Ó

Ó, ó (o-acute) is a letter in the Czech, Emilian-Romagnol, Faroese, Hungarian, Icelandic, Kashubian, Kazakh, Polish, Slovak, and Sorbian languages. This letter also appears in the Afrikaans, Catalan, Dutch, Irish, Nynorsk, Occitan, Portuguese, Spanish, Italian and Galician languages as a variant of letter “o”. It is sometimes also used in English for loanwords.

Usage in various languages

Chinese

In Chinese pinyin ó is the yángpíng tone (阳平, high-rising tone) of "o".

Czech and Slovak

Ó is the 24th letter of the Czech alphabet and the 28th letter of the Slovak alphabet. It represents /oː/.

Dutch

In Dutch, the acute Ó accent is used to mark different meanings for words, for example voor/vóór ("for" / "before"), or vóórkomen/voorkómen ("to occur" / "to prevent").

Emilian-Romagnol

In Emilian, ó is used to represent [o], e.g. sótt [sotː] "dry". In Romagnol, ó is used to represent [oː], e.g. alóra [aˈloːra] "then".

Faroese

Ó is the 18th letter of the Faroese alphabet and represents /œ/ or /ɔuː/.

Icelandic

Ó is the 19th letter of the Icelandic alphabet and represents /oṷ/.

Irish

Ó is widely used in Irish where it has various meanings:

  • the preposition ó "from"
  • the patronymic term Ó "grandson, (usually male) descendant", first or second cousin" (variants: Ua, Uí, Í Uaí).[1] When Irish names were anglicized, the Ó commonly was either dropped or written as O'.
  • the interjection ó "oh"

Italian

In Italian, ó is an optional symbol (especially used in dictionaries) sometimes used to indicate that a stressed o should be pronounced with a close sound: córso [ˈkorso], "course", as opposed to còrso [ˈkɔrso], "Corsican" (but both are commonly written with no accent marks when the context is clear). A similar process may occur with é and è, as in *pésca, "fishing", and *pèsca "peach", in which the accent mark is not written (both are written as pesca).

Kashubian

Ó is the 23rd letter of the Kashubian alphabet and represents /o/. It also represents /u/ in southern dialects.

Hungarian

Ó is the 25th letter of the Hungarian alphabet. It represents /oː/.

Kazakh

Ó is the 19th letter of the Kazakh Latin alphabet and represents /œ/ (or /ʷœ/).

Polish

Ó is the 21st letter of the Polish alphabet, and represents /u/.

Portuguese

In Portuguese, ó is used to mark a stressed /ɔ/ in words whose stressed syllable is in an unpredictable location within the word, as in "pó" (dust) and "óculos" (glasses). If the location of the stressed syllable is predictable, the acute accent is not used. Ó /ɔ/ contrasts with ô /o/.

Scottish Gaelic

Ó was once widely used in Scottish, but it has now been largely superseded by "ò". It can still be seen in certain writings but is no longer used in standard orthography.

Spanish

Ó is used in the Spanish language to denote an 'o' syllable with abnormal stress.

Sorbian

Ó represents /uʊ/ in Upper Sorbian and represents /ɛ/ or /ɨ/ in, especially, Lower Sorbian.

Vietnamese

In Vietnamese alphabet ó is the sắc tone (high-rising tone) of “o”.

Character mappings

Character Ó ó
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH ACUTE LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH ACUTE
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 211 U+00D3 243 U+00F3
UTF-8 195 147 C3 93 195 179 C3 B3
Numeric character reference Ó Ó ó ó
Named character reference Ó ó
EBCDIC family 238 EE 206 CE
ISO 8859-1/2/3/9/10/13/14/15/16 211 D3 243 F3

See also

References

  1. ^ Dinneen, Patrick Foclóir Gaeḋlge agus Béarla Dublin: Irish Texts Society 1927
1349 in Ireland

Events from the year 1349 in Ireland.

Acute accent

The acute accent ( ´ ) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.

Bobby Sands

Robert Gerard Sands (Irish: Roibeárd Gearóid Ó Seachnasaigh; 9 March 1954 – 5 May 1981) was a member of the Provisional Irish Republican Army who died on hunger strike while imprisoned at HM Prison Maze after being sentenced for firearms possession.

