Óscar Arias

Óscar Arias Sánchez (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈoskaɾ ˈaɾjas]; born 13 September 1940 in Heredia, Costa Rica) was President of Costa Rica from 1986 to 1990 and from 2006 to 2010.[1] He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1987 for his efforts to end the Central American crisis.

He is also a recipient of the Albert Schweitzer Prize for Humanitarianism and a trustee of Economists for Peace and Security. In 2003, he was elected to the Board of Directors of the International Criminal Court's Trust Fund for Victims.[2]

Arias is currently facing several judicial accusations, one for criminal malfeasance[3] due to a decree of national interest about gold mining in a protected area, and nine for sexual assault.[4]

Óscar Arias
Óscar Arias (cropped)
40th & 45th President of Costa Rica
In office
8 May 2006 – 8 May 2010
Vice PresidentFirst
Laura Chinchilla Miranda
Second
Kevin Casas Zamora
Preceded byAbel Pacheco
Succeeded byLaura Chinchilla
In office
8 May 1986 – 8 May 1990
Vice PresidentFirst
Jorge Manuel Dengo Obregón
Second
Victoria Garrón de Doryan
Preceded byLuis Alberto Monge
Succeeded byRafael Ángel Calderón Fournier
Personal details
Born
Óscar Arias Sánchez

13 September 1940 (age 78)
Heredia, Costa Rica
Political partyNational Liberation Party
Alma materBoston University
University of Costa Rica
London School of Economics
University of Essex

Early life

Arias was born within an upper-class family in the province of Heredia.[5] Arias concluded his secondary schooling at the Saint Francis College in the capital city of San José. He then went to the United States and enrolled in Boston University with the intention of studying medicine, but he soon returned to his home country and completed degrees in law and economics at the University of Costa Rica. In 1967, Arias traveled to the United Kingdom and enrolled in the London School of Economics. He received a doctoral degree in political science from the University of Essex in 1974. Arias has received over fifty honorary degrees, including doctorates from Harvard University, Princeton University, Dartmouth College, Oberlin College, Wake Forest University, Ithaca College and Washington University in St. Louis.

First presidecy

OscarArias
Arias in the 1980s

Arias joined the National Liberation Party (PLN), Costa Rica's main social democratic party. In 1986 he ran successfully for president on that party's ticket. Arias's presidency saw the transformation of Costa Rica's economy from one based on the traditional cash crops (coffee and bananas) to one more focused on non-traditional agriculture (e.g., of exotic flowers and fruits) and tourism. Some within the PLN criticized his administration for abandoning the party's social democratic teachings and promoting a neoliberal economic model. He is now often regarded as a neoliberal although he is a member of a nominally social democratic party.[6]

Arias received the 1987 Nobel Peace Prize with the help of John Biehl, his peer in England, and Rodrigo Madrigal Nieto for his work towards the signing of the Esquipulas II Accords. This was a plan intended to promote democracy and peace on the Central American isthmus during a time of great turmoil: leftist guerrillas were fighting against the governments in El Salvador and Guatemala, which were backed by the United States under the auspices of the Cold War; the Contras, supported by the United States, were fighting an insurgency against the Sandinista government in Nicaragua; Honduras, only recently wresting political power from its military, was caught in the middle as a base for U.S. military forces; and on Costa Rica's other border, Panama faced the oppression of Manuel Noriega's military dictatorship. With the support of Arias, the various armed conflicts ended within the decade (Guatemala's civil war finally ended in 1996).

Arias then called for a higher level of integration in the Central America region and promoted the creation of the Central American Parliament (Parlamento Centroamericano). During his current administration, Arias has declared that Costa Rica will not enter the Central American Parliament. Arias also modified the country's educational system. The most notable action in this respect was the reintroduction of standardized academic tests at the end of primary and secondary school.

