist, white supremacist, and far right-wing perspectives, although these approaches are repudiated by many Heathens. Although the term Heathenry is used widely to describe the religion as a whole, many groups prefer different designations, influenced by their regional focus and ideological preferences. Heathens focusing on Scandinavian sources sometimes use Ásatrú, Vanatrú, or Forn Sed; practitioners focusing on Anglo-Saxon traditions use Fyrnsidu or Theodism; those emphasising German traditions use Irminism; and those Heathens who espouse folkish and far-right perspectives tend to favor the terms Odinism, Wotanism, Wodenism, or Odalism.
The religion's origins lie in the 19th- and early 20th-century Romanticist movement which glorified the pre-Christian beliefs of Germanic societies. In this period, organised groups venerating the Germanic gods developed in Germany and Austria; these were part of the Völkisch movement and typically exhibited a racialist interpretation of the religion, resulting in the movement largely dissolving following the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II. In the 1970s, new Heathen groups emerged in Europe and North America, developing into formalized organizations in order to promote their faith. In recent decades, the Heathen movement has been the subject of academic study by scholars active in the field of Pagan studies. Scholarly estimates put the number of Heathens at no more than 20,000 worldwide, with communities of practitioners active in Europe, the Americas, and Australasia.Hlíðar
Hlíðar (Icelandic pronunciation: [ˈl̥iːðar̥]) or Hlíðahverfi is a sub-municipal administrational district within Reykjavík, Iceland. It includes six neighbourhoods: Hlíðar proper, Norðurmýri, Holt, Hlemmur, Suðurhlíðar and Öskjuhlíð.Hof Ásatrúarfélagsins
Hof Ásatrúarfélagsins is a religious building under construction in Reykjavík, Iceland. When finished it will be used by the Heathen organization Ásatrúarfélagið for religious ceremonies, concerts and exhibitions. It is Iceland's first major hof to the Norse gods since the Viking Age. It is located on the southern slope of the hill Öskjuhlíð, close to Reykjavík University. The project has been under development since 2005, but suffered several delays. It has been under construction since 2015.Höfuðlausnir
Höfuðlausnir was an album released in May 1988 by Icelandic rock singer Megas. This album was released through Gramm and featured singers Björk and Rose McDowall as background vocalists. Höfuðlausnir also includes Megas’ long-time collaborator Guðlaugur Kristinn Óttarsson who adding guitars to this work.List of Neopagan movements
Modern paganism, also known a "contemporary" or "neopagan", encompasses a wide range of religious groups and individuals. These may include old occult groups, those that follow a New Age approach, those that try to reconstruct old ethnic religions, and followers of the pagan religion of Wicca.List of songs recorded by Björk
Icelandic singer and songwriter Björk has recorded more than one hundred songs for nine studio albums, two soundtrack albums, a compilation album, five remix albums and two collaboration albums. She is the sole writer and producer of most of the songs included in her albums. She also sometimes plays instruments during her recording sessions. Moreover, she has provided credited and uncredited contributions on songs recorded by other artists, including background vocals, songwriting, remixing and production.
After enrolling at the Barnamúsíkskóli in Reykjavík, she started developing an interest in writing and performing. A recording of her rendition of Tina Charles' 1976 song "I Love to Love", sung when she was 10 years old, led to the signing of a record deal with Fálkinn. Her first eponymous solo release (1977), nowadays considered juvenilia, consisted of cover songs. Nonetheless, the album included her first composition, "Jóhannes Kjarval". Thereafter, Björk ventured into music bands experiences, singing as the lead voice of groups like Tappi Tíkarrass, Kukl, The Elgar Sisters and, most notably, The Sugarcubes. While recording with The Sugarcubes, Björk appeared as a background vocalist for fellow artists like Megas, Current 93 and Bless, and some of her original music was included in local music compilations. In 1990 she released Gling-Gló alongside Tríó Guðmundar Ingólfssonar, a cover album of Jazz standards.
In 1993, after departing from The Sugarcubes, Björk released her first solo album, Debut, which propelled her to international stardom. The album was followed by a series of critically acclaimed recordings, including Post (1995), Homogenic (1997), Vespertine (2001), Medúlla (2004), Volta (2007), Biophilia (2011), Vulnicura (2015), and Utopia (2017). All of her albums were released under One Little Indian Records. Björk has collaborated with a number of artists and songwriters throughout her career, including Nellee Hooper, Sjón, Mark Bell, Anohni and Arca.