He was the leader of the 1981 hunger strike in which Irish republican prisoners protested against the removal of Special Category Status. During Sands's strike, he was elected to the British Parliament as an Anti H-Block candidate. His death and those of nine other hunger strikers was followed by a new surge of Provisional IRA recruitment and activity. International media coverage brought attention to the hunger strikers, and the Republican movement in general, attracting both praise and criticism.

Connacht

Connacht (; Irish: Connachta or Cúige Chonnacht), formerly spelled Connaught, is one of the provinces of Ireland, in the west of the country. Up to the 9th century it consisted of several independent major kingdoms (Lúighne, Uí Maine, and Iarthar Connacht).

Between the reigns of Conchobar mac Taidg Mór (died 882) and his descendant, Aedh mac Ruaidri Ó Conchobair (reigned 1228–33), it became a kingdom under the rule of the Uí Briúin Aí dynasty, whose ruling sept adopted the surname Ua Conchobair. At its greatest extent, it incorporated the often independent Kingdom of Breifne, as well as vassalage from the lordships of western Mide and west Leinster. Two of its greatest kings, Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair (1088-1156) and his son Ruaidri Ua Conchobair (c.1115-1198) greatly expanded the kingdom's dominance, so much so that both became Kings of Ireland.

The Kingdom of Connacht collapsed in the 1230s because of civil war within the royal dynasty, which enabled widespread Anglo-Irish settlement under Richard Mór de Burgh, 1st Baron of Connaught, and his successors. The English colony in Connacht shrank from c. 1300-c. 1360, with events such as the 1307 battle of Ahascragh (see Donnchad Muimnech Ó Cellaigh), the 1316 Second Battle of Athenry and the murder in June 1333 of William Donn de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster, all leading to Gaelic resurgence and colonial withdrawal to towns such as Ballinrobe, Loughrea, Athenry, and Galway. Well into the 16th-century kingdoms such as Uí Maine and Tír Fhíacrach Múaidhe remained beyond English rule, while many Anglo-Irish families such as de Burgh, de Bermingham, de Exeter, de Staunton, became entirely Gaelicised. Only in the late 1500s, during the Tudor conquest of Ireland, was Connacht shired into its present counties.

The province of Connacht has the highest number of Irish language speakers among the four Irish provinces. Currently, the total percentage of people who consider themselves as Irish speakers in Connacht is 39.8% (more than 202,000 persons). There are Gaeltacht areas in Counties Galway and Mayo.

The province of Connacht has no official function for local government purposes, but it is an officially recognised subdivision of the Irish state. It is listed on ISO-3166-2 as one of the four provinces of Ireland and "IE-C" is attributed to Connacht as its country sub-division code. Along with counties from other provinces, Connacht lies in the Midlands–North-West constituency for elections to the European Parliament.

Conradh na Gaeilge

Conradh na Gaeilge (Irish pronunciation: [ˈkɔn̪ˠɾˠə nə ˈɡeːlʲɟə]; historically known in English as the Gaelic League) is a social and cultural organisation which promotes the Irish language in Ireland and worldwide. The organisation was founded in 1893 with Douglas Hyde as its first president, when it emerged as the successor of several 19th century groups such as the Gaelic Union. The organisation would be the spearhead of the Gaelic revival and Gaeilgeoir activism. Originally the organisation intended to be apolitical, but many of its participants became involved in Irish nationalism.

Dara Ó Briain

Dara Ó Briain (; Irish: [ˈd̪ˠaɾˠə oː ˈbʲɾʲiənʲ]; born 4 February 1972) is an Irish comedian and television presenter based in the United Kingdom and Ireland. He is noted for hosting topical panel shows such as Mock the Week, The Panel, and The Apprentice: You're Fired!. His TV work also includes starring in and writing of television comedy and documentary series. Ó Briain has also been a newspaper columnist, with pieces published in national papers in both Britain and Ireland.

In 2009, the Irish Independent described Ó Briain as "Terry Wogan's heir apparent as Britain's 'favourite Irishman'" and in 2010, Ó Briain was voted the 16th greatest stand-up comic on Channel 4's 100 Greatest Stand-Ups.

