Ñ

Ñ (lower case ñ, Spanish: eñe, Phonetic Alphabet: /ˈeɲe/ "énye", pronunciation ) is a letter of the modern Latin alphabet, formed by placing a tilde (also referred to as virgulilla in Spanish) on top of an upper- or lowercase N.[1] It became part of the Spanish alphabet in the eighteenth century when it was first formally defined, but it is also used in other languages such as Galician, Asturian, the Aragonese Grafía de Uesca, Basque, Chavacano, Filipino, Chamorro, Guarani, Quechua, Mapudungun, Mandinka, and Tetum alphabets, as well as in Latin transliteration of Tocharian and Sanskrit, where it represents [ɲ]. It represents [ŋ] in Crimean Tatar and Old Malay. In Breton and in Rohingya, it denotes nasalization of the preceding vowel.

Unlike many other letters that use diacritic marks (such as Ü in Spanish and German and Ç in French, Catalan and Portuguese), Ñ in Spanish, Galician, Basque, Asturian, Leonese, Guarani and Filipino is considered a letter in its own right, has its own name (in Spanish: eñe), and its own place in the alphabet (after N). Its alphabetical independence is similar to the English W, which historically came from a doubled V.

History

Historically, ñ arose as a ligature of nn; the tilde was shorthand for the second n, written over the first;[2] compare umlaut, of analogous origin. This is a letter in the Spanish alphabet that is used for many words, for example, the Spanish word año (anno in Old Spanish) meaning "year" and derived from Latin ANNVS. Other languages used the macron over an n or m to indicate simple doubling.

Already in medieval Latin palaeography, the sign that in Spanish came to be called virgulilla (meaning "little comma") was used over a vowel to indicate a following nasal consonant (n or m) that had been omitted, as in tãtus for tantus or quã for quam. This usage was passed on to other languages using the Latin alphabet although it was subsequently dropped by most. Spanish retained it, however, in some specific cases, particularly to indicate the palatal nasal, the sound that is now spelt as ñ. The word tilde comes from Spanish, derived by metathesis of the word título as tidlo, this originally from Latin TITULUS "title" or "heading"; compare cabildo with Latin CAPITULUM.[3]

From spellings of anno abbreviated as ãno, as explained above, the tilde was thenceforth transferred to the n and kept as a useful expedient to indicate the new palatal nasal sound that Spanish had developed in that position: año. The sign was also adopted for the same palatal nasal in all other cases, even when it did not derive from an original nn, as in leña (from Latin ligna) or señor (from Latin senior).

The palatal nasal sound is roughly reminiscent of the English consonant cluster /nj/ canyon /ˈkænjən/. While this common description is enough to give a rough idea of the sound, it is not precise. It is analogous to giving the pronunciation of the English word shot as "syot".

Other Romance languages have different spellings for this sound: Italian and French use gn, a consonant cluster that had evolved from Latin, whereas Occitan and Portuguese chose nh and Catalan (ny) even though these digraphs had no etymological precedent.

When Morse code was extended to cover languages other than English, the sequence ( — — · — — ) was allotted for this character.

Although ñ is used by other languages whose spellings were influenced by Spanish, it has recently been chosen to represent the identity of the Spanish language, especially as a result of the battle against its obliteration from computer keyboards by an English-led industry.[4]

Cross-linguistic usage

Piñata
The letter ñ used in the word piñata

In Spanish and some other languages (such as Filipino languages, Aymara, Quechua, Mapudungún, Guarani, Basque, Chamorro, Leonese, Yavapai and Tetum), whose orthographies have some basis in that of Spanish, it represents a palatal nasal.

In Galician, it represents such a sound, but it was probably not adopted from Spanish, as evidenced by its presence in the first Galician-Portuguese written in Galicia conserved text (Foro do bo burgo de Castro Caldelas, written in 1228[5][6]).

Other Romance languages also have the sound, written nh in Occitan (espahnòl/espanhòu) and Portuguese (espanhol), gn in Italian (spagnolo) and French (espagnol), and ny in Catalan and Aragonese (espanyol).