Björk's recorded output also encompasses songs recorded for motion pictures. She have composed theme songs for The Young Americans (1993), Anton (1996), Being John Malkovich (1999) and Hot Chocolate (2005). Most notably, she created the soundtrack for Dancer in the Dark (2000), directed by Lars von Trier, while also acting as the main protagonist in the film itself, a role which gained her the Best Actress Award at the 53rd Cannes Film Festival, whereas her song "I've Seen It All" received a nomination at the 73rd Academy Awards for Best Original Song. Björk reprised double duty as main actress and composer for Matthew Barney's Drawing Restraint 9, for which she recorded an eponymous soundtrack (2005). Her latest contribution for a film is "The Comet Song", recorded for Moomins and the Comet Chase (2010).
During the course of her career, Björk's songs and composition were nominated for several music awards. She has received five BRIT Awards, four MTV Video Music Awards and fourteen Grammy Awards nominations. In 2010, the Royal Swedish Academy of Music awarded her with the prestigious Polar Music Prize, considered the equivalent of the "Nobel Prize of Music" in Sweden, praising "her deeply personal music and lyrics, her precise arrangements and her unique voice". In 2017, Björk released her first song book, titled 34 Scores for Piano, Organ, Harpsichord and Celeste, which features a selection of arrangements for songs belonging to her catalogue.Paradísarborgin
Paradísarborgin ('the city of paradise') is a 2009 novel by Óttar M. Norðfjörð, published by Sögur in Reykjavík.Perlan
Perlan (English: The Pearl) is a prominent landmark in the Icelandic capital of Reykjavík. It is situated on the top of Öskjuhlíð hill. What was originally a cluster of hot water tanks was in 1991 converted to a building open to the public. It hosts an exhibition, a planetarium, an observation deck, and a restaurant.Rail transport in Iceland
Iceland does not have a public railway system. There have been three small railways, but none became part of the public transport network. The main reasons for the lack of railways are the small population, competition with automobile traffic, and the harsh environment. Proposals for railways in Iceland began in the early 1900s, with a proposed line between Reykjavík and Selfoss but these were abandoned. In the 2000s there were new proposals for both a light railway system in the Capital Region and an airport rail link to Keflavík.Reykjavík
Reykjavík ( RAY-kyə-vik, -veek; Icelandic: [ˈreiːcaˌviːk] (listen)) is the capital and largest city of Iceland. It is located in southwestern Iceland, on the southern shore of Faxa Bay. Its latitude is 64°08' N, making it the world's northernmost capital of a sovereign state. With a population of around 128,793 (and 228,231 in the Capital Region), it is the heart of Iceland's cultural, economic and governmental activity, and is a popular tourist destination.
Reykjavík is believed to be the location of the first permanent settlement in Iceland, which, according to Ingólfr Arnarson, was established in AD 874. Until the 19th century, there was no urban development in the city location. The city was founded in 1786 as an official trading town and grew steadily over the following decades, as it transformed into a regional and later national centre of commerce, population, and governmental activities. It is among the cleanest, greenest, and safest cities in the world.Sveinbjörn Beinteinsson
Sveinbjörn Beinteinsson (4 July 1924 – 23 December 1993) was an Icelandic religious leader who was instrumental in helping to gain Icelandic government's recognition of the pre-Christian Heathenry in the country.Ásatrúarfélagið
The Ásatrúarfélagið (Icelandic: [ˈauːsatʰruːarˌfjɛːlaijɪð], Ásatrú Fellowship) is an Icelandic religious organisation of heathenry (in Iceland also called Ásatrú, "faith of the Æsir"). It was founded on the First Day of Summer 1972, and granted recognition as a registered religious organization in 1973, allowing it to conduct legally binding ceremonies and collect a share of the church tax.
The organization was led by farmer and poet Sveinbjörn Beinteinsson from 1972 until his death in 1993. During most of this period membership did not exceed 100 people and after the initial enthusiasm faded, there was little activity. The time of the next high priest, Jörmundur Ingi Hansen (1994–2002), saw considerable growth and activity, including the design of an Ásatrú burial ground. These trends have continued under the present high priest, musician Hilmar Örn Hilmarsson (2003–), and as of January 1, 2018, the organization has 4126 registered members, about one third of whom are women. Since 2002, the number of registered members has grown annually from 8% (2006–2007) to 21% (2011–2012).Ásatrúarfélagið does not have a fixed religious dogma or theology but the high priests have tended towards a pantheistic worldview. The central ritual is the communal blót feast but the priests (goðar) also conduct name-giving ceremonies, coming of age rituals, weddings and funerals. The organization has on some occasions taken a stance on political issues, including abortion rights, gay marriage, the separation of church and state, and environmental issues. The organisation is a founding member of the European Congress of Ethnic Religions.Ásmundur Sveinsson
Ásmundur Sveinsson was an Icelandic sculptor, born at Kolsstadir in West Iceland on May 20, 1893 and died in Reykjavík on December 9, 1982.