Étienne Méhul

Étienne Nicolas Méhul (French: [meyl]; 22 June 1763 – 18 October 1817) was a French composer, "the most important opera composer in France during the Revolution".[1] He was also the first composer to be called a "Romantic".[2]

Étienne Méhul
Méhul by Winter
Étienne Méhul, by H.E. von Winter
Born22 June 1763
Givet, France
Died18 October 1817 (aged 54)


Méhul was born at Givet in Ardennes to Jean-François Méhul, a wine merchant, and his wife Marie-Cécile (née Keuly). His first music lessons came from a blind local organist, but he had innate aptitude and was sent to study with a German musician and organist, Wilhelm Hanser, at the monastery of Lavaldieu, a few miles from Givet. Here Méhul developed his lifelong love of flowers.[3]

In 1778 or 1779 he went to Paris and began to study with Jean-Frédéric Edelmann, a harpsichord player and friend of Méhul's idol Christoph Willibald von Gluck. Méhul's first published composition was a book of piano pieces in 1783. He also arranged airs from popular operas and by the late 1780s he had begun to think about an operatic career for himself.

In 1787, the writer Valadier offered Méhul one of his libretti, Cora, which had been rejected by Gluck in 1785.[4] The Académie royale de musique (the Paris Opéra) put Méhul's work, under the title Alonzo et Cora, into rehearsal in June 1789. However, the rehearsals were abandoned on 8 August, probably because the Opéra had been suffering severe financial difficulties throughout the 1780s, and the opera was not premiered until 1791.[5] In the meantime, Méhul found an ideal collaborator in the librettist François-Benoît Hoffman, who provided the words to the first of Méhul's operas to be performed, Euphrosine. Its premiere in 1790 was an immense success and marked the composer out as a new talent. It was also the start of his long relationship with the Comédie Italienne theatre (soon to be renamed the Opéra-Comique).

Étienne-Henri Méhul, attribué à Antoine Gros - paris(dot)fr
Méhul in 1799, portrait by Antoine Gros.

In spite of the failure of Cora in 1791 and the banning of Adrien for political reasons the year after that, Méhul consolidated his reputation with works such as Stratonice and Mélidore et Phrosine. During the French Revolution, Méhul composed many patriotic songs and propaganda pieces, the most famous of which is the Chant du départ. Méhul was rewarded by becoming the first composer named to the newly founded Institut de France in 1795. He also held a post as one of the five inspectors of the Conservatoire de Paris. Mehul was on friendly terms with Napoleon and became one of the first Frenchmen to receive the Légion d'honneur.

Méhul's operatic success was not as great in the first decade of the nineteenth century as it had been in the 1790s, although works such as Joseph (1807) became famous abroad, particularly in Germany. The failure of his opera Les amazones in 1811 was a severe blow and virtually ended his career as a composer for the theatre. Despite his friendship with Napoleon, Méhul's public standing survived the transition to the Bourbon Restoration intact. However, the composer was now seriously ill with tuberculosis and he died on 18 October 1817.[6] His grave is at Père Lachaise Cemetery, near the grave of the Belgian composer, François Joseph Gossec.

In 1797 Méhul adopted his seven-year-old nephew, composer Joseph Daussoigne-Méhul, and his younger brother. He played a major role in his nephew's musical education and career; counting him among his pupils at the Conservatoire de Paris. After his death, Daussoigne-Méhul completed his unfinished opera Valentine de Milan which premiered at the Opéra-Comique in 1822. He also wrote new recitatives for his opera Stratonice in 1821 for a revival of that work in Paris.[7]



Méhul's most important contribution to music was his operas. He led the generation of composers who emerged in France in the 1790s, which included his friend and rival Luigi Cherubini and his outright enemy Jean-François Le Sueur. Méhul followed the example of the operas which Gluck had written for Paris in the 1770s and applied Gluck's "reforms" to opéra comique (a genre which mixed music with spoken dialogue and was not necessarily at all "comic" in mood). But he pushed music in a more Romantic direction, showing an increased use of dissonance and an interest in psychological states such as anger and jealousy, thus foreshadowing later Romantic composers such as Weber and Berlioz. Indeed, Méhul was the very first composer to be styled a Romantic; a critic used the term in La chronique de Paris on 1 April 1793 when reviewing Méhul's Le jeune sage et le vieux fou.[8]

