Émile Loubet

Émile François Loubet (French: [emil lubɛ]; 30 December 1838 – 20 December 1929) was the 45th Prime Minister of France and later President of France.

Trained in law, he became mayor of Montélimar, where he was noted as a forceful orator. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1876 and the Senate in 1885. He was appointed as a Republican minister under Carnot and Ribot. He was briefly Prime Minister of France in 1892. As President (1899–1906), he saw the successful Paris Exhibition of 1900, and the forging of the Entente Cordiale with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, resolving their sharp differences over the Boer War and the Dreyfus Affair.

Émile Loubet
Émile Loubet by Paul Nadar c1900
Émile Loubet by Paul Nadar, c. 1900.
President of the French Republic
In office
18 February 1899 – 18 February 1906
Prime MinisterCharles Dupuy
Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau
Émile Combes
Maurice Rouvier
Preceded byFélix Faure
Succeeded byArmand Fallières
Prime Minister of France
In office
27 February 1892 – 6 December 1892
PresidentMarie François Sadi Carnot
Preceded byCharles de Freycinet
Succeeded byAlexandre Ribot
Personal details
Born30 December 1838
Marsanne, France
Died20 December 1929 (aged 90)
Montélimar, France
NationalityFrench
Political partyDemocratic Republican Alliance
Spouse(s)
Marie-Louise Picard (m. 1869–1925)
; her death
Alma materUniversity of Paris

Early life

Loubet was born on 30 December 1838, the son of a peasant proprietor and mayor of Marsanne (Drôme). Admitted to the Parisian bar in 1862, he took his doctorate in law the next year. He was still a student when he witnessed the sweeping triumph of the Republican party in Paris at the general election in 1863, during the Second French Empire. He settled down to the exercise of his profession in Montélimar, where in 1869 he married Marie-Louise Picard. He also inherited a small estate at Grignan.

Physical description

American politician William Jennings Bryan described Loubet as "below the medium height, even for Frenchmen. His shoulders are broad and his frame indicative of great physical strength. His hair is snow white, as are also his beard and mustache. He wears his beard square cut at the chin. . . . His voice is soft, and he speaks with great vivacity, emphasizing his words by expressive gestures."[1]

Political career

At the crisis of 1870, which brought about the Empire's end, he became mayor of Montélimar, and thenceforward was a steady supporter of Léon Gambetta. Elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1876 by Montélimar, he was one of the notable 363 parliamentarians who in the 16 May 1877 crisis passed a vote of no confidence in the ministry of Albert, the duke of Broglie.

In the general election of October he was re-elected, local enthusiasm for him being increased by the fact that the government had driven him from the mayoralty. In the Chamber he occupied himself especially with education, fighting the clerical system established by the Loi Falloux, and working for the establishment of free, obligatory and secular primary instruction. In 1880 he became president of the departmental council in Drôme. His support of the second Jules Ferry ministry and his zeal for the colonial expansion of France gave him considerable weight in the moderate Republican party.

He had entered the Senate in 1885, and he became minister of public works in the Tirard ministry (December 1887 to March 1888). In 1892 President Sadi Carnot, who was his personal friend, asked him to form a cabinet. Loubet held the portfolio of the interior with the premiership, and had to deal with the anarchist crimes of that year and with the great strike of Carmaux, in which he acted as arbitrator, giving a decision regarded in many quarters as too favourable to the strikers. He was defeated in November on the question of the Panama scandals, but he retained the ministry of the interior in the next cabinet under Alexandre Ribot, though he resigned on its reconstruction in January.

President of the French Republic (1899–1906)

Loubet
Painting of Loubet

His reputation as an orator of great force and lucidity of exposition and as a safe and honest statesman procured for him in 1896 the presidency of the Senate, and in February 1899 he was chosen president of the republic in succession to Félix Faure by 483 votes as against 279 recorded by Jules Méline, his only serious competitor.

Émile Loubet Vanity Fair 1899-05-18
Loubet caricatured by Guth for Vanity Fair, 1899

He was marked out for fierce opposition and bitter insult, as the representative of that section of the Republican party which sought the revision of the Dreyfus affair. On the day of President Faure's funeral Paul Déroulède met the troops under General Roget on their return to barracks, and demanded that the general should march on the Elysée. Roget sensibly took his troops back to barracks. At the Auteuil steeplechase in June, the president was struck on the head with a cane by an anti-Dreyfusard. In that month President Loubet summoned Waldeck-Rousseau to form a cabinet, and at the same time entreated Republicans of all shades of opinion to rally to the defence of the state. By the efforts of Loubet and Waldeck-Rousseau the Dreyfus affair was settled, when Loubet, acting on the advice of General Galliffet, minister of war, remitted the ten years' imprisonment to which Dreyfus was condemned at Rennes.