Irish name

A formal Irish-language personal name consists of a given name and a surname. Surnames in Irish are generally patronymic in etymology, although they are no longer literal patronyms, as Icelandic names are. The form of a surname varies according to whether its bearer is male or female and in the case of a married woman, whether she chooses to adopt her husband's surname.

An alternative traditional naming convention consists of the first name followed by a double patronym, usually with the father and grandfather's names. This convention is not used for official purposes but is generalized in Gaeltachtaí, or Irish-speaking areas, and also survives in some rural non-Gaeltacht areas. Sometimes the name of the mother or grandmother may be used instead of that of the father or grandfather.

Irish people

The Irish (Irish: Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a Celtic nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture. Ireland has been inhabited for about 12,500 years according to archaeological studies (see Prehistoric Ireland). For most of Ireland's recorded history, the Irish have been primarily a Gaelic people (see Gaelic Ireland). Anglo-Normans conquered parts of Ireland in the 12th century, while England's 16th/17th-century (re)conquest and colonisation of Ireland brought a large number of English and Lowland Scots people to parts of the island, especially the north. Today, Ireland is made up of the Republic of Ireland (an independent state) and the smaller Northern Ireland (a part of the United Kingdom). The people of Northern Ireland hold various national identities including British, Irish, Northern Irish or some combination thereof.

The Irish have their own customs, language, music, dance, sports, cuisine and mythology. Although Irish (Gaelic/Gaeilge) was their main language in the past, today most Irish people speak English as their first language. Historically, the Irish nation was made up of kin groups or clans, and the Irish also had their own religion, law code, alphabet and style of dress.

There have been many notable Irish people throughout history. After Ireland's conversion to Christianity, Irish missionaries and scholars exerted great influence on Western Europe, and the Irish came to be seen as a nation of "saints and scholars". The 6th-century Irish monk and missionary Columbanus is regarded as one of the "fathers of Europe", followed by saints Cillian and Fergal. The scientist Robert Boyle is considered the "father of chemistry", and Robert Mallet one of the "fathers of seismology". Famous Irish writers include Oscar Wilde, W. B. Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, Bram Stoker, James Joyce, C.S. Lewis and Seamus Heaney. Notable Irish explorers include Brendan the Navigator, Sir Robert McClure, Sir Alexander Armstrong, Sir Ernest Shackleton and Tom Crean. By some accounts, the first European child born in North America had Irish descent on both sides. Many presidents of the United States have had some Irish ancestry.

The population of Ireland is about 6.3 million, but it is estimated that 50 to 80 million people around the world have Irish forebears, making the Irish diaspora one of the largest of any nation. Historically, emigration from Ireland has been the result of conflict, famine and economic issues. People of Irish descent are found mainly in English-speaking countries, especially Great Britain, the United States, Canada and Australia. There are also significant numbers in Argentina, Mexico and New Zealand. The United States has the most people of Irish descent, while in Australia those of Irish descent are a higher percentage of the population than in any other country outside Ireland. Many Icelanders have Irish and Scottish Gaelic forebears.

Kingdom of Breifne

The Kingdom of Breifne or Bréifne ([ˈbrʲeːfnʲe]; anglicized Breffny) was a medieval overkingdom in Gaelic Ireland. It comprised what is now County Leitrim, County Cavan and parts of neighbouring counties, and corresponds roughly to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kilmore. It had emerged by the 10th century, as a confederation of túatha headed by an overking drawn from the Uí Briúin Bréifne.

By the 11th century, Bréifne was ruled by the Ua Ruairc (O'Rourke) dynasty. The kingdom reached the height of its power in the 12th century, under Tigernán Ua Ruairc. During the latter part of his reign, Bréifne took part in campaigns against the Norman invasion of Ireland. His assassination by the Anglo-Normans in 1172 was followed by a succession dispute, and a conflict between the Ua Ruairc and Ua Raghallaigh (O'Reilly) dynasties.

Following the Battle of Magh Slecht in 1256, Bréifne split into West Breifne (ruled by the Ua Ruairc) and East Breifne (ruled by the Ua Raghallaigh).