Second presidency

Oscar Arias 8p050806kh-0829-398v
Arias in 2006

The Costa Rican constitution had been amended in 1969 to include a clause forbidding former presidents to seek re-election. Arias challenged this at the Sala IV, the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court of Justice of Costa Rica, which initially rejected his application in September 2000. In 2003, a group of Arias supporters presented an unconstitutionality challenge against the 1969 constitutional amendment forbidding re-election, and this time the ruling in April 2003 struck down the prohibition against non-consecutive re-election.[7] This decision was denounced as a "state blow" or "coup d'état" by ex-president Luis Alberto Monge.[8][9]

Arias announced in 2004 that he intended to run again for president in the February 2006 general elections. By then, he was the only living former president who was not either in jail, under indictment or facing an investigation. Though for years private polling companies and several news media published polls predicting Arias would win by a wide margin, the election was initially deemed too close to call. A month later, on 7 March, after a manual recount, the official results showed Arias beat center-left contender Ottón Solís by 18,169 votes (1.2% of valid votes cast), and finished just a few thousand votes over the 40 percent threshold required to capture the presidency in a single round. He took the oath of office at noon on 8 May 2006 at the National Stadium. In his speech on 15 September 2008, he admitted that he was tired because of the criticism of his opponents.

On 1 June 2007, he switched Costa Rica's diplomatic recognition from the Republic of China (Taiwan) to the People's Republic of China, making Costa Rica the 167th nation in the world to do so. Subsequently, under diplomatic and financial pressure from Beijing, he induced the Dalai Lama, a fellow Nobel Peace Prize laureate, to postpone indefinitely a proposed and much anticipated visit during Beijing's suppression of controversial riots in Tibet.</ref>[10].

At the 5th Summit of the Americas in Trinidad and Tobago, on 18 April 2009, Arias gave a speech on the topic "We've been doing something wrong". Directed at fellow Latin American leaders, he decried Latin America's lack of development compared to other parts of the world, calling for pragmatism, and more resources directed at education rather than militaries.[11]

Mediator in 2009 Honduran Constitutional Crisis

In 2009, the Supreme Court of Honduras issued an arrest warrant for Honduran President Manuel Zelaya because of violations of the constitution and laws.[12][13] Two days later, the National Congress of Honduras (in which Zelaya's own party held 62 out of 128 seats, more than any other party), also voted to dismiss Zelaya.[14][15][16] Zelaya fled to Costa Rica. The Honduran constitution mandated that the head of Congress, Roberto Micheletti, who was next in the presidential line of succession, becomes the provisional head of state since Vice President Elvin Ernesto Santos had resigned in December 2008 to run for president. Micheletti's term ended 27 January 2010.[17]

Arias began serving as mediator between Zelaya and Micheletti in the 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis. Representatives of the two Hondurans met with Arias on various occasions but so far have failed to reach any kind of agreement. As described above (with factual citations), Arias himself was initially prohibited by Costa Rica's constitutional court from another term, due to constitutional term limits, but this was reversed using legal means, with the consent of the Costa Rican Sala IV court, unlike in Honduras. New elections in Honduras are planned for 29 November 2009. Micheletti's government stated on 2 July 2009 that it is willing to hold this year's presidential election early. Arias presented a seven-point agreement, which calls for the return of Zelaya as president – a condition deemed unacceptable to the interim government. Zelaya's representatives accepted the Arias proposal "in principle" but Micheletti's representatives balked at the key point of Zelaya returning to power in Honduras.[18]

Health

In August 2007, Arias was affected by tendinitis, and in April 2008 he canceled some activities because of muscular pain in his lumbar region. Subsequently, due to increasing difficulty in speaking over the course of several weeks, Arias went to the Philadelphia Ears, Nose and Throat Associates medical center in the United States on 20 May 2008, where it was determined that he had a nonmalignant cyst on his vocal cords. As a result, it was announced on 21 May that doctors advised him not to speak for one month, saying that if this did not help, surgery would be considered.[19] On 11 August 2009 Arias was diagnosed with H1N1 Influenza, but he recovered.[20]

Controversy

Some Oscar Arias acts have generated controversy:

  • In 2004, in response to a rival candidate (Antonio Álvarez) for his party's nomination challenging him to a debate, Oscar Arias said: "Eagles live in high places, and make a serious mistake if they go down to the mud to fight with snails." [21]
  • In 2010, during the closing weeks of his second term, he inaugurated various unachieved projects with ribbon-cutting and bronze plaque ceremonies:
    • The new National Stadium, despite the fact that it was only about 75% finished.[22]
    • The "new presidential offices" despite the fact that these offices do not exist yet. In fact, the land is still for sale and the Legislative Assembly has allocated no funds yet in order to buy it, let alone build anything on the vacant lot.[23]
    • The new Juan Santamaría International Airport installation, despite the fact the project was only 82% completed.[24]

Further controversies followed him even after his role as a president had come to an end. The route from Escazú to Caldera built by the Spanish company Autopistas del Sol has undergone heavy criticism over the years for its high tolls and dangerous roads (which had to undergo heavy maintenance to prevent further rock slides). Oscar Arias was also blamed for having invited a Canadian corporation to perform heavy mining which could potentially compromise the local biodiversity. Their permissions were revoked during the Chinchilla Miranda administration which gave the impression of Arias-Chinchilla enmity following his sudden criticism of then president Laura Chinchilla Miranda who was popularly regarded as a successor.