The accented letter ń used in Polish and the character ň used in Czech and Slovak are also equivalent to the Spanish letter ñ. The same sound is written ny in Indonesian, Zhuang, and Hungarian, and nh in Vietnamese and Portuguese.

In Tagalog, Visayan, and other Philippine Languages, it is also written as ny for most terms. The conventional exceptions (with considerable variations) are proper names, which usually retain ñ and their original Spanish or Hispanicised spelling (Santo Niño, Parañaque, Mañalac, Malacañan). It is collated as the 15th letter of the Filipino alphabet. In old Filipino orthography, the letter was also used, along with g, to represent the velar nasal sound [ŋ] (except at the end of a word, when ng would be used) if appropriate instead of a tilde, which originally spanned a sequence of n and g (as in n͠g), such as pan͠galan ("name"). That is because the old orthography was based on Spanish, and without the tilde, pangalan would have been pronounced with the sequence [ŋɡ] (therefore pang-GAlan). The form ñg became a more common way to represent n͠g until the early 20th century, mainly because it was more readily available in typesets than the tilde spanning both letters.

It is also used to represent the velar nasal in Crimean Tatar. In Latin-script writing of the distantly-related Tatar language, ñ is sometimes used as a substitute for n with descender, which is not available on many computer systems.

In the Breton language, it nasalises the preceding vowel, as in Jañ /ʒã/, which corresponds to the French name Jean and has the same pronunciation.

It is used in a number of English terms of Spanish origin, such as jalapeño, piña colada, piñata, and El Niño. The Spanish word cañón, however, became naturalized as canyon. Until the middle of the 20th century, adapting it as nn was more common in English, as in the phrase "Battle of Corunna". Now, it is almost always left unmodified.

In the orthography for languages of Senegal, ñ represents the palatal nasal. Senegal is unique among countries of West Africa in using this letter.

The Lule Sami language uses the letter ń, which is often written ñ on computers, since ñ but not ń was available on keyboards and in the Latin-1 character set.

Cultural significance

Potez 540-
Serial letter 'Ñ' Potez 540 plane of the Spanish Republican Air Force

The letter Ñ has come to represent the identity of the Spanish language. Latino publisher Bill Teck labeled Hispanic culture and its influence on the United States "Generation Ñ" and later started a magazine with that name.[7] Organizations such as the Instituto Cervantes and the National Association of Hispanic Journalists have adopted the letter as their mark for Hispanic heritage.

It was used in the Spanish Republican Air Force for aircraft identification. The circumstances surrounding the crash of serial 'Ñ' Potez 540 plane that was shot down over the Sierra de Gúdar range of the Sistema Ibérico near Valdelinares inspired French writer André Malraux to write the novel L'Espoir (1937), translated into English as Man's Hope and made into the movie named Espoir: Sierra de Teruel.[8]

In 1991, a European Community report recommended the repeal of a regulation preventing the sale in Spain of computer products not supporting "all the characteristics of the Spanish writing system," claiming that it was a protectionist measure against the principles of the free market. This would have allowed the distribution of keyboards without an "Ñ" key. The Real Academia Española stated that the matter was a serious attack against the language. Nobel Prize winner in literature Gabriel García Márquez expressed his disdain over its elimination by saying: "The 'Ñ' is not an archaeological piece of junk, but just the opposite: a cultural leap of a Romance language that left the others behind in expressing with only one letter a sound that other languages continue to express with two."[4]

Among other forms of controversy are those pertaining to the anglicization of Spanish surnames. The replacement of ñ with another letter alters the pronunciation and meaning of a word or name, in the same manner that replacing any letter in a given word with another one would. For example, Peña is a common Spanish surname and a common noun that means "rocky hill"; it is often anglicized as Pena, changing the name to the Spanish word for "pity", often used in terms of sorrow.

When Federico Peña was first running for mayor of Denver in 1983, the Denver Post printed his name without the tilde as "Pena." After he won the election, they began printing his name with the tilde. As Peña's administration had many critics, their objections were sometimes whimsically expressed as "ÑO."