Méhul's main musical concern was that everything should serve to increase the dramatic impact. As his admirer Berlioz wrote:

[Méhul] was fully convinced that in truly dramatic music, when the importance of the situation deserves the sacrifice, the composer should not hesitate as between a pretty musical effect that is foreign to the scenic or dramatic character, and a series of accents that are true but do not yield any surface pleasure. He was convinced that musical expressiveness is a lovely flower, delicate and rare, of exquisite fragrance, which does not bloom without culture, and which a breath can wither; that it does not dwell in melody alone, but that everything concurs either to create or destroy it – melody, harmony, modulation, rhythm, instrumentation, the choice of deep or high registers for the voices or instruments, a quick or slow tempo, and the several degrees of volume in the sound emitted.[9]

One way in which Méhul increased dramatic expressivity was to experiment with orchestration. For example, in Uthal, an opera set in the Highlands of Scotland, he eliminated violins from the orchestra, replacing them with the darker sounds of violas in order to add local colour.[10] Méhul's La chasse du jeune Henri (Young Henri's Hunt) provides a more humorous example, with its expanded horn section portraying yelping hounds as well as giving hunting calls. (Sir Thomas Beecham frequently programmed this piece to showcase the Royal Philharmonic horn section.)

Méhul's key works of the 1790s were Euphrosine, Stratonice, Mélidore et Phrosine and Ariodant.[11] Ariodant, though a failure at its premiere in 1799, has come in for particular praise from critics. Elizabeth Bartlet calls it "Mehul's best work of the decade and a highpoint of Revolutionary opera".[12] It deals with the same tale of passion and jealousy as Handel's 1735 opera Ariodante. As in many of his other operas, Mehul makes use of a structural device called the "reminiscence motif", a musical theme associated with a particular character or idea in the opera. This device looks forward to the leitmotifs in Richard Wagner's music dramas. In Ariodant, the reminiscence motif is the cri de fureur ("cry of fury"), expressing the emotion of jealousy.[12]

Around 1800, the popularity of such stormy dramas began to wane, replaced by a fashion for the lighter opéra comiques of composers such as François-Adrien Boieldieu. In addition, Mehul's friend Napoleon told him he preferred a more comic style of opera. As a Corsican, Napoleon's cultural background was Italian, and he loved the opera buffa of composers like Paisiello and Cimarosa. Méhul responded with L'irato ("The Angry Man"), a one-act comedy premiered as the work of the Italian composer "Fiorelli" in 1801. When it became an immediate success, Méhul revealed the hoax he had played.[13] Méhul also continued to compose works in a more serious vein. Joseph, based on the Biblical story of Joseph and his brothers, is the most famous of these later operas, but its success in France was short-lived. In Germany, however, it won many admirers throughout the nineteenth century, including Wagner.[14] A melody from Joseph is very similar to a popular folk melody widely known in Germany which was used as a song in the Imperial German Navy, and adapted, notoriously, as the tune for the co-national anthem of Nazi Germany, the Horst-Wessel-Lied. It is unclear, however, whether Méhul's melody was the actual provenance of the melody.[15]

Symphonies and other works

Besides operas, Méhul composed a number of songs for the festivals of the republic (often commissioned by the emperor Napoleon), cantatas, and five symphonies in the years 1797 and 1808 to 1810.

Mehul's First Symphony (1808) is notable for its dissonant and violent mood, and has been compared to Beethoven's Symphony No.5, written in the same year. Taking inspiration from the more anguished works of Haydn and Mozart, such as Haydn's Sturm und Drang and later Paris Symphonies of 1785–86 and Mozart's Symphony No. 40 (K.550, 1788), it was revived in one of Felix Mendelssohn's concerts with the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra in 1838 and 1846 to an audience including Robert Schumann, who was impressed by the piece.[16] (At the time of writing, only Beethoven's Symphonies No.1 and 2 [1799/1800 and 1802] had been performed in France.) His other symphonies also followed German and Austrian models. Commenting after the premiere of his first symphony, he noted: "I understood all the dangers of my enterprise; I foresaw the cautious welcome that the music-lovers would give my symphonies. I plan to write new ones for next winter and shall try to write them… to accustom the public gradually to think that a Frenchman may follow Haydn and Mozart at a distance."