Judicial accusations

In 2017 Costa Rica’s General Attorney office indicted Arias for the Crucitas case, a case in which former Environment Minister Roberto Dobles and Arias as president signed a 2008 decree ceding the Canadian company Infinito Gold control over a protected area near the Nicaraguan border known as Crucitas for gold mining and declaring it "national interest",[3] something that the Prosecution argued was illegal as protected areas can’t be granted for exploitation of any kind. Dobles was previously found guilty of the charges,[25] but Arias was not indicted alongside him by the previous General Attorney Jorge Chavarría (often accused of being close to Arias).[26] The new General Attorny Emilia Navas reopened the case indicting Arias.[26]

Also in 2019 psychiatrist and anti-Nuclear activist Alexandra Arce von Herold formally accused Arias of rape at the Public Ministry. Following her allegation three more women came to light accusing Arias of sexual harassment and misconduct.[3][27] Arias denied the charges.[3]

References

  1. ^ El Tribunal Supremo de Elecciones: Presidentes de la República de Costa Rica
  2. ^ Amnesty International, 12 September 2003,"Amnesty International welcomes the election of a Board of Directors". Archived from the original on 15 April 2006. Retrieved 2007-08-01.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) . Retrieved on 1 August 2007.
  3. ^ a b c d Robles, Francis (5 February 2019). "Former President of Costa Rica Is Accused of Sexual Assault". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  4. ^ "Nobel peace prize winner Oscar Árias accused of sexual assault". The Guardian. 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  5. ^ [1] Academia Costarricense de Ciencias Genealógicas.(in Spanish) p. 163
  6. ^ "He is often identified as a'neoliberal' and accused of being in the service of the big capitalists of the country and the transnationals, in spite of his being a member of the National Liberation Party, which defines itself as socialdemocratic." "First Micheletti-Zelaya meeting since the events of 28 June will be in Costa Rica" El Heraldo (6 July 2009). Original in Spanish.
  7. ^ "Reeleccion seduce a los presidentes de America" Archived 13 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine, El Nuevo Diario, Managua, 18 July 2007, retrieved July 2009; "Reelecion presidencial: Arias sin prohobicion para postularse", La Nacion, Costa Rica, 5 April 2003.
  8. ^ Luis Alberto Monge (20 March 2004). Reelección: desafío a la Constitución. Nacion.com. Retrieved on 2012-09-15.
  9. ^ Luis Alberto Monge: La violencia engendra violencia – www.sepamosserlibres.org. Lospobresdelatierra.org (April 2005). Retrieved on 2012-09-15.
  10. ^ [Grupo tibetano: Arias pidió al Dalái Lama que no venga, La Nacion www.nacion.com/el-pais/grupo-tibetano-arias-pidio-al-dalai-lama-que-no-venga/GSTMB3JYYZEATI7FARCXBS444U/story.
  11. ^ "ALGO HICIMOS MAL: Palabras del presidente Óscar Arias en la Cumbre de las Américas". Archived from the original on 29 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-29.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link). Trinidad y Tobago. Nacion (18 April 2009).
  12. ^ On 12 November 2008, the Supreme Court of Justice determined that the modifications to articles 239 and 240 promulgated by Congress in 1998 and 2002 were unconstitutional and returned these two articles to their state in the 1982 constitution. Vigentes artículos pétreos. Accessed 5 August 2009. Archived 5 August 2009.
  13. ^ Articulo 239: El ciudS Congress Communiqué explaining why ex President Zelaya was removed. Accessdate 9 July 2009
  14. ^ "Micheletti podría asumir en Honduras" (in Spanish). 28 June 2009. Archived from the original on 6 January 2010.
  15. ^ "Micheletti sería el nuevo presidente de Honduras" (in Spanish). Diario digital de noticias de El Salvador. 28 June 2009. Archived from the original on 4 December 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2009.
  16. ^ "Honduran Congress names provisional president". CNN.com. 28 June 2009.
  17. ^ "Honduran president overthrown, new leader voted in". Sydney Morning Herald. 29 June 2009.
  18. ^ "Honduras negotiations snag over unity government". CTV (Canada). 28 July 2009. Archived from the original on 1 January 2013.
  19. ^ "Doctors tell Costa Rican leader to rest voice", Associated Press (22 May 2008).
  20. ^ "Presidente de Costa Rica contrae gripe AH1N1", El Mundo (2009-08-12)
  21. ^ "Álvarez reta a Arias a discutir plan fiscal". Nacion.com. Retrieved on 2018-01-05.
  22. ^ "China exhibe avance de 75% en construcción de Estadio Nacional de Costa Rica". Terra.com. Retrieved on 2012-09-15.
  23. ^ "Arias develó placa de futura Casa Presidencial en un parqueo" Archived 18 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Nacion.com (4 May 2010). Retrieved on 2012-09-15.
  24. ^ "Arias inaugura el Santamaría con 82% de avance en obras" Archived 18 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Nacion.com (29 April 2010). Retrieved on 2012-09-15.
  25. ^ Cerdas, Daniela (28 January 2015). "Tribunal condena a exministro Roberto Dobles a tres años de cárcel por caso Crucitas". La Nación. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  26. ^ a b Madrial, Luis (2 November 2017). "Caso Crucitas: Los eventos que llevaron a reabrir la causa contra Óscar Arias". Mundo.cr. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  27. ^ Cordoba, Javier (5 February 2019). "Costa Rica ex-leader Oscar Arias accused of sexual assault". The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 February 2019.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Luis Alberto Monge
President of Costa Rica
1986–1990
Succeeded by
Rafael Ángel Calderón Fournier
Preceded by
Abel Pacheco
President of Costa Rica
2006–2010
Succeeded by
Laura Chinchilla
1986 Costa Rican general election