Since 2011, CNN's Spanish-language news channel incorporates a new logo wherein a tilde is placed over two Ns.

Another news channel, TLN en Español, has "tlñ", with an ñ taking the place of the expected n, as its logo.

The city council of A Coruña changed the placement of the tilde from over the ⟨n⟩ to over the initial ⟨c⟩ to create a logo,[9] in a way similar to what was done by the city of Göteborg that changed the dieresis of the ⟨ö⟩ to a colon (⟨Go:teborg⟩). The ⟨ñ⟩ is however not used in the URL.

Computer usage

Eñe on keyboard - blue
Ñ is to the right of L on a Spanish keyboard layout.
Character Ñ ñ
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N WITH TILDE LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH TILDE
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 209 U+00D1 241 U+00F1
UTF-8 195 145 C3 91 195 177 C3 B1
Numeric character reference Ñ Ñ ñ ñ
Named character reference Ñ ñ

In Unicode Ñ has the code U+00D1 (decimal 209) while ñ has the code U+00F1 (decimal 241). Additionally, they can be generated by typing N or n followed by a combining tilde modifier, &#x303, U+0303, decimal 771.

In HTML character entity reference, the codes for Ñ and ñ are Ñ and ñ or Ñ and ñ.

Ñ and ñ have their own key in the Spanish and Latin American keyboard layouts (see the corresponding sections at keyboard layout and Tilde#Role of mechanical typewriters). The following instructions apply only to English-language keyboards.

On Android devices, holding n or N down on the keyboard makes entry of ñ and Ñ possible.

On Apple Macintosh operating systems (including Mac OS X), it can be typed by pressing and holding the Option key and then typing N, followed by typing either N or n.

On the iPhone and iPad, which use the Apple iOS operating system, the ñ is accessed by holding down the "n" key, which opens a menu (on an English-language keyboard). Apple's Mac OS X 10.7 Lion operating system also made the "ñ" available in the same way.

To make a lowercase ñ in the Microsoft Windows operating system, hold down the Alt key and type the number 164 or 0241 on the numeric keypad (with Num Lock turned on).[10] To make an uppercase Ñ, press Alt-165 or Alt-0209. Character Map in Windows identifies the letter as "Latin Small/Capital Letter N With Tilde". A soft (not physical) Spanish-language keyboard is easily installed in Windows.

In Microsoft Word, Ñ can be typed by pressing Control-Shift-Tilde (~) and then an N.

On Linux it can be created by pressing Ctrl+Shift+U and then typing '00D1' or '00F1', followed by space or Ctrl to end the character code input. This produces Ñ or ñ.

Another option (for any operating system) is to configure the system to use the US-International keyboard layout, with which ñ can be produced either by holding Alt Gr and then pressing N, or by typing the tilde (~) followed by n.

Yet another option is to use a compose key (hardware-based or software-emulated). Pressing the compose key, then ~, and then n results in ñ. A capital N can be substituted to produce Ñ, and in most cases the order of ~ and n can be reversed.

Use in URLs

The letter Ñ may be used in internationalized domain names, but it will have to be converted from Unicode to ASCII during the registration process (i.e. from www.piñata.com to www.xn--piata-pta.com).[11]

In URLs (except for the domain name), Ñ may be replaced by %C3%91, and ñ by %C3%B1. This is not needed for newer browsers. The hex digits represent the UTF-8 encoding of the glyphs Ñ and ñ. This feature allows almost any Unicode character to be encoded, and it is considered important to support languages other than English.