Bréifne was part of the province of Connacht until the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. In that time it was shired into the modern counties Cavan and Leitrim, Leitrim remaining a part of the province of Connacht while Cavan became part of Ulster.

List of kings of Connacht

The Kings of Connacht were rulers of the cóiced (variously translated as portion, fifth, province) of Connacht, which lies west of the River Shannon, Ireland. However, the name only became applied to it in the early medieval era, being named after the Connachta.

The old name for the province was Cóiced Ol nEchmacht (the fifth of the Ol nEchmacht). Ptolemy's map of c. 150 AD does in fact list a people called the Nagnatae as living in the west of Ireland. Some are of the opinion that Ptolemy's Map of Ireland may be based on cartography carried out as much as five hundred years before his time.

The Connachta were a group of dynasties who claimed descent from the three eldest sons of Eochaid Mugmedon: Brion, Ailill and Fiachrae. They took their collective name from their alleged descent from Conn Cétchathach. Their younger brother, Niall Noigiallach was ancestor to the Uí Néill.

The following is a list of kings of Connacht from the fifth to fifteenth centuries.

O'Brien dynasty

The O'Brien dynasty (Classical Irish Irish: Ua Briain, (Modern Irish Ó Briain, IPA: [oːˈbʲɾʲiənʲ]), genitive Uí Bhriain, IPA: [iːˈβʲɾʲiənʲ]) is a royal and noble house founded in the 10th century by Brian Boru of the Dál gCais or Dalcassians. After becoming King of Munster, through conquest he established himself as Ard Rí na hÉireann (High King of Ireland). Brian's descendants thus carried the name Ó Briain, continuing to rule the Kingdom of Munster until the 12th century where their territory had shrunk to the Kingdom of Thomond which they would hold for just under five centuries.

In total, four Ó Briains ruled in Munster, and two held the High Kingship of Ireland (with opposition). After the partition of Munster into Thomond and the MacCarthy Kingdom of Desmond by Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair in the 12th century, the dynasty would go on to provide around thirty monarchs of Thomond until 1542. During part of this period in the late 13th century they had a rivalry with the Norman de Clare house, disputing the throne of Thomond. The last Ó Briain to reign in Thomond was Murrough Ó Briain who surrendered his sovereignty to the new Kingdom of Ireland under Henry VIII of the House of Tudor, becoming instead Earl of Thomond and maintaining a role in governance. Today the head carries the title of Prince of Thomond, and depending on succession sometimes also Baron Inchiquin.

Throughout the time that the Ó Briains ruled in medieval Ireland, the system of tanistry was used to decide succession, rather than primogeniture used by much of feudal Europe. The system in effect was a dynastic monarchy but family-elected and aristocratic, in the sense that the royal family chose the most suitable male candidate from close paternal relations—roydammna (those of kingly material) rather than the crown automatically passing to the eldest son. This sometimes led to bitter quarrels and in-family warring. Since 1542, the head of the Ó Briain house adopted primogeniture to decide succession of noble titles instead.

O'Conor

O'Conor (Middle Irish: Ó Conchubhair; Modern Irish: Ó Conchúir, also anglicised as O'Connor), is an Irish aristocratic house and former royal line of Gaelic leaders, which included many historic Kings of Connacht and the last High Kings of Ireland. The family seat is Clonalis House outside Castlerea in County Roscommon.

The current O'Conor Don is Desmond O'Conor (b. 22 September 1938) who lives in Rotherfield, East Sussex in England.

O'Donnell dynasty

The O'Donnell dynasty (Irish: Ó Dónaill or Ó Domhnaill or Ó Doṁnaill; derived from the Irish name Domhnall, which means "ruler of the world", Dónall in modern Irish) were an ancient and powerful Irish family, kings, princes and lords of Tyrconnell (Tír Chonaill in Irish, now County Donegal) in early times, and the chief allies and sometimes rivals of the O'Neills in Ulster.

O'Neill dynasty

The O'Neill dynasty (Irish: Ó Néill) is a group of families, ultimately all of Irish Gaelic origin, that have held prominent positions and titles in Ireland and elsewhere. As Chiefs of Cenél nEógain, they are historically the most prominent family of the Northern Uí Néill, along with the O'Donnell, O'Doherty and the O'Donnelly clans (the Chief of the Donnellys being the hereditary Marshal of the O'Neill forces). The O'Neills hold that their ancestors were Kings of Ailech during the Early Middle Ages, as descendants of Niall of the Nine Hostages.