A fifth symphony was never completed—"as disillusionment and tuberculosis took their toll", in the words of David Charlton. The Symphonies nos.3 and 4 were only rediscovered by Charlton in 1979. Interviewed 8 November 2010 on the on BBC Radio 4's Today programme, Professor Charlton said that Méhul's 4th Symphony was the first ever to employ the cyclical principle.

List of works

For piano

  • 3 Sonates for Piano, op. 1 (1783)
  • 3 Sonates for Piano, op. 2 (1788)

Orchestral music

  • Ouverture burlesque (1794)
  • Ouverture pour instruments à vent (1794)
  • Symphony in C (1797, only parts are surviving)
  • Symphony No.1 in G minor (1808/09)
  • Symphony No.2 in D major (1808/09)
  • Symphony No.3 in C major (1809)
  • Symphony No.4 in E major (1810)
  • Symphony No.5 (1810, only a first movement survives)

Vocal music

  • Chant du départ (1794)
  • Chant des victoires (1794)
  • Messe Solennelle pour soli, chœurs et orgue (1804)
  • Chant du retour pour la Grande Armée (1808)
  • Chant lyrique pour l'inauguration de la statue de Napoléon (1811)


  • Le jugement de Pâris (1793)
  • La dansomanie (1800)
  • Persée et Andromède (1810) (together with music by Haydn, Paer and Steibelt)

Incidental music for plays


  • Joseph. Natalie Dessay, soprano; Brigitte Lafon, mezzo-soprano; Laurence Dale, Antoine Normand, Philippe Pistole, tenors; René Massis, baritone; Frédéric Vassar, Philippe Jorquera, basses; Abbi Patrix, speaker; Ensemble choral "Intermezzo"; Orchestre régional de Picardie "Le Sinfonietta"; Claude Bardon, conductor. Chant du monde, c. 1989.
  • Piano Sonatas opp. 1 (Nos. 1–3) & 2 (Nos. 4–6). Brigitte Haudebourg, piano. Arcobaleno, c. 1990.
  • Chant national du 14 juillet 1800; Hymne à la raison; Le chant du départ. Chœur et Orchestre du Capitole de Toulouse; Michel Plasson, conductor. EMI, 1990.
  • The Complete Symphonies (Symphonies Nos. 1–4; including the Ouvertures La Chasse du jeune Henri and Le Trésor supposé). Lisbon Gulbenkian Foundation Orchestra, Michel Swierczewski. Nimbus Records, 1992.
  • La Chasse du jeune Henri, Le Trésor supposé and Timoléon. Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, Sir Thomas Beecham. Sony, 2002.
  • Stratonice. Petibon, Beuron, Lescoart, Daymond, Corona Coloniensis, Cappella Coloniensis, William Christie, Erato 1996.
  • Symphonies Nos 1 and 2. Les Musiciens du Louvre, Marc Minkowski, Erato/Apex, 2003.
  • Overtures: Mélidore et Phrosine; Ariodant; Joseph; Horatius Coclès; Bion; Le jeune sage et le vieux fou; Le trésor supposé; Les deux aveugles de Tolède; La chasse du jeune Henri. Orchestre de Bretagne, Stefan Sanderling, ASV, 2003.
  • Joseph (as Joseph in Ägypten), two versions of the work in German both recorded in 1955: (a) Alexander Welitsch, Libero di Luca, Horst Guenter, Ursula Zollenkopf, NDR Chor and orchestra of the NWDR, Wilhelm Schüchter; (b) Alexander Welitsch, Josef Traxel, Bernhard Michaelis, Friederike Sailer, Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra, Südfunk-Chor, Alfons Rischner. Gala, 2004.
  • L'Irato. Turk, Auvity, Courtin, Buet, Chamber Choir Bonn, L'arte del mondo, Walter Ehrhardt. Capriccio, 2006.
  • Le chant du départ; Chant Funèbre à la Mémoire de Féraud; Hymne pour la Fête des Epoux; Ouverture. Edwige Perfetti, soprano; Tibère Raffali, Christian Papis, tenors; Gilles Cachemaille, baritone; Orchestre d'Harmonie des Gardiens de la Paix de Paris; Claude Pichaureau, conductor; Chœur de l'Armée Française ; Serge Zapolski, chorus-master; Chorale a Chœur Joie la Gondoire; Daniel Catenne, chorus-master; Chorale Populaire de Paris ; Jean-Claude Chambard, chorus-master. Musifrance, n.d.