See also

Other symbols for the palatal nasal

Other letters with a tilde

References

  1. ^ Repfer to Real Academia Española (RAE - Royal Spanish Academy) http://dle.rae.es/?id=btCZ7EZ
  2. ^ Buitrago, A., Torijano, J. A.: "Diccionario del origen de las palabras". Espasa Calpe, S. A., Madrid, 1998. (in Spanish)
  3. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  4. ^ a b "El Triunfo De La Ñ – Afirmación De Hispanoamerica | Blog De Luis Durán Rojo". Blog.pucp.edu.pe. Retrieved 2015-05-31.
  5. ^ "O FORO DO BO BURGO DO CASTRO CALDELAS, DADO POR AFONSO IX EN 1228" (PDF). Consellodacultura.org. Retrieved 2015-05-31.
  6. ^ "Foro Do Bo Burgo Do Castro Caldelas, Dado Por Afonso IX En 1228" (PDF). Agal-gz.org. Retrieved 2015-05-31.
  7. ^ "Generation-Ñ". Generation-n.com. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
  8. ^ Forging Man's Fate in Spain, The Nation, March 20, 1937
  9. ^ http://www.coruna.gal/
  10. ^ Note that this depends on locale. E.g. will generate ń in some eastern European locales, and there is no alternative keystroke for ñ in these locales. The same applies to uppercase Ñ.
  11. ^ http://mct.verisign-grs.com/convertServlet?input=pi%C3%B1ata
2019 Ukrainian presidential election

Presidential elections will be held in Ukraine on 31 March 2019. If no candidate receives an absolute majority of the vote, a second round will be held on 21 April.There are a total of 39 candidates for the election on the ballot. By the end of the registration period on 9 February 2019 a record breaking 44 candidates had been officially registered for the elections. By 7 March, five candidates had withdrawn from the presidential race. 7 March was the last day when candidates could withdraw their names from the ballot. One of the candidates withdrew from the election on 16 March.34,544,993 people are eligible to vote in the elections. Roughly 12% of eligible voters will not be able to participate in the elections due to the March 2014 annexation of Crimea by Russia and the occupation of parts of Donetsk Oblast and Luhansk Oblast by separatists (since April 2014).As of mid-March, 967 international observers have been officially registered to monitor the elections. A record number of 139 non-governmental Ukrainian organizations are registered as observers.

DG International

This is the DG International (Data General International) character set.

Dead key

A dead key is a special kind of a modifier key on a mechanical typewriter, or computer keyboard, that is typically used to attach a specific diacritic to a base letter. The dead key does not generate a (complete) character by itself, but modifies the character generated by the key struck immediately after. Thus, a dedicated key is not needed for each possible combination of a diacritic and a letter, but rather only one dead key for each diacritic is needed, in addition to the normal base letter keys.

For example, if a keyboard has a dead key for the grave accent (`), the French character à can be generated by first pressing ` and then a, whereas è can be generated by first pressing ` and then e.

Another example is the Spanish letter Ñ, which can be generated via ~ and N, hence Ñ

Usually, the diacritic itself can be generated as an isolated character by pressing the dead key followed by space; so a plain grave accent can be typed by pressing ` and then Space. This legacy behavior is newly replaced with a more efficient one with respect to the use of combining diacritics following the Unicode Standard. The combining diacritic is then obtained with Space, while a spacing form of the diacritic is inserted with No-Break Space (typically ⇧ Shift+Space or AltGr+Space).

Demonym

A demonym (; from Greek δῆμος, dêmos, "people, tribe" and όνομα, ónoma, "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place and is derived from the name of the place.Examples of demonyms include Cochabambino, for a person from the city of Cochabamba; American for a person from the country called the United States of America; and Swahili, for a person of the Swahili coast.

Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region. Thus a Thai may be any resident or citizen of Thailand of any ethnic group, or more narrowly a member of the Thai people.

Conversely, some groups of people may be associated with multiple demonyms. For example, a native of the United Kingdom may be called a British person, a Briton or, informally, a Brit. In some languages, a demonym may be borrowed from another language as a nickname or descriptive adjective for a group of people: for example, "Québécois(e)" is commonly used in English for a native of Quebec (though "Quebecker" is also available).

In English, demonyms are capitalized and are often the same as the adjectival form of the place, e.g. Egyptian, Japanese, or Greek. Significant exceptions exist; for instance, the adjectival form of Spain is "Spanish", but the demonym is "Spaniard".

English commonly uses national demonyms such as "Ethiopian" or "Guatemalan", while the usage of local demonyms such as "Chicagoan", "Okie", or "Parisian", is rare. Many local demonyms are rarely used and many places, especially smaller towns and cities, lack a commonly used and accepted demonym altogether.