General elections were held in Costa Rica on 2 February 1986. Óscar Arias of the National Liberation Party won the presidential election, whilst his party also won the parliamentary election. Voter turnout was 81.8%.Costa Rica was under a strong two-party system at the time. The country was undergoing military tensions with neighboring Nicaragua due to the recently happened Sandinista Revolution and Nicaragua's dictator Daniel Ortega's fighting of the right-wing Contra rebel guerilla in its southern border disregarding the official limits and confronting Costa Rica's police and security forces. Such skirmishes left one policeman's death and several wounded and both countries at the edge of war. Whilst some people blamed former president Rodrigo Carazo for allowing the FSLN to operate in the Costa Rican northern territory against then dictator Anastasio Somoza, others resented President Luis Alberto Monge's hawkish behavior toward Sandinista Nicaragua and his support of the Contras.Former minister and deputy Oscar Arias faced former vice president Carlos Manuel Castillo in closed primaries. Castillo had the support of PLN's traditional leadership including former presidents and party's founders José Figueres Ferrer, Daniel Oduber Quirós and Luis Alberto Monge. Arias was seen as a young, alternative candidate and the "underdog" in the election, but managed to earn the majority of votes and popular support.On the other side of the two-party system former Foreign Minister (under Carazo's administration) Rafael Ángel Calderón Fournier, son of historical leader of Calderonismo Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia, was nominated by the Social Christian Unity Party, then main opposition force. This was Calderón's second attempt to win the Presidency.

During the campaign the topic of peace was central. Calderón tried to present himself as a hawk who felt no quarrels in facing Nicaragua militarily. Arias on the contrary tried to show himself as a man of peace and negotiator who would pacified the region. His slogan was "Paz para mi gente" (Peace for my People). In fact, some analysts also saw Arias' position as a strong criticism of Monge, of his own party, and his hardline position. Monge and Arias would be political enemies ever since.PLN campaign also focused in showing Calderón as a man of war and remembering old historical periods, blaming Calderonism for the 1948 Civil War and the 1955 Somoza-endorsed Calderonistas' invasion attempt. The party even went so far as to show Calderón in a cartoon as a spoil kid ready for war wearing the clothing of Quico, a popular character from El Chavo del Ocho.

