Émigré

An émigré is a person who has emigrated, often with a connotation of political or social self-exile. The word is the past participle of the French émigrer, "to emigrate".

French Huguenots

French Huguenots were forced to leave France following the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685.

The American Revolution

Many Loyalists that made up large portions of Colonial America, particularly in the South, fled America during and after the American revolution. Common destinations were other parts of the British Empire such as Upper Canada, Nova Scotia, Great Britain, Jamaica, and the British West Indies. The lands left by the fleeing Tories were often awarded by the new government to Patriot soldiers by way of land grants.[1][2]

The French Revolution

Although the French Revolution began in 1789 as a peaceful, bourgeois-led drive for increased political equality for the Third Estate, it soon turned into a violent popular rebellion. To escape political tensions and sometimes in fear for their lives, some emigrated from France, settling in neighboring countries, chiefly Great Britain, Spain, Germany, Austria, and Prussia. A few also went to the United States.

The Russian Revolution

White Russian émigrés and other opponents of the regime fled the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 and its aftermath.[3]

Marx and Engels, drafting their strategy for future revolutions in The Communist Manifesto, suggested confiscating the property of émigrés to finance the revolution — a recommendation the Bolsheviks followed 70 years later.

After the October Revolution, more than 20,000 Russians went to Finland and Yugoslavia, notably Pyotr Wrangel. Many however moved on to France. Paris was the favourite destination for Russian émigrés. Many others traveled east to China, especially to Shanghai.

Twentieth century émigrés

Aristocrats of some European countries were forced to leave their native lands by political upheavals from the beginning of the 20th century to the end of World War II.

United States

In 2016, 5,411 US citizens living in other countries relinquished their US citizenship.[4] This is often attributed to extraterritorial laws on US citizens, such as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act of 2010.[5]. (In comparison, there were only 235 expatriations in 2008).

South Africa

After the historical electoral victory in South Africa by the ANC (African National Congress) in 1994, a large number of Afrikaners emigrated from South Africa to other countries, citing discrimination in employment and social violence as reasons.[6]

According to the 2011 Australian census there are 145,683 South African émigrés, born in South Africa, in Australia, of whom 30,291 reside in the city of Perth or greater Perth area.[7]

Exiles

Unlike émigré, the term exile remains politically neutral and includes people from whatever side of the political spectrum who had to leave their homeland, often for political reasons.

References

  1. ^ U.S. Department of State. Loyalists During the American Revolution.
  2. ^ Troxler, Carole Watterson (2006). Loyalists - Part 4: Loyalist Fate at War's End.
  3. ^ Kåre Johan Mjør (6 May 2011). Reformulating Russia: The Cultural and Intellectual Historiography of Russian First-Wave Émigré Writers. BRILL. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-90-04-19286-7.
  4. ^ Wooley, Suzanne (2017-11-06). "Americans renouncing US citizenship at record rate, Treasury Department figures reveal". The Independent. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
  5. ^ Russell Newlove (February 9, 2016). "Why expat Americans are giving up their passports". BBC News. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
  6. ^ Peet van Aardt (24 September 2006). "Million whites leave SA - study". 24.com. Archived from the original on April 16, 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
  7. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics. http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2011/quickstat/5GPER?opendocument&navpos=220
Army of Condé

The Army of Condé (French: Armée de Condé) was a French field army during the French Revolutionary Wars. One of several émigré field armies, it was the only one to survive the War of the First Coalition; others had been formed by the Comte d'Artois (brother of King Louis XVI) and Mirabeau-Tonneau. The émigré armies were formed by aristocrats and nobles who had fled from the violence in France after the August Decrees. The army was commanded by Louis Joseph de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, the cousin of Louis XVI of France. Among its members were Condé's grandson, the Duc d'Enghien and the two sons of Louis XVI's younger brother, the Comte d'Artois, and so the army was sometimes also called the Princes' Army.

Financial difficulties forced Condé to appeal to foreign courts for support. Although the Army fought in conjunction with the Austrian army, many of the generals in Habsburg service distrusted Louis Joseph and policy makers in Vienna considered the army and its officers unreliable. Furthermore, conflicting goals of the French royalists and the Habsburgs frequently placed Louis Joseph at odds with the Habsburg military leadership.