En with descender

En with descender (Ң ң; italics: Ң ң) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. Its form is derived from the Cyrillic letter En (Н н) by adding a descender to the right leg.

It commonly represents the velar nasal /ŋ/, like the pronunciation of ⟨ng⟩ in "sing".

The Cyrillic letter En with descender is romanized as ⟨ng⟩ or ⟨ñ⟩.

Filipino alphabet

The modern Filipino alphabet (Filipino: makabagong alpabetong Filipino), otherwise known as the Filipino alphabet (Filipino: alpabetong Filipino), is the alphabet of the Filipino language, the official national language and one of the two official languages of the Philippines. The modern Filipino alphabet is made up of 28 letters, which includes the entire 26-letter set of the ISO basic Latin alphabet, the Spanish Ñ and the Ng digraph of Tagalog. It replaced the Pilipino alphabet of the Fourth Republic. Today, the modern Filipino alphabet may also be used to write all autochthonous languages of the Philippines and Chavacano, a Spanish-derived creole.

In 2013, the Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino released the Ortograpiyang Pambansa ("National Orthography"), a new set of guidelines that resolved phonemic representation problems previously encountered when writing some Philippine languages and dialects.

Iñupiaq Braille

Iñupiaq Braille is a braille alphabet of the Inupiat language maintained by the Alaskan Department of Education.

List of Latin-script alphabets

The tables below summarize and compare the letter inventory of some of the Latin-script alphabets. In this article, the scope of the word "alphabet" is broadened to include letters with tone marks, and other diacritics used to represent a wide range of orthographic traditions, without regard to whether or how they are sequenced in their alphabet or the table.

List of cities and towns in Paraguay

This is a list of towns and cities in Paraguay.

Marshallese language

The Marshallese language (Marshallese: new orthography Kajin M̧ajeļ or old orthography Kajin Majōl [kɑ͡æzʲinʲ(e͡ɤ) mˠɑɑ̯zʲɛ͡ʌɫ]), also known as Ebon, is a Micronesian language spoken in the Marshall Islands. The language is spoken by about 44,000 people in the Marshall Islands, making it the principal language of the country. There are also roughly 6,000 speakers outside of the Marshall Islands, including those in Nauru and the U.S.

There are two major dialects: Rālik (western) and Ratak (eastern).

Nje

Nje (Њ њ; italics: Њ њ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

It is a ligature of the Cyrillic letters En ⟨н⟩ and Soft Sign ⟨ь⟩. It was invented by Vuk Stefanović Karadžić for use in Serbian Cyrillic in his 1818 dictionary, replacing the earlier digraph ⟨нь⟩. It corresponds to the digraph ⟨nj⟩ in Gaj's Latin alphabet for Serbo-Croatian.It is today used in Macedonian, variants of Serbo-Croatian when written in Cyrillic (Bosnian, Montenegrin, and Serbian), Itelmen and Udege, where it represents a palatal nasal /ɲ/, similar to the ⟨ny⟩ in "canyon" (cf. Polish ⟨ń⟩, Czech and Slovak ⟨ň⟩, Galician and Spanish ⟨ñ⟩, Occitan, Portuguese and Vietnamese ⟨nh⟩, Catalan and Hungarian ⟨ny⟩, and Italian and French ⟨gn⟩).

Ny (digraph)

Ny is a digraph in a number of languages such as Catalan, Ganda, Filipino/Tagalog, Hungarian, Swahili and Malay. In most of these languages, including all of the ones named above, it denotes the palatal nasal (/ɲ/).

It has had widespread use for languages of West Africa, though in some countries, the IPA letter ɲ is now used.

It is sometimes used in modern Spanish where ñ cannot be used, such as in earlier computer programming or Internet domain names.

Philippine Braille

Philippine Braille, or Filipino Braille, is the braille alphabet of the Philippines. Besides Filipino (Tagalog), essentially the same alphabet is used for Ilocano, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, and Bicol (UNESCO 2013).Philippine Braille is based on the 26 letters of the basic braille alphabet used for Grade-1 English Braille, so the print digraph ng is written as a digraph ⠝⠛ in braille as well. The print letter ñ is rendered with the generic accent point, ⠈⠝. These are considered part of the alphabet, which is therefore,

Numbers and punctuation are as in traditional English Braille, though the virgule / is ⠸⠌ as in Unified English Braille.

