Édouard Daladier

Édouard Daladier (French: [edwaʁ daladje]; 18 June 1884 – 10 October 1970) was a French Radical-Socialist (i.e. centre-left) politician and the Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War.

Édouard Daladier
Édouard Daladier
72nd Prime Minister of France
In office
10 April 1938 – 21 March 1940
PresidentAlbert Lebrun
Preceded byLéon Blum
Succeeded byPaul Reynaud
In office
30 January 1934 – 9 February 1934
PresidentAlbert Lebrun
Preceded byCamille Chautemps
Succeeded byGaston Doumergue
In office
31 January 1933 – 26 October 1933
PresidentAlbert Lebrun
Preceded byJoseph Paul-Boncour
Succeeded byAlbert Sarraut
Minister of Defence
In office
4 June 1936 – 18 May 1940
Prime MinisterLéon Blum
Camille Chautemps
Himself
Preceded byLouis Maurin
Succeeded byPaul Reynaud
In office
18 December 1932 – 29 January 1934
Prime MinisterJoseph Paul-Boncour
Himself
Preceded byJoseph Paul-Boncour
Succeeded byJean Fabry
Member of the French Chamber of Deputies
In office
2 June 1946 – 8 December 1958
ConstituencyVaucluse
In office
16 November 1919 – 10 July 1940
ConstituencyVaucluse
Personal details
Born18 June 1884
Carpentras, Vaucluse, France
Died10 October 1970 (aged 86)
Paris, France
Political partyRadical
Spouse(s)
Madeleine Laffont
(m. 1917; her death 1932)

Jeanne Boucoiran
(m. 1951; his death 1970)
ChildrenJean
Pierre
Marie
EducationCollège-lycée Ampère
ProfessionHistorian, teacher
Military service
Allegiance France
Branch/serviceFrench Third Republic French Army
RankCaptain
Battles/warsWorld War I

World War II

 • Battle for Castle Itter

Career

Daladier was born in Carpentras, Vaucluse, beginning his political career as town mayor in 1911 before his election as parliamentary deputy in 1919. Later, he would become known to many as "the bull of Vaucluse" because of his thick neck and large shoulders and determined look, although cynics also quipped that his horns were like those of a snail. During World War I, he rose from private to captain and company commander.

Daladier became a leading member of the Radical-Socialist Party, and was responsible for building the party into a structured modern political party organisation. For most of the interwar was the chief figure of the party's left-wing, supporters of a governmental coalition with the SFIO socialist party. A government minister in various posts during the coalition governments between 1924 and 1928, he was instrumental in the Radical-Socialists' break with the Socialist Party in 1926, the first Cartel des gauches ("Left-wing Coalition"), and with the centre-right Raymond Poincaré in November 1928. In 1930 he unsuccessfully attempted to gain Socialist support for a centre-left government alongside the Radical-Socialist and similar parties; in 1933, despite similar negotiations breaking down, he formed a government of the republican left.

In January 1934, he was considered the most likely candidate of the centre-left to form a government of sufficient probity to calm public opinion amidst the revelations of the Stavisky Affair corruption scandal; his government lasted less than a week, however, falling in the face of the riots instigated by the far right. With Daladier fell the coalition of the left, initiating two years of government by the hard-right.

After a year withdrawn from front-rank politics, Daladier returned to public prominance in October 1934, taking a populist line against the banking oligarchy he believed had taken control of French democracy: the Two Hundred Families. He was made president of the Radical-Socialist Party and brought the party into the Popular Front coalition. Daladier became Minister of National Defence in the Léon Blum government, retaining the crucial portfolio for two years; after the fall of the Léon Blum, he became head of government again on 10 April 1938, orienting his government towards the centre and ending the Popular Front.

While the forty-hour working week was abolished under Daladier's government, a more generous system of family allowances was established, set as a percentage of wages: for the first child, 5%; for the second, 10%; and for each additional child, 15%. Also created was a home-mother allowance, which had been advocated by pronatalist and Catholic women’s groups since 1929. All mothers who were not professionally employed and whose husbands collected family allowances were eligible for this new benefit. In March 1939, the government added 10% for workers whose wives stayed home to take care of the children. Family allowances were enshrined in the Family Code of July 1939 and, with the exception of the stay-at-home allowance, have remained in force to this day. In addition, a decree was issued in May 1938 which authorized the establishment of vocational guidance centers. In July 1937, a law was passed (which was followed by a similar law in May 1946) that empowered the Department of Workplace Inspection to order temporary medical interventions.[1]