Armée des Émigrés

The Armée des Émigrés (English: Army of the Émigrés) were counter-revolutionary armies raised outside France by and out of Royalist Émigrés, with the aim of overthrowing the French Revolution, reconquering France and restoring the monarchy. These were aided by royalist armies within France itself, such as the Chouans, and by allied countries such as Great Britain. They fought, for example, at the sieges of Lyon and Toulon.

They were formed from:

noblemen volunteers, either descendants of the ancient royal family or not, who had fled France

troops raised by these nobles through subsidies from other European monarchies, or through their own means

units of the French army which had also emigrated, such as the 4th Hussar RegimentEven Napoleon I said of them "True, they are paid by our enemies, but they were or should have been bound to the cause of their King. France gave death to their action, and tears to their courage. All devotion is heroic".

Democrats Abroad

Democrats Abroad is the official organization of the Democratic Party for United States citizens living permanently or temporarily abroad. The organization is given state-level recognition by the Democratic National Committee.

Democrats Abroad currently has members in more than 190 countries, with more than 41 organized country committees. There are committees in Europe, Asia, Africa, the Americas, and Oceania. These committees are formally represented by the Democratic Party Committee Abroad (DPCA). Some countries with particularly large concentrations of Democratic expatriates even have local chapters. Young Democrats Abroad represents Democrats Abroad in the functions of the Young Democrats of America.

Dievturība

Dievturība is a Neopagan religious movement which claims to be a modern revival of the folk religion of the Latvians before Christianization in the 13th century. Adherents call themselves Dievturi (singular: Dievturis), literally "Dievs' keepers", "people who live in harmony with Dievs".

The Dievturi movement was founded in 1925 by Ernests Brastiņš. It was forcibly suppressed by Soviet communists in 1940, but lived on in émigré communities and was re-registered in Latvia in 1990. In 2007, approximately 650 persons were officially active members of Dievturi movement.

Emigre (magazine)

Emigre (ISSN 1045-3717) was a graphic design magazine published by Emigre Graphics between 1984 and 2005; it was first published in 1984 in San Francisco, California, United States. Art-directed by Rudy VanderLans using fonts designed by his wife, Zuzana Licko, Emigre was one of the first publications to use Macintosh computers and had a large influence on graphic designers moving into desktop publishing (DTP). Its variety of layouts, use of guest designers, and opinionated articles also had an effect on other design publications.

The focus of Emigre was both redundant and wandering — both positive qualities as a journal produced by a tight and evolving group of designers and writers with Vanderlans at the center. Vanderlans was typically editor, though guest-editors also appeared (Gail Swanlund, Anne Burdick, Andrew Blauvelt) and the work/writing of Zuzana Licko and Jeffery Keedy reappeared throughout the magazine's history.

The magazine began in 1984 with a focus on the émigré. The first eight issues were concerned with boundaries, international culture, travel accounts and alienation (as the issues' titles suggest). The first eight issues also incorporated a dynamic aesthetic that caught the attention of designers and led to the next stage in the magazine's evolution.

Beginning with Issue 9 — devoted to the art of Vaughan Oliver at 4AD — the magazine explored design in itself, devoting issues to Cranbrook, the Macintosh, type design and individual graphic designers. In two issues in 1992 and 1993, the magazine chronicled the work of David Carson and Raygun.

Increasingly, Emigre became a platform for essays and writings on design. This aspect of Emigre came to the forefront with issues in 1994 and the magazine changed its format in 1995 from its oversized layout to a text-friendlier format that debuted with Issue 33. The magazine retained this character through Issue 59 in 2001.

Emigre then took a sharp turn with four re-formatted issues in 2001 and 2002 that included one DVD ("Catfish," an experimental documentary film on the work of designer and performance artist Elliott Earls) and three compact discs (featuring the music of Honey Barbara, The Grassy Knoll and Scenic.

In its fifth and final incarnation, the last six issues of Emigre were co-published by Princeton Architectural Press as small softcover books. The last issue, The End, was published in 2005.

Halas and Batchelor

Halas and Batchelor was a British animation company founded by husband and wife John Halas and Joy Batchelor. Halas was a Hungarian émigré to the United Kingdom. The company had studios in London and Cainscross, in the Stroud District of Gloucestershire.