Spanish Braille

Spanish Braille is the braille alphabet of Spanish and Galician. It is very close to French Braille, with the addition of a letter for ñ, slight modification of the accented letters, and some differences in punctuation. Further conventions have been unified by the Latin American Blind Union, but differences with Spain remain.

Spanish language in the Philippines

Spanish was the official language of the Philippines from the beginning of Spanish rule in the late 16th century, through the conclusion of the Spanish–American War in 1898. It remained, along with English, as co-official language until 1987. It was at first removed in 1973 by a constitutional change, but after a few months it was re-designated an official language by presidential decree and remained official until 1987, with the present Constitution re-designating it instead as an "optional and voluntary language".Philippine Spanish (Spanish: Español filipino, Castellano filipino) is a variant of standard Spanish, spoken in the Philippines by a minority today, though it was quite widespread up to the early 20th century. The variant is very similar to Mexican Spanish, because the Philippines was ruled from New Spain in present-day Mexico, for over three centuries. During that period, there was much Spanish and Mexican emigration to the Spanish East Indies.

It was the language of the Philippine Revolution and the country's first official language, as proclaimed in the Malolos Constitution of the First Philippine Republic in 1899. It was the language of commerce, law, politics and the arts during the colonial period and well into the 20th century. It was the main language of many classical writers and Ilustrados such as Jose Rizal, Andres Bonifacio, Antonio Luna and Marcelo del Pilar. It is regulated by the Academia Filipina de la Lengua Española, the main Spanish-language regulating body in the Philippines, and a member of the Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española, the entity which regulates the Spanish language worldwide.

TI calculator character sets

As part of the design process, Texas Instruments (TI) decided to modify the base Latin-1 character set for use with its calculator interface. By adding symbols to the character set, it was possible to reduce design complexity as much more complex parsing would have to have been used otherwise.

Tilde

The tilde ( or ; ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses. The name of the character came into English from Spanish and from Portuguese, which in turn came from the Latin titulus, meaning "title" or "superscription".The reason for the name was that it was originally written over a letter as a scribal abbreviation, as a "mark of suspension", shown as a straight line when used with capitals. Thus the commonly used words Anno Domini were frequently abbreviated to Ao Dñi, an elevated terminal with a suspension mark placed over the "n". Such a mark could denote the omission of one letter or several letters. This saved on the expense of the scribe's labour and the cost of vellum and ink. Medieval European charters written in Latin are largely made up of such abbreviated words with suspension marks and other abbreviations; only uncommon words were given in full. The tilde has since been applied to a number of other uses as a diacritic mark or a character in its own right. These are encoded in Unicode at U+0303 ◌̃ COMBINING TILDE and U+007E ~ TILDE (as a spacing character), and there are additional similar characters for different roles. In lexicography, the latter kind of tilde and the swung dash (⁓) are used in dictionaries to indicate the omission of the entry word.

Vehicle registration plates of Honduras

License plates of Honduras are issued by the Honduran Secretaría de Obras Públicas, Transporte y Vivienda (SOPTRAVI, the Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Living) and identify motor vehicles in the country.

Honduran license plates are white and feature an outline of the map of Honduras in a variety of colors according to the class of vehicle registered. All license plates bear the slogan "Cuidemos los Bosques" along the top, ("Take Care of the Forests" in English) and "Honduras, C.A." along the bottom. They are the same size as North American license plates, 6 by 12 inches.The initial letter or (two letters) identify the class of vehicle (see table), followed by a four- or five-digit serial number. Personal, commercial and trailer tags also have a one- or two-letter serial letters. The letter Ñ is included in the alphabet used for the serial letters.

Light truck license plates in the PP format do not have the map of Honduras in the background.

Alphabets (list)
Letters (list)
Multigraphs
Keyboard layouts (list)
Standards
Lists

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