2006 Costa Rican general election

General elections were held in Costa Rica on 5 February 2006. In the presidential election, Óscar Arias of the National Liberation Party (Partido Liberación Nacional), a former president and Nobel Peace Laureate, was victorious over Ottón Solís of the Citizens' Action Party (Partido Acción Ciudadana) and twelve other minor-party candidates. Although Arias was expected to win by a wide margin, the actual polling reports were unexpectedly close. However, early results showed the contest to be closer than it actually was. The preliminary official report, after 88.45% of the vote counted, showed the result for President of the Republic almost tied between Arias with 40.51% of the vote and Ottón Solís with 40.29%. Given the small difference of only 3250 votes, the Superior Electoral Tribunal announced that a manual count of all the votes would start immediately and no official winner would be announced until that process was completed, approximately two weeks after the election.

In the parliamentary election, the National Liberation Party won the mosts seats.

2009 National Liberation Party presidential primary

A primary election was held among the members of Costa Rica’s then ruling National Liberation Party (PLN) on June 7, 2009 in order to choose the PLN’s nominee for presidency in the 2010 general election. The two main candidates for the nomination were then vice-president Laura Chinchilla and San José Mayor Johnny Araya. Former security minister Fernando Berrocal also ran a basically testimonial candidacy. PLN’s main rival party, PAC, ran its own convention a month before.PLN primaries, known as National Conventions (Convención Nacional Liberacionista) were common place since the Party’s foundation, yet in the previous election of 2006 PLN’s nominee former president Óscar Arias seeking re-election ran unappose and was designated by the party’s National Assembly. Unlike its rival PAC, PLN's election was an open primary and as such every Costa Rican could vote as far as pledge written membership to the party (PLN holds open primaries since the 70s). Debates among PLN and PAC’s candidates respectively were organized in different colleges, NGOs and news networks.Former minister Antonio Álvarez Desanti had recently return to the party expressing his interest in the nomination, yet party regulations prevent his candidacy due to his recent participation in another party. Desanti dropped from the race supporting Chinchilla. While Chinchilla was seen as close to then incumbent president Arias and his faction, Araya was endorsed by his brother and previous candidate Rolando and by his uncle former president Luis Alberto Monge. The final results were 55% for Chinchilla, 41% for Araya and 2% for Berrocal. Chinchilla will also win the presidential race in 2010.Araya would maintain his political aspirations and would run unopposed in the next election cycle as other aspirants like Rodrigo Arias (former Prime Minister and Oscar Arias’ brother) and José María Figueres (former president) dropped their candidacies for the 2014 election, which was lost by Araya against PAC’s candidate Luis Guillermo Solís.

2010 Costa Rican general election

Costa Rica held parliamentary and presidential elections on 7 February 2010. The ruling party before the election, the center-left National Liberation Party, put forward former Vice-President Laura Chinchilla as its presidential candidate, while the libertarian, Movimiento Libertario nominated former legislator Otto Guevara. Opinion polls before voting started consistently put Chinchilla as the front-runner, a trend confirmed in the election-night count, which showed her garnering 46.76% of the vote.The election was supervised by observers from several countries, as well as from the Organization of American States. The incumbent President, Óscar Arias, was ineligible to run for a second consecutive term.

Arias (surname)

Árias is a Spanish surname.

Notable individuals with the surname include:

Alberto Árias (born 1983), Dominican professional baseball pitcher

Alex Arias, former MLB infielder

Arnulfo Arias (1901–1988), Panamanian politician, doctor, writer and president of Panama

Antonio Arias (disambiguation), several persons

Carlos Arias (disambiguation), several persons

Diego Arias (born 1985), Colombian footballer

Esteban Arias (born 1982), American soccer player of Mexican heritage

Federico Arias (born 1979), former Argentine footballer

George Arias (born 1972), former baseball player in Major League Baseball and Nippon Professional Baseball

Jimmy Arias (born 1964), former tennis touring professional player from the United States

Jodi Arias (born 1980), American woman convicted in the murder of Travis Alexander