Hrvatski Domobran

Hrvatski Domobran (Croatian Home Defenders) was a Croat political organization that advocated independence for Croatia from Yugoslavia, and became associated with the Ustaše. It was founded in 1928 and took part in demonstrations in Zagreb in which it engaged in violent battles with police. After being shut down and forced to flee with the establishment of royal dictatorship in Yugoslavia, it was refounded as an émigré organization in 1933 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A section was established in the United States to raise support for the Ustaše.

League of Russian Revolutionary Social Democracy Abroad

League of Russian Revolutionary Social-Democracy Abroad was a Russian emigre political organisation, founded by Lenin in October 1901. The Iskra organisation abroad and the Sotsial-Demokrat revolutionary organisation (which included the Emancipation of Labour group) united to form the League. The League's task was to disseminate the ideas of revolutionary Social-Democracy and promote militant revolutionary Social-Democracy.The above paragraph has been copied verbatim from, as permitted by its Creative Commons copyright license. If you edit this page, please remove this notice.

NSDAP/AO

The NSDAP/AO was the foreign organization branch of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP). AO is the abbreviation of the German compound word Auslands-Organisation (English: Foreign Organization). Although it would be correctly written in one word, the Nazis chose an obsolete spelling with a hyphen.

The party members who lived outside the German Reich were pooled in this special NSDAP department. On May 1, 1931 the new organizational unit was founded on the initiative of Reich Organization Leader (German: Reichsorganisationsleiter) Gregor Strasser and its management was assigned to Hans Nieland. But Nieland resigned from office on May 8, 1933, because he had become head of the Hamburg police authority, and later, a member of the Hamburg provincial government, whereupon Ernst Wilhelm Bohle was appointed director of the "AO", which served as the 43rd and only non-territorial Gau of the NSDAP. Only actual citizens of the German Reich – (German: Reichsdeutsche) – with a German passport could become members of the AO. Persons of German descent, ethnic Germans (German: Volksdeutsche), who possessed the nationality of the country in which they lived, were refused entry to the National Socialist Party.

Republicans Abroad

Republicans Abroad (also known as Republicans Abroad International) was a global political organization for Americans living outside the United States. Republicans Abroad (RA) was headquartered in Washington, D.C. and used that geographic advantage to maintain direct contact with political leaders and policymakers. Though the international entity has dissolved, the individual chapters remain as independently operated organizations throughout the world, and continue their active role in coordinating American voters living overseas, advocating the Republican platform and principles, engaging with the press, and hosting local events.

Russian Fascist Organization

Russian Fascist Organization (RFO) was the name adopted by a Russian émigré group active in Manchuria before World War II.

The RFO was formed in 1925 by members of the Law Faculty at Harbin Normal University. Under the leadership of Prof. N.I. Nikiforov, it looked to Italian fascism for inspiration and produced the 'Theses of Russian Fascism' in 1927. The RFO smuggled some propaganda into the Soviet Union, although this was brought to the attention of China who banned the group from publishing such works. In 1931 the RFO absorbed into the newly founded Russian Fascist Party (RFP) under the leadership of Konstantin Rodzaevsky.

Shaukat Usmani

Shaukat Usmani (Maulla Bux Usta) (1901–1978) was an early Indian communist, who was born to artistic USTA family of Bikaner and a member of the émigré Communist Party of India, established in Tashkent in 1920, and a founding member of the Communist Party of India (CPI) when it was formed in Kanpur in 1925. He was also the only candidate to the British Parliament contesting elections, while he was residing in India—that too in a prison. He was sentenced to a total of 16 years in jail after being tried in the Kanpur (Cawnpore) Case of 1923 and later the Meerut Conspiracy Case of 1929.

Smenovekhovtsy

The Smenovekhovtsy (Russian: Сменовеховцы, IPA: [smʲɪnəˈvʲexəftsɨ]) is the name for a political movement in the Russian émigré community that began shortly after the publication of the magazine Smena Vekh ("Change of Signposts") in Prague in 1921. This publication had taken its name from the Russian philosophical publication Vekhi ("Signposts") published in 1909.

The thoughts published in the "Smena Vekh" periodical told its White émigré readers: "The Civil War is lost definitely. For a long time Russia has been travelling on its own path, not our path", "Either recognize this Russia, hated by you all, or stay without Russia, because a "third Russia" by your recipes does not and will not exist", "The Soviet regime saved Russia - the Soviet regime is justified, regardless of how weighty the arguments against it are", "The mere fact of its [the Soviet regime's - ed.] enduring existence proves its popular character, and the historical belonging of its dictatorship and harshness".