Munich

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R69173, Münchener Abkommen, Staatschefs
Neville Chamberlain, Daladier, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, and Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano, as they prepared to sign the Munich Agreement.
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-H13007, Münchener Abkommen, Abreise von Daladier
Édouard Daladier (centre) leaving Joachim von Ribbentrop after the Munich Summit 1938

Daladier's last government was in power at the time of the negotiations preceding the Munich Agreement, when France backed out of its obligations to defend Czechoslovakia against Nazi Germany. He was pushed into negotiating by Britain's Neville Chamberlain. Unlike Chamberlain, Daladier had no illusions about Hitler's ultimate goals. In fact, he told the British in a late April 1938 meeting that Hitler's real aim was to eventually secure "a domination of the Continent in comparison with which the ambitions of Napoleon were feeble."

He went on to say, "Today, it is the turn of Czechoslovakia. Tomorrow, it will be the turn of Poland and Romania. When Germany has obtained the oil and wheat it needs, she will turn on the West. Certainly we must multiply our efforts to avoid war. But that will not be obtained unless Great Britain and France stick together, intervening in Prague for new concessions but declaring at the same time that they will safeguard the independence of Czechoslovakia. If, on the contrary, the Western Powers capitulate again, they will only precipitate the war they wish to avoid."[2]

Nevertheless, perhaps discouraged by the pessimistic and defeatist attitudes of both military and civilian members of the French government, as well as traumatized by France's blood-bath in World War I that he personally witnessed, Daladier ultimately let Chamberlain have his way. On his return to Paris, Daladier, who was expecting a hostile crowd, was acclaimed. He then commented to his aide, Alexis Léger: "Ah, les cons (morons)!"[3]

Rearmament

Daladier had already been made aware in 1932, through German rivals to Hitler, that Krupp was manufacturing heavy artillery and the Deuxième Bureau had a grasp of the scale of German military preparations, but lacked hard intelligence of their hostile intentions.[4]

In October 1938, Daladier opened secret talks with the Americans on how to bypass American neutrality laws and allow the French to buy American aircraft to make up for productivity deficiencies in the French aircraft industry.[5] Daladier commented in October 1938, "If I had three or four thousand aircraft, Munich would never have happened," and he was most anxious to buy American war planes as the only way to strengthen the French Air Force.[6] A major problem in the Franco-American talks was how the French were to pay for the American planes, as well as how to bypass the American neutrality acts[7] In addition, France had defaulted on its World War I debts in 1932 and hence fell foul of the American Johnson Act of 1934, which forbade loans to nations that had defaulted on their World War I debts.[8] In February 1939, the French offered to cede their possessions in the Caribbean and the Pacific together with a lump sum payment of 10 billion francs, in exchange for the unlimited right to buy, on credit, American aircraft.[9] After tortuous negotiations, an arrangement was worked out in the spring of 1939 to allow the French to place huge orders with the American aircraft industry; though, as most of the aircraft ordered had not arrived in France by 1940, the Americans arranged for French orders to be diverted to the British.[10]

World War II

When the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact was signed, Daladier responded to the public outcry by outlawing the French Communist Party on the basis that it had refused to condemn Joseph Stalin's actions. In 1939, after the German invasion of Poland, he was reluctant to go to war, but he did so on 3 September 1939, inaugurating the Phoney War. On 6 October of that year, Hitler offered France and Great Britain a peace proposal. There were more than a few in the French government prepared to take Hitler up on his offer; but, in a nationwide broadcast the next day, Daladier declared, "We took up arms against aggression. We shall not put them down until we have guarantees for a real peace and security, a security which is not threatened every six months."[11] On 29 January 1940, in a radio address delivered to the people of France entitled The Nazi's Aim is Slavery, Daladier left little doubt about his opinion of the Germans. In his radio address, he said: "For us, there is more to do than merely win the war. We shall win it, but we must also win a victory far greater than that of arms. In this world of masters and slaves, which those madmen who rule at Berlin are seeking to forge, we must also save liberty and human dignity."

In March 1940, Daladier resigned as Prime Minister in France because of his failure to aid Finland's defence during the Winter War, and he was replaced by Paul Reynaud. Daladier remained Minister of Defence, however, and his antipathy to Paul Reynaud prevented Reynaud from dismissing Maurice Gamelin as Supreme Commander of all French armed forces. As a result of the massive German breakthrough at Sedan, Daladier swapped ministerial offices with Reynaud, taking over the Foreign Ministry while Reynaud took over Defence. Gamelin was finally replaced by Maxime Weygand on 19 May 1940, nine days after the Germans began their invasion campaign. Under the impression the government would continue in North Africa, Daladier fled with other members of the government to Morocco; but he was arrested and tried for treason by the Vichy government during the "Riom Trial". Daladier was interned in Fort du Portalet in the Pyrenees.[12] He was kept in prison from 1940 to April 1943, when he was handed over to the Germans and deported to Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany. In May 1943, he was transported to the Itter Castle in North Tyrol with other French dignitaries, where he remained until the end of the war. He was freed after the Battle for Castle Itter.