José Arias (1922–2015), Spanish alpine skier

Julien Arias (born 1983), French rugby union footballer

Lola Arias (born 1976), Argentine actress, writer, and director

Luis Carlos Arias (born 1985), Colombian footballer

Maximiliano Arias (born 1988), Uruguayan footballer

Moisés Arias (born 1994), American actor

Óscar Arias (born 1940), former President of Costa Rica

Ramón Arias (born 1992), Uruguayan footballer

Raul Arias (born 1959), former Mexican first division footballer

Ricardo Arias (born 1912), former President of Panama

Ricardo Arias Calderón (born 1933), Panamanian politician

Ricardo Penella Arias (born 1957), Spanish retired footballer who played as a defender for Valencia CF

Santiago Arias (born 1992), Colombian footballer

Wellington Arias (born 1991), Dominican amateur lightweight boxer

Yosimar Arias (born 1986), Costa Rican footballer

Center for International Policy

The Center for International Policy (CIP) is a non-profit left of center public policy research and advocacy think tank with offices in Washington, D.C. and New York City. It was founded in 1975 in response to the Vietnam War/American War. The Center describes its mission as promoting "cooperation, transparency and accountability in global relations. Through research and advocacy, our programs address the most urgent threats to our planet: war, corruption, inequality and climate change." The Center is the parent organization for a variety of projects, including Security Assistance Monitor, Win Without War and the Arms & Security Project. It also has collaborated with the Washington Office on Latin America and the Latin America Working Group to publish the Just the Facts website.

Several prominent individuals serve as senior fellows and board members with CIP, including former Costa Rican president Óscar Arias Sánchez, UN ambassador Dessima Williams, Michael Barnes, and Matthew Hoh.

Contadora group

The Contadora Group was an initiative launched in the early 1980s by the foreign ministers of Colombia, Mexico, Panama and Venezuela to deal with the Central American crisis (military conflicts in El Salvador, Nicaragua and Guatemala), which were threatening to destabilize the entire Central American region.

The original stimulus for the initiative was a call by Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme and Nobel laureates Gabriel García Márquez, Alfonso García Robles and Alva Myrdal for the presidents of Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela and Panama

to act as mediators in the conflicts.

The group first met on Contadora Island (Panama) in 1983.

The initiative drew international attention to Central America's conflicts and pressured for a softening of the militarist stance of the United States in the region.

The peace plan was supported by the United Nations Security Council, the General Assembly and many regional and international bodies.

In September 1983, mediated by the Contadora group, the foreign ministers of the Central American countries adopted a Document of Objectives in Panama City.

This document declared their intent to promote democratization and to end armed conflict in the region, to act in compliance with international law, to revitalize and restore economic development and co-operation in Central America, and to negotiate better access to international markets.

A year later, in September 1984, the Contadora Act on Peace and Co-operation in Central America was also presented.

This document included a range of detailed commitments to peace, democratization, regional security and economic co-operation.

It also provided for regional committees to evaluate and verify compliance with these commitments.

The following year, representatives from Argentina, Brazil, Peru and Uruguay met in Lima and created the Contadora support group.

The Contadora Act was tentatively approved by the Central American presidents, but did not gain the crucial backing of the United States due to its de facto recognition of the government of Nicaragua. The United States was also not supportive of the plan because it prohibited unilateral action by the US in protection of its interests. Moreover, the US succeeded in blocking in the plan any recourse to the World Court and United Nations as required by international law.

A revised version of the accord failed to assuage the objections raised and was finally laid to rest with its formal rejection by Costa Rica, El Salvador and Honduras in June 1986.While the Contadora group ultimately failed to establish a credible peace formula with the backing of all regional governments, it did lay the foundations for such a plan to emerge in subsequent years.

Under the leadership of Costa Rican president Óscar Arias, the so-called Esquipulas Peace Agreement emerged from the remains of Contadora in 1986 and led to a fundamental reshaping of Central American politics.

Economists for Peace and Security

Economists for Peace and Security (EPS) is a New York-based, United Nations accredited and registered global organization and network of thought-leading economists, political scientists, and security experts founded in 1989 that promotes non-military solutions to world challenges, and more broadly, works towards freedom from fear and freedom from want for all.Since 1995 EPS has been registered with the United Nations Economic and Social Council and the United Nations Department of Public Information. Since 2006 the UK branch of EPS publishes a peer reviewed journal, the Economists for Peace and Security Journal (EPSJ).In 1995 EPS was involved with criticism of the United States Navy in Vieques, Puerto Rico, producing several reports on the subject.