The ideas in the publication soon evolved into the Smenovekhovstvo movement which promoted the concept of accepting the Soviet regime and the October Revolution as a natural and popular progression of Russia's fate, something which was not to be resisted despite perceived ideological incompatibilities with Leninism. The Smenovekhovstvo admonished its members to return to Russia predicting that the Soviet Union would not last and would give way to a revival of Russian nationalism.They supported co-operation with the Soviet government in the hope that the Soviet state would evolve back into a "bourgeois state". The cooperation was important for the Soviets, since the whole Russian 'White diaspora' included 3 million people. The leaders of smenovekhovstvo were mostly former Mensheviks, Kadets and some Octobrists. The leader of the group was Nikolay Ustryalov. On March 26, 1922, the first issue of Nakanune (smenovekhovtsy newspaper) was published; Soviet Russia's first successes in foreign policy were praised. Throughout its career, Nakanune was subsidised by the Soviet government. Alexey Tolstoy had become acquainted with the movement in Summer 1921. In April 1922 he published an open letter to émigré leader N.V.Chaikovsky, and defended Soviet government for ensuring Russia's unity and preventing attacks from the neighbouring countries, especially the Polish-Soviet War.Conservative émigrés such as those in ROVS were opposed to the Smenoveknovstvo movement, viewing it as a promotion of defeatism and moral relativism, as a capitulation to the Bolsheviks, and a desire to seek compromise with the new Soviet regime. Repeatedly, the Smenoveknovtsi were accused of ties with the Soviet OGPU, which had in fact been active in promoting such ideas in the émigré community. Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin commented on the Smenovekhovstvo movement in October 1921, "The Smenovekhovtsy express the moods of thousands of various bourgeois or Soviet collaborators, who are the participants of our New Economic Policy".

There were other émigré organizations which, like the Smenoveknovtsy, argued that Russian émigrés should accept the fact of the Russian revolution. These included the Young Russians (Mladorossi) and the Eurasians (Evraziitsi). As with the Smenovekhovtsy, these movements did not survive after World War II.

In addition, among Ukrainian emigres there was also a movement in favour of reconciliation with the Soviet regime and return to the homeland. This included some of the most prominent pre-revolutionary intellectuals such as Mykhailo Hrushevskyi and Volodymyr Vynnychenko. The Soviet Ukrainian government funded a Ukrainian emigre journal called Nova Hromada to encourage this trend. The Soviets referred to this movement as a Ukrainian Smena Vekh, as did its opponents among the Ukrainian emigres, who saw it as a defeatist expression of Little Russian Russophilia. For this reason, the actual proponents of the trend denied that they were Smenovekhovtsy.

Smiley's People

Smiley's People is a spy novel by John le Carré, published in 1979. Featuring British master-spy George Smiley, it is the third and final novel of the "Karla Trilogy", following Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy and The Honourable Schoolboy. George Smiley is called out of retirement to investigate the death of one of his old agents: a former Soviet general, the head of an Estonian émigré organisation based in London. Smiley learns the general had discovered information that will lead to a final confrontation with Smiley's nemesis, the Soviet spymaster Karla.

The character General Vladimir was partly modelled on Colonel Alfons Rebane, an Estonian émigré who led the Estonian portion of SIS's Operation Jungle in the 1950s. David Cornwell (John le Carré) worked as an intelligence officer for both MI5 and the SIS (MI6).

Tyrants Destroyed and Other Stories

Tyrants Destroyed and Other Stories is a collection of thirteen short stories by Vladimir Nabokov. All but the last one were written in Russian by Nabokov between 1924 and 1939 as an expatriate in Berlin, Paris, and Menton, and later translated into English by him and his son, Dmitri Nabokov. These stories appeared first individually in the Russian émigré press. The last story was written in English in Ithaca, New York in 1951. The collection was published in 1974.