Loubet's presidency saw an acute stage of the clerical question, which was attacked by Waldeck-Rousseau and in still more drastic fashion by the Combes ministry. The French ambassador was recalled from the Vatican in April 1905, and in July the separation of church and state was voted in the Chamber of Deputies. Feeling had run high between France and Britain over the mutual criticisms passed on the conduct of the South African War and the Dreyfus affair respectively. These differences were composed, by the Anglo-French entente, and in 1904 a convention between the two countries secured the recognition of French claims in Morocco in exchange for non-interference with the British occupation of Egypt. President Loubet belonged to the peasant-proprietor class, and had none of the aristocratic proclivities of President Faure. He inaugurated the Paris Exhibition of 1900, received the Tsar Nicholas II of Russia in September 1901 and paid a visit to Russia in 1902.

On 4 July 1902 President Loubet was elected an honorary member of the Rhode Island Society of the Cincinnati.

Loubet also exchanged visits with King Edward VII, with the king of Portugal, the king of Italy and the king of Spain. During the king of Spain's visit in 1905, an attempt was made on his life, a bomb being thrown under his carriage as he and with his guest left the Opéra Garnier.[2] When his presidency came to an end in January 1906, he became the first President of the Third Republic to have served a full term and without resigning a second one. He retired into private life and died on December 20, 1929 at the age of 90.

Honours

Loubet’s Ministry, 27 February – 6 December 1892

Changes

  • 8 March 1892 – Godefroy Cavaignac succeeds Roche as Minister for the Colonies. Roche remains Minister of Commerce and Industry.

References

  1. ^ Bryan, The Old World and Its Ways (1907: St. Louis, Thompson Publishing), page 510
  2. ^ Bomb for Loubet and King Alfonso; New York Times; 1 June 1905; p. 1; Note: Regarding an error in reporting: The New York Times article does in fact give their later destination as the "Palais d'Orsay", however, that building had burned down in 1871.
  3. ^ Nieuws Van Den Dag (Het) 07-10-1900
  4. ^ "Court Circular". The Times (36811). London. 4 July 1902. p. 3.
  5. ^ "Latest intelligence - France". The Times (36801). London. 23 June 1902. p. 5.

Notes

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Charles de Freycinet
Prime Minister of France
1892
Succeeded by
Alexandre Ribot
Preceded by
Félix Faure
President of France
1899–1906
Succeeded by
Armand Fallières
1838 in France

Events from the year 1838 in France.

1892 in France

Events from the year 1892 in France.

1900 in France

Events from the year 1900 in France.

1902 French legislative election

The 1902 general election was held on 27 April and 11 May 1902.

These elections were a victory for the Bloc des gauches alliance between Socialists, Radicals, and the left wing of the Republicans, over the anti-Dreyfusard right wing of the Republicans, the progressistes. The Bloc des gauches had been brought together to support the "Republican Defense Cabinet" (gouvernement de défense républicaine) formed by Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau following the assault on the newly elected president, Émile Loubet, on the Longchamp Racecourse on 4 June 1899, during the Dreyfus affair.

However, Waldeck-Rousseau's own supporters (the ARD) took few seats in the election compared to the Radicals and Socialists. After the election, President Loubet invited the Radical Émile Combes to form a government, which lasted until January 1905, when the Socialists withdrew from the Bloc des gauches.

1902 in France

Events from the year 1902 in France.

1903 in France

Events from the year 1903 in France.

1904 in France

Events from the year 1904 in France.

1905 in France

Events from the year 1905 in France.

1906 in France

Events from the year 1906 in France.

1929 in France

Events from the year 1929 in France.

Angling at the 1900 Summer Olympics

Angling was contested at 1900 Olympics in Paris. At a series of competitions in August, some 600 fisherman, of whom 40 were from 5 countries other than France, participated in 6 separate events. In later years the IOC deemed the events of the 1900 Olympics to be either official or unofficial. There was no such designation at the time of the Games.Six "heats" of 100 anglers took place : sunday morning for "foreigners", sunday afternoon and two on monday for non-Parisians, and two on tuesday for the "local" fishermen. The first ten anglers of each heat, having taken the most fish, are qualified for the "concours d'honneur" (final) on wednesday.Résults (1.800 francs of prices: 200 for the biggest fish and 100 to be distributed among the first ten anglers with the more fish) :

Heat 1, Sunday morning, "foreigners" : 17 fish (only nine anglers rated)

Heat 2, Sunday afternoon, non-Parisians : 104 fish

Heat 3, Monday morning, non-Parisians : 78 fish

Heat 4, Monday afternoon, non-Parisians : 66 fish

Heat 5, Tuesday morning, Parisians : 264 fish

Heat 6, Tuesday afternoon, Parisians : 641 fishDuring one of the non-Parisians heats, Madame B., member of the Fishermen Society of Amiens fihished among the first ten and so was qualified for the "final" on wednesday.During the "concours d'honneur" (final) on wednesday 57 anglers competed. They caught 881 fish and won a total of 3.800 francs. The jury used the name of their fishing society for the final ranking · :

Biggest fish : Élie Lesueur (Amiens) "world champion": the Président de la République Émile Loubet gave him a cup · ;

then · :

M. Goethiers (Louveciennes) ;

Hyacinthe Lalanne (Amiens), 47 fish ;

Paris ;

Paris ;

Paris.

Charles Dupuy

Charles Alexandre Dupuy (French: [ʃaʁl dypɥi]; 5 November 1851 – 23 July 1923) was a French statesman, three times prime minister.