Notable trustees of EPS include Kenneth Arrow and Lawrence Klein (founding trustees); Amartya Sen, Robert Reich and Óscar Arias. James K. Galbraith was named Chair of the Board of Directors in 1996.On July 21st, 2017, EPS co hosted a conference on NATO and the future of the transatlantic defense partnersh with the Royal Military Academy brussels, which emphasized discussion on the geostrategic changes and economic trends in global defense. Topics included regional security, economics of security, globalization and global security, economics of conflict and war, economics of the arms trade, arms races and alliances, and the economics of terrorism.

Esquipulas Peace Agreement

The Esquipulas Nicaraguan Peace Agreement, also known as the Central American Peace Accords, was a peace initiative in the mid-1980s to settle the military conflicts that had plagued Central America for many years, and in some cases (notably Guatemala) for decades. It built upon groundwork laid by the Contadora Group from 1983 to 1985. The agreement was named for Esquipulas, Guatemala, where the initial meetings took place. The US Congress lobbying efforts were helped by one of Capitol Hill's top lobbyists, William C. Chasey.

In May 1986, a summit meeting at dawn, "Esquipulas I," took place, attended by the five Central American presidents. On February 15, 1987, Costa Rican President Óscar Arias submitted a Peace Plan which evolved from this meeting. During 1986 and 1987, the "Esquipulas Process" was established, in which the Central American heads of state agreed on economic cooperation and a framework for peaceful conflict resolution. The "Esquipulas II Accord" emerged from this and was signed in Guatemala City by President Vinicio Cerezo of Guatemala, President José Napoleón Duarte of El Salvador, President Daniel Ortega of Nicaragua, President José Azcona Hoyo of Honduras and President Óscar Arias Sánchez of Costa Rica on August 7, 1987.

Esquipulas II defined a number of measures to promote national reconciliation, an end to hostilities, democratization, free elections, the termination of all assistance to irregular forces, negotiations on arms controls, and assistance to refugees. It also laid the ground for international verification procedures and provided a timetable for implementation.

Laura Chinchilla

Laura Chinchilla Miranda (Spanish: [ˈlawɾa tʃinˈtʃiɟa miˈɾanda]; born 28 March 1959) is a Costa Rican politician who was President of Costa Rica from 2010 to 2014. She was one of Óscar Arias Sánchez's two Vice-Presidents and his administration's Minister of Justice. She was the governing PLN candidate for President in the 2010 general election, where she won with 46.76% of the vote on 7 February. She was the eighth woman president of a Latin American country and the first woman to become President of Costa Rica. She was sworn in as President of Costa Rica on May 8, 2010.She currently teaches at Georgetown University and is a member of the board of the Inter-American Dialogue. She is also the titular of the Cathedra José Bonifácio, at the University of São Paulo, since April, 2018.

List of Latino and Hispanic Nobel laureates

The Nobel Prize is an annual, international prize first awarded in 1901 for achievements in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. An associated prize in Economics has been awarded since 1969. Nobel Prizes have been awarded to over 800 individuals.Latin Americans, Spaniards, Latinos and Hispanics have been the recipients in five of six award categories: Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. The first Spanish recipient, José Echegaray, was awarded the Literature Prize in 1905, and the first Latin American to receive the prize was Carlos Saavedra Lamas in 1936. The most recent recipient Juan Manuel Santos was awarded the Peace prize in October 2016.

Two Latin American laureates — Óscar Arias Sánchez and Juan Manuel Santos — were president of their country when they were awarded the prize. As of 2015, 25 Nobel Prize winners have been Latin American, Spanish, Latinos or Hispanics.

List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the London School of Economics

A list of Nobel laureates affiliated with the London School of Economics. By official figures 18 Nobel Prizes in economics, peace and literature have been awarded to LSE alumni and staff. By 2016, 27% (or 13 out of 48) of all the Nobel Prizes in Economics have been awarded or jointly awarded to LSE alumni, current staff or former staff, making up 17% (13 out of 78) of all laureates. LSE alumni and staff have also won 3 Nobel Peace Prizes, and 2 Nobel Prizes in Literature.