Union of Russian Social Democrats Abroad

Union of Russian Social-Democrats Abroad was an organization of emigrant Russian socialists, set up in Geneva in 1894 on the initiative of the Emancipation of Labour group. It had its own printing press for issuing revolutionary literature, and published the newspapers Rabotnik ("The Worker") and Listok Rabotnika ("The Worker's Paper"). Initially, the Emancipation of Labour group directed the Union and edited its publications. But afterwards opportunist elements ('the young' or Economists) gained the upper hand within the Union.

In the spring of 1898, the first congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party recognised the Union as the party representative abroad.At the first congress of the Union in November 1898, the Emancipation of Labour group announced that it would no longer edit the publications of the Union. The final break and the withdrawal of the group from the Union took place at the second congress of the Union in April 1900; the Emancipation of Labour group and its followers walked out of the congress and set up an independent organisation, Sotsial-Demokrat.From April 1899 to February 1902 the Union published Rabocheye Delo ("The Workers' Cause") in Geneva. It was edited by Boris N. Krichevsky, Aleksandr S. Martynov, Pavel F. Teplov and Vladimir P. Ivanshin.In September 1900, the 5th International Socialist Congress of the Second International, held in Paris, set up the International Socialist Bureau, the permanent organisation of the International, with representatives of all socialist parties adhered to it. Each country was to send one to three representatives to each plenary meeting, held every year. Russia initially sent Georgi Plekhanov, of Emancipation of Labour, and Boris Krichevsky, editor of Rabocheye Delo, both of whom were in opposing sides of the conflict within the Union. Krichevsky remained a member of the Bureau from its formation until the 2nd meeting, in December 1902. Plekhanov was a delegate various times between the foundation and 1912.

Vallarta Supermarkets

Vallarta Supermarkets Inc. is an American supermarket chain. It is based in Sylmar, Los Angeles, California and as of November 2016 has 50 locations in California. The chain caters to the growing Latino population of California and sells items usually not found in more Anglo-oriented American supermarkets. The chain primarily has stores in southern California, but has recently expanded northward with three sites in Fresno.

Vallarta Supermarkets was founded in 1985 by Mexican émigré Enrique Gonzalez Aguayo.

They are known for having superball pinball machines at most locations

White émigré

A white émigré was a Russian subject who emigrated from Imperial Russia in the wake of the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War, and who was in opposition to the contemporary Russian political climate. Many white émigrés were participants in the White movement or supported it, although the term is often broadly applied to anyone who may have left the country due to the change in regimes.

Some white émigrés, like Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries, were opposed to the Bolsheviks but had not directly supported the White movement; some were just apolitical. The term is also applied to the descendants of those who left and still retain a Russian Orthodox Christian identity while living abroad.

The term is most commonly used in France, the United States, and the United Kingdom. A term preferred by the émigrés themselves was first-wave émigré (Russian: эмигрант первой волны, emigrant pervoy volny), "Russian émigrés" (Russian: русская эмиграция, russkaya emigratsiya) or "Russian military émigrés" (Russian: русская военная эмиграция, russkaya voyennaya emigratsiya) if they participated in the White movement. In the Soviet Union, white émigré (белоэмигрант, byeloemigrant) generally had negative connotations. Since the end of the 1980s, the term "first-wave émigré" has become more common in Russia. In East Asia, "White Russian" (Chinese: 白俄, Japanese: 白系ロシア人, 白系露人) term is most commonly used for white émigrés, even they are not all ethnic Russians. Most white émigrés left Russia from 1917 to 1920 (estimates vary between 900,000 and 2 million), although some managed to leave during the 1920s and 1930s or were expelled by the Soviet government (such as, for example, Pitirim Sorokin and Ivan Ilyin). They spanned all classes and included military soldiers and officers, Cossacks, intellectuals of various professions, dispossessed businessmen and landowners, as well as officials of the Russian Imperial government and various anti-Bolshevik governments of the Russian Civil War period. They were not only ethnic Russians but belonged to other ethnic groups as well.

Émigré (album)

Émigré is the debut solo studio album by Australian singer-songwriter Wendy Matthews released by rooArt in Australia in November 1990. It was produced by Ricky Fataar and reached No. 11 on the Australian Albums Chart. It yielded three singles: "Token Angels", "Woman's Gotta Have It" and "Let's Kiss (Like Angels Do)". Matthews won the 'Best Female Artist' award at the ARIA Music Awards of 1991, and "Token Angels" won 'Breakthrough Artist – Single'.

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