A number of their progenitors and members are named as High Kings of Ireland, such as Niall Glúndub (from whom they take their name) and Domnall ua Néill. From 1185 until 1616, the O'Neills were sovereign Kings of Tír Eógain, holding territories in the north of Ireland; particularly around modern County Tyrone, County Londonderry and County Antrim. After their realm was merged with the Kingdom of Ireland and the land was caught up in the Plantation of Ulster, they were involved in a number of significant events, such as Tyrone's Rebellion, the Flight of the Earls, the Irish Rebellion of 1641 and the Irish Confederate Wars.

Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair

Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair (Modern Irish: Ruaidhrí Ó Conchobhair, or, Ruairí Ó Conchúir; commonly anglicised as Rory O'Connor or Roderic O'Connor) (c. 1116 – 2 December 1198) was King of Connacht from 1156 to 1186, and High King of Ireland from 1166 to 1193. He was the last High King of Ireland before the Norman invasion (Brian Ua Néill and Edward Bruce both claimed the title with opposition in later years).

Ruaidrí was one of over twenty sons of King Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair (1088–1156). He and his sister Mór were Tairrdelbach's only children from his third wife, Cailech Dé Ní hEidin of Aidhne.

Ruairí Ó Brádaigh

Ruairí Ó Brádaigh ([ˈɾˠuəɾʲiː oː bˠɾˠaːd̪ˠiː], born Peter Roger Casement Brady; 2 October 1932 – 5 June 2013) was an Irish republican political and military leader. He was Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) from 1958 to 1959 and again from 1960 to 1962, president of Sinn Féin from 1970 to 1983, and president of Republican Sinn Féin from 1987 to 2009.

Seán O'Casey

Seán O'Casey (Irish: Seán Ó Cathasaigh [ˈʃaːn̪ˠ oː ˈkahəsˠiː]; born John Casey; 30 March 1880 – 18 September 1964) was an Irish dramatist and memoirist. A committed socialist, he was the first Irish playwright of note to write about the Dublin working classes.

Éamon Ó Cuív

Éamon Ó Cuív (Irish pronunciation: [ˈeːmˠənˠ oː ˈkiːvʲ]; born 23 June 1950) is an Irish Fianna Fáil politician who has been a Teachta Dála (TD) for the Galway West constituency since the 1992 general election. He previously served as Deputy Leader of Fianna Fáil from 2011 to 2012, Minister for the Environment, Community and Local Government and Minister for Defence January 2011 to March 2011, Minister for Social Protection from 2010 to 2011, Minister for Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs from 2002 to 2010, Minister of State at the Department of Arts, Heritage, Gaeltacht and the Islands from 2001 to 2002 and Minister of State at the Department of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development from 1997 to 2002. He served as a Senator for the Cultural and Educational Panel from 1989 to 1992.He unsuccessfully contested the leadership of Fianna Fáil after the resignation of Brian Cowen, but lost to Micheál Martin. Martin appointed Ó Cuív Deputy Leader of Fianna Fáil after Brian Lenihan Jnr's death. However, Ó Cuív ceased to be Deputy Leader of Fianna Fáil on 29 February 2012, because of his opposition to his party's stance on the European Fiscal Compact.

Ó Flaithbheartaigh

O'Flaherty (Middle Irish: Ó Flaithbheartaigh; Modern Irish: Ó Flaithearta), is an Irish Gaelic clan based most prominently in what is today County Galway. The clan name originated in the 10th century as a derivative of its founder Flaithbheartach mac Eimhin. They descend in the paternal line from the Connachta's Uí Briúin Seóla. They were originally kings of Maigh Seóla and Muintir Murchada and as members of the Uí Briúin were kinsmen of the Ó Conchubhair and Mac Diarmada amongst others. After their king Cathal mac Tigernán lost out to Áed in Gai Bernaig in the 11th century, the family were pushed further west to Iar Connacht, a territory associated with Connemara today. They continued to rule this land until the 16th century.

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