  1. ^ Bartlet p.vii
  2. ^ Cairns p.220; Orga (2002).
  3. ^ Adélaïde de Place pp.8–11
  4. ^ Searle, Arthur (1991), "Manuscripts and printed music", Early Music, 19 (2): 269–274, doi:10.1093/earlyj/xix.2.269.
  5. ^ Adélaïde de Place pp.27–28
  6. ^ General biography from Bartlet (1997) pp.vii-ix
  7. ^ Denis Havard de la Montagne. "Joseph Daussoigne-Méhul". www.musimem.com.
  8. ^ Orga (2002)
  9. ^ Berlioz p.354
  10. ^ Charlton (1993) p.644
  11. ^ Charlton (1994) p.127
  12. ^ a b Bartlet p.x
  13. ^ Berlioz p.352
  14. ^ Charlton (1993)
  15. ^ Broderick, George (1995), "Das Horst-Wessel-Lied: A Reappraisal", International Folklore Review, 10: 100–127.
  16. ^ Cf. footnote 41 of the Preface by David Charlton in his critical edition of the score of the G minor symphony published by A-R Editions, Inc., Madison, 1985.


  • Adélaïde de Place Étienne Nicolas Méhul (Bleu Nuit Éditeur, 2005)
  • Berlioz Evenings with the Orchestra, translated by Jacques Barzun (University of Chicago Press, 1953)
  • Booklet notes by David Charlton to the recording "The Complete Symphonies" (Nimbus, 1989)
  • Booklet notes by Ates Orga to the recording of Méhul's "Overtures" (ASV, 2002).
  • David Cairns Berlioz: the Making of an Artist (André Deutsch, 1989).
  • David Charlton, section on Méhul in The Viking Opera Guide ed.Holden (1993)
  • David Charlton, chapter on "French Opera 1800–1850" in The Oxford Illustrated History of Opera ed. Roger Parker (OUP, 1994)
  • Introduction to the edition of Méhul's opera Stratonice by M.Elizabeth C. Bartlet (Pendragon Press, 1997)

External links

Adrien (opera)

Adrien (Hadrian) is an opera by the French composer Étienne Méhul. The libretto, by François-Benoît Hoffman, is closely based on Metastasio's Adriano in Siria. Written in 1791 and intended for performance at the Paris Opéra in 1792, the work was caught up in the turbulent political climate of the French Revolution and banned until 1799.


Ariodant is an opéra comique (drame mêlé de musique) in three acts by the French composer Étienne Méhul first performed at the Théâtre Favart in Paris on 11 October 1799. The libretto, by François-Benoît Hoffman is based on the same episode in Ariosto's Orlando Furioso that also inspired Handel's opera Ariodante. The work had a profound influence on the development of Romantic opera, particularly in Germany.

Bion (opera)

Bion is an opera by the French composer Étienne Méhul. It takes the form of a comédie en vers mêlée de musique (an opéra comique) in one act. It premiered at the Opéra-Comique, Paris on 27 December 1800. The libretto, by François-Benoît Hoffman, is based on Les voyages d'Anténor by Étienne-François de Lantier. The opera was revived on 15 November 1802.

Doria (opera)

Doria, ou La tyrannie détruite (Doria, or Tyranny Destroyed) is an opera in three acts by the French composer Étienne Méhul. It is in the form of an opéra comique (that is, with spoken dialogue between the musical numbers), although the authors style it an opéra héroïque. It premiered at the Opéra-Comique, Paris on 12 March 1795. The libretto is by Gabriel-Marie Legouvé and Charles-Joseph Lœuillard Davrigny. The work was not a success, in spite of revisions after the premiere.