Claude Humbert Piarron de Chamousset

Claude Humbert Piarron de Chamousset (1717 – April 1773) was a French master at the Court of Auditors, physician and philanthropist.

Born in Paris, he was the originator of mutual benefit societies. According to A. Piron (1838), in 1758 he established a new postal system at Paris charging two sols for a single letter under one ounce, replacing the earlier postal system established in 1653 by Jean-Jacques Renouard de Villayer.

He is buried at Saint-Nicolas-du-Chardonnet (5th arrondissement of Paris) 28 April 1773A monument in his honor was realized by Francis de Saint-Vidal (1840–1900), built at the intersection between rue Bonaparte and rue de l'Abbaye in Saint-Germain-des-Prés and inaugurated 3 September 1900 by President Émile Loubet.

French cruiser Guichen

Guichen was a protected cruiser of the French Navy launched in 1897, commissioned in 1899 and retired in 1921. She was constructed by Ateliers et Chantiers de la Loire at Saint-Nazaire.

Guichen first steamed from Saint-Nazaire to undergo sea trials out of Toulon. In September 1903 she carried President Émile Loubet to Britain for an official visit. In 1913 she was converted into a training ship for boatswains at Brest. She was in the Channel at the start of the First World War, but in 1915 she was transferred to the 3rd blockading squadron off Syria. In September, under Captain Joseph Brisson, she helped evacuate Armenian resistors from Musa Dagh after one of her crew spotted an Armenian flag flying over the fortress. She conveyed her refugees to Port Said. It was, according to Lord Bryce, "the only story ... with a happy ending" in his report on the treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire.In November 1916 Guichen and Lutétia transported a Russian expeditionary force to the Salonika Front. In 1917 Guichen transported some of the Armée d'Orient from Taranto to Bizerte. In 1919 she was sent to the Black Sea as part of the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, but she suffered a mutiny, led by Charles Tillon, future leader of the Communist Party. She was retired in 1921, and condemned and sold at Brest in 1922.

Jules-Clément Chaplain

Jules-Clément Chaplain (12 July 1839 – 13 July 1909) was a French sculptor and one of its finest medallists. With Louis Oscar Roty (1846–1911) he helped found the Art Nouveau movement.

Chaplain was born in Mortagne-au-Perche, Orne, and in 1857 entered the École des Beaux-Arts where he studied sculpture under François Jouffroy and medals under Eugène Oudiné. In 1863 he won the Prix de Rome for medal-engraving and worked in Rome 1864-1868. He exhibited regularly at the Salon from 1863, receiving numerous awards, and in 1869 returned to Paris where he found official success almost immediately. In 1877 he was named official medallist of the French government, in 1878 a chevalier of the Légion d'honneur, and in 1881 appointed to the Académie des Beaux-Arts. In 1896 he became Art Director of the Manufacture nationale de Sèvres in 1900 a Commander of the Légion d'honneur.

Chaplain was responsible for the official portraits of every president of the French Republic from Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta, in 1877 to Émile Loubet in 1899. He also received the commission for engraving the gold coinage of France, and his official gold medal commemorating the 1896 visit of Czar Nicholas II of Russia was called "a masterpiece and one of the finest ever struck."

List of French Presidents by longevity

This is a list of Presidents of France by age. This table can be sorted to display the Presidents by name, order of office, date of birth, age at inauguration, length of retirement, or lifespan.

Two measures of longevity are given; this is to allow for the differing number of leap days occurring within the life of each President. The first figure is the number of days between date of birth and date of death, allowing for leap days; in parentheses the same period given in years and days, with the years being the number of whole years the President lived, and the days being the remaining number of days after his last birthday. Where the president in question is still living, the longevity is calculated up to 20 March 2019.

List of state leaders in 1900

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1900.

Loubet Coast

Loubet Coast is the portion of the west coast of Graham Land in Antarctic Peninsula, extending 158 km between Cape Bellue to the northeast and Bourgeois Fjord to the southwest. South of Loubet Coast is Fallieres Coast, north is Graham Coast.

The coast is named after Émile Loubet, President of France during the exploration of the area by the French Antarctic Expedition under Jean-Baptiste Charcot in January 1905.

Marie-Louise Loubet

Marie-Louise Loubet (1843-1925) was a first lady of France in 1899-1906. She was married to President Émile Loubet.

She was reportedly not interested in participating in representation but did so anyway, hosting garden party's and accompanying her spouse to the theatre and opera. Her daughter performed many of her tasks. She was however reportedly somewhat interested in diplomacy and once referred to as the presidential adviser in foreign policy.

She received the Grand Cordon of the Order of Charity of the Ottoman Empire in early 1900.

When Marie Curie was invited to the Elysée palace this happened:

In the course of the evening, a lady came up to Marie and said, "Would you like me to present you to the king of Greece." Marie innocently and politely replied, "I don't really think so. I don't see the utility of it." The lady was shocked and Marie suddenly realized that it was Madame Loubet. She blushed, and said quickly, "But-but, naturally, I shall do whatever you please. Just as you please, Madame, just as you please."

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