Alumni

1950: Ralph Bunche (Peace)

1979: Sir William Arthur Lewis (Economics)

1991: Ronald Coase (Economics)

1999: Robert Mundell (Economics)

2007: Leonid Hurwicz (Economics)

2016: Juan Manuel Santos (Peace)Founders and professors

1925: George Bernard Shaw (Literature)

1950: Bertrand Russell (Literature)

1959: Philip Noel-Baker (Peace)

1972: Sir John Hicks (Economics)

1974: Friedrich von Hayek (Economics)

1977: James Meade (Economics)

1990: Merton Miller (Economics)

1998: Amartya Sen (Economics)

2001: George Akerlof (Economics)

2008: Paul Krugman (Economics)

2010: Christopher A. Pissarides (Economics)

2016: Oliver Hart (Economics)Non-alumni1987: Óscar Arias (Peace)

María Luisa Ávila Agüero

María Luisa Ávila Agüero (born January 30, 1961) is a Costa Rican pediatric infectious disease specialist who was Minister of Public Health during the administrations of Óscar Arias Sánchez (2006–2010) and Laura Chinchilla Miranda (2010–2014).

Museo Nacional de Costa Rica

The Museo Nacional de Costa Rica is the national museum of Costa Rica, located in the capital of San José. It is located at Calle 17, between Central and Second Avenue, Cuesta de Moras, in the Bellavista Fortress, a crenallated, ochre colored building opposite the Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica. The fortress was built in 1917 and was originally a military barracks: the exterior walls still have many bullets lodged in them from the country's 1948 civil war. It became the site of the museum in 1950.The entrance on the east side leads to a courtyard displaying pre-Columbian artifacts and cannons from the colonial period. The museum is organized thematically in a counter clockwise direction from the entrance with artifacts related to Costa Rica's geological, colonial, archaeological, religious and modern history. The museum had a notable collection of pre-Columbian stone tables (metates), ceramics and a gold room "Sala de Oro" in the northeast tower. The colonial room has a notable collection of furniture and is designed to emulate that of an actual quarters in the 18th century. The museum also has an exhibit of the 1987 Nobel Peace Prize awarded to Óscar Arias, and a bust of José Figueres and butterfly garden in the outside "Plaza de la Democracia".

National Liberation Party (Costa Rica)

The National Liberation Party (Spanish: Partido Liberación Nacional, commonly abbreviated as PLN), nicknamed the verdiblancos ("green and whites"), is a political party in Costa Rica. The party is a member of the Socialist International.

Politics of Costa Rica

The politics of Costa Rica take place in a framework of a presidential, representative democratic republic, with a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the president and his cabinet, and the President of Costa Rica is both the head of state and head of government. Legislative power is vested in the Legislative Assembly. The president and 57 Legislative Assembly deputies are elected for four-year terms. The judiciary operates independent of the executive and the legislature but remains involved in the political process. Costa Rica is a republic with a strong system of constitutional checks and balances. Voting is compulsory in Costa Rica but it is not enforced.

The position of governor in the seven provinces was abolished in 1998. There are no provincial legislatures. In 2009, the state monopolies on insurance and telecommunications were opened to private-sector competition. Certain other state agencies enjoy considerable operational independence and autonomy; they include the electrical power company (Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad), the nationalized commercial banks (which are open to competition from private banks), and the social security agency (Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social). Costa Rica has no military but maintains a domestic police force and a Special Forces Unit as part of the Ministry of the President.

The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Costa Rica as "flawed democracy" in 2016.

Union for Change Party

The Union for Change Party (Partido Unión para el Cambio) was a political party in Costa Rica founded by former minister and congressman Antonio Álvarez Desanti after he left National Liberation Party unhappy with his faction's results in the internal elections against Óscar Arias. Desanti was the party's presidential nominee.In the 2006 general elections, they won 2.4% of the legislative votes, and 2.44% of the Presidential vote. They were unable to win any seats in the legislature gaining only one single municipal councilor. The party self-disbanded in March, 2010.

Óscar Arias (footballer)

Óscar Luis Arias Suárez (born 5 January 1966), known simply as Óscar, is a Spanish retired footballer who played as a midfielder, and is the director of football of Cádiz CF.

In a career that involved two spells at Recreativo, he also represented four other teams in Segunda División, totalling 225 matches and 28 goals in that division. He later served as sporting director at his main club, Las Palmas, Sevilla and Cádiz.

1825-1848
After 1848
Current heads of state in Central American countries
1901–1925
1926–1950
1951–1975
1976–2000
2001–present

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