Gabrielle d'Estrées (opera)

Gabrielle d’Estrées, ou Les amours d'Henri IV de France (Gabrielle d’Estrées, or The Loves of Henri IV of France) is an opera in three acts by the French composer Étienne Méhul. It premiered at the Opéra-Comique, Paris on 25 June 1806. The libretto is by Claude Godard d'Aucourt de Saint-Just.The plot concerns the love affair of King Henri IV with Gabrielle d'Estrées. The opera was removed from the repertoire after its sixth performance on 5 July. According to Arthur Pougin, this was due to the weakness of the work, especially its libretto. However, the musicologist Elizabeth Bartlet believes it was suspended for political reasons. In 1805, Napoleon - then ruler of France - had written to his chief of police Joseph Fouché that he did not want to see Henri IV on stage because the king was too close in time "not to arouse passions. The stage needs a little bit of antiquity and, without causing the theatre too much trouble, I think you ought to prevent this [i.e. showing Henri IV on stage], without appearing to intervene." Méhul's nephew Joseph Daussoigne-Méhul planned a revival in 1818 but it never took place.

Joanna (opera)

Joanna is an opéra comique in two acts by the French composer Étienne Méhul. It premiered at the Opéra-Comique, Paris on 23 November 1802. The libretto, by Benoît-Joseph Marsollier, is a revision of the same author's Emma, ou Le soupçon, set by Étienne Fay in 1799. The piece was not a success and only enjoyed eight performances.

Joseph (opera)

Joseph (also known as Joseph en Égypte) is an opéra comique in three acts by the French composer Étienne Méhul. The libretto, by Alexandre Duval, is based on the Biblical story of Joseph and his brothers. The work was first performed by the Opéra-Comique in Paris on 17 February 1807 at the Théâtre Feydeau. It mixes musical numbers with spoken dialogue and is described in both the libretto and the printed announcement for the opening night as a "drame en trois actes, mêlé de chant", although the Méhul scholar Elizabeth Bartlet catalogues it as an "opéra en prose".

L'heureux malgré lui

L'heureux malgré lui (The Man Happy in Spite of Himself) is an opera by the French composer Étienne Méhul. It takes the form of an opéra bouffon in one act. It premiered at the Opéra-Comique, Paris on 29 December 1803. The libretto is by Claude Godard d'Aucourt de Saint-Just. It was a complete failure, only enjoying two performances.

La journée aux aventures

La journée aux aventures (The Day of Adventures) is an opera by the French composer Étienne Méhul. It takes the form of an opéra comique in three acts. It was first performed at the Opéra-Comique, Paris on 16 November 1816. The libretto is by Pierre-David-Augustin Chapelle and Louis Mezières-Miot. This was the last of the composer's works to be premiered in his lifetime and was a great success; it enjoyed 66 performances before the end of 1817 and helped remedy the financial problems of the Opéra-Comique. It was revived to acclaim in a German translation in Berlin in December 1839.

Le baiser et la quittance

Le baiser et la quittance, ou Une aventure de garnison (The Kiss and the Receipt, or A Garrison Adventure) is an opera by the composers Étienne Méhul, François-Adrien Boieldieu, Rodolphe Kreutzer and Nicolas Isouard. It takes the form of an opéra bouffon in three acts. It premiered at the Opéra-Comique, Paris on 18 June 1803. The libretto is by Picard, Longchamps and Dieulafoy. The work was a failure and only ran for four performances.

Le jeune Henri

Le jeune Henri (Young Henri) is an opera by the French composer Étienne Méhul. It takes the form of a comédie mêlée de musique (a type of opéra comique) in two acts. The libretto, by Jean-Nicolas Bouilly, is based on an episode from the life of King Henri IV of France. It was first performed on 1 May 1797 at the Théâtre Favart, Paris. The opera was a failure but the overture was warmly applauded and has often been performed separately since. Known as La chasse du jeune Henri ("Young Henri's hunt"), it is a piece of programme music describing the course of a hunt from dawn to the killing of the stag.

Bouilly was later to become famous as the author of Léonore, ou l'amour conjugal (1798), the basis of Beethoven's only opera, Fidelio. He had written the libretto for Le jeune Henri (under the title La jeunesse de Henri IV) in 1791 for Grétry, who had turned it down. Méhul had composed the score but the first staging had been delayed for years for political reasons. The premiere was a "major disaster" thanks to the poor quality of Bouilly's libretto. The audience applauded Méhul but hissed Bouilly. A reviewer in Le courrier des spectacles wrote that "it would be impossible to imagine anything worse" and that there was "no intrigue, no action, nothing of interest."The overture was encored at the premiere and became a favourite orchestral piece throughout the 19th century. It contains traditional hunting horn calls taken from Philidor's opera Tom Jones. It influenced the "Royal Hunt and Storm" in Berlioz's Les Troyens.

Le jeune sage et le vieux fou

Le jeune sage et le vieux fou (The Wise Young Man and the Old Fool) is an opera by the French composer Étienne Méhul with a libretto by François-Benoît Hoffman. It takes the form of a comédie mêlée de musique (a type of opéra comique) in one act. It was first performed at the Théâtre Favart on 28 March 1793. A revised version appeared in 1801.The opera was well received. A review in the Chronique de Paris of 1 April described the music as "by turns original, witty and romantic." According to David Cairns, this marks the first reference to Romanticism in music. The overture musically depicts the two main characters: unaccompanied flutes represent the wise young man and cellos, trombones and basses the old fool. Variations on these themes recur throughout the score.

Le prince troubadour

Le prince troubadour, ou Le grand trompeur des dames (The Troubadour Prince, or The Great Deceiver of Ladies) is an opera by the French composer Étienne Méhul. It takes the form of an opéra comique in one act. It premiered at the Opéra-Comique, Paris on 24 May 1813. The libretto is by Alexandre Duval. The work was not a great success and only enjoyed 13 performances in 1813. According to Arthur Pougin, its failure contributed to Méhul's growing depression and his sense that he was the victim of a conspiracy by his enemies.

Les amazones

Les amazones, ou La fondation de Thèbes (The Amazons, or The Founding of Thebes) is an opera in three acts by the French composer Étienne Méhul with a libretto by Victor-Joseph Étienne de Jouy. It was first performed at the Paris Opéra on 17 December 1811 with the Emperor Napoleon and his new wife, Marie-Louise in the audience. The plot, which concerns the reconciliation of two warring peoples, was intended to symbolise the peace between France and Austria.

List of operas by Étienne Méhul

This is a list of operas written by the French composer Étienne Méhul (1763–1817). Aside from La taupe et les papillons, which was never performed, all premieres took place in Paris.

Stratonice (opera)

Stratonice is a one-act opéra comique by Étienne Méhul to a libretto by François-Benoît Hoffman, first performed at the Théâtre Favart, Paris, on 3 May 1792. The plot is taken from De Dea Syria ("On the Syrian Goddess", attributed to Lucian) concerning an incident from the history of the Seleucid dynasty which ruled much of the Middle East during the Hellenistic era of the ancient world.

Une folie

Une folie is an opera by the French composer Étienne Méhul. It takes the form of a comédie en vers mêlée de musique (an opéra-comique) in two acts. It premiered at the Opéra-Comique, Paris on 5 April 1802. The libretto is by Jean-Nicolas Bouilly. The work was a popular success and enjoyed several revivals, despite some hostile reviews. It was around this time, claimed Bouilly, that Méhul fought a duel with and wounded a journalist who had harshly criticised him.

Uthal (opera)

Uthal is an opéra comique in one act by the French composer Étienne Méhul. The libretto, by Jacques-Benjamin-Maximilien Bins de Saint-Victor is based on the Ossian poems of James Macpherson. It was first performed at the Opéra-Comique, Paris on 17 May 1806. Méhul tried to give the work a dark, "Scottish" atmosphere by eliminating the violins from the orchestra and replacing them with violas.

Épicure (opera)

Épicure (Epicurus) is an opera in three acts with music by the composers Étienne Méhul and Luigi Cherubini. The libretto is by Charles-Albert Demoustier. It was first performed at the Opéra-Comique, Paris on 14 March 1800. It was a complete failure, enjoying only three performances. For the third and final performance on 20 March the opera was reduced from three acts to two. Cherubini wrote the overture, the first act and half of the third; Méhul the second act and the rest of the third.

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