Later life

After the war ended, Daladier was mayor of Avignon (from 1953) and member of the Chamber of Deputies (from 1946), where he acted as a patron to the Radical-Socialist Party's young reforming leader, Pierre Mendès-France. He opposed the transferral of powers to Charles de Gaulle after the coup of 1958 but, in the subsequent legislative elections of that year, failed to secure re-election and withdrew from politics. He died in Paris in 1970 and is buried in the famous cemetery of Père-Lachaise.

Daladier's first ministry, 31 January – 26 October 1933

Changes

  • 6 September 1933 – Albert Sarraut succeeds Leygues (d. 2 September) as Minister of Marine. Albert Dalimier succeeds Sarraut as Minister of Colonies.

Daladier's second ministry, 30 January – 9 February 1934

Changes

Daladier's third ministry, 10 April 1938 – 21 March 1940

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-H12956, Münchener Abkommen, Daladier und Francois-Poncet (l.)
Édouard Daladier (right) with ambassador André François-Poncet at the Munich Agreement 1938

Changes

  • 23 August 1938 – Charles Pomaret succeeds Ramadier as Minister of Labour. Anatole de Monzie succeeds Frossard as Minister of Public Works.
  • 1 November 1938 – Paul Reynaud succeeds Paul Marchandeau as Minister of Finance. Marchandeau succeeds Reynaud as Minister of Justice.
  • 13 September 1939 – Georges Bonnet succeeds Marchandeau as Minister of Justice. Daladier succeeds Bonnet as Minister of Foreign Affairs, remaining also Minister of National Defence and War. Raymond Patenôtre leaves the Cabinet and the Position of Minister of National Economy is abolished. Alphonse Rio succeeds Chappedelaine as Minister of Merchant Marine. Yvon Delbos succeeds Zay as Minister of National Education. René Besse succeeds Champetier as Minister of Veterans and Pensioners. Raoul Dautry enters the Cabinet as Minister of Armaments. Georges Pernot enters the Cabinet as Minister of Blockade.

See also

Endnotes

  1. ^ Stellman, Jeanne Mager (16 November 1998). "Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety: The body, health care, management and policy, tools and approaches". International Labour Organization – via Google Books.
  2. ^ Shirer, William The Collapse of the Third Republic: An Inquiry into the Fall of France in 1940, 1969, Da Capo Press, pp. 339–340.
  3. ^ Jean-Paul Sartre, Le Sursis
  4. ^ Bennett, Edward W. (1979). German Rearmament and the West, 1932-1933. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 85. ISBN 0691052697
  5. ^ Keylor, William "France and the Illusion of American Support, 1919-1940" pages 204–244 from The French Defeat of 1940 Reassessments edited by Joel Blatt Berghahn Books: Providence 1998 pages 234–235
  6. ^ Keylor, William. "France and the Illusion of American Support, 1919-1940" pages 204–244 from The French Defeat of 1940 Reassessments edited by Joel Blatt Berghahn Books: Providence 1998 page 234
  7. ^ Keylor, William "France and the Illusion of American Support, 1919-1940" pages 204–244 from The French Defeat of 1940 Reassessments edited by Joel Blatt Berghahn Books: Providence 1998 pages 235–236
  8. ^ Keylor, William "France and the Illusion of American Support, 1919-1940" pages 204–244 from The French Defeat of 1940 Reassessments edited by Joel Blatt Berghahn Books: Providence 1998 page 237
  9. ^ Keylor, William "France and the Illusion of American Support, 1919-1940" pages 204–244 from The French Defeat of 1940 Reassessments edited by Joel Blatt Berghahn Books: Providence 1998 page 238
  10. ^ Keylor, William "France and the Illusion of American Support, 1919-1940" pages 204–244 from The French Defeat of 1940 Reassessments edited by Joel Blatt Berghahn Books: Providence 1998 pages 233–244
  11. ^ Shirer, William The Collapse of the Third Republic: An Inquiry into the Fall of France in 1940, 1969, Da Capo Press, p. 529.
  12. ^ "Fort du Portalet Office de tourisme Vallée d'Aspe tourisme Parc National Pyrénées séjours balades randonnées". www.tourisme-aspe.com.

References

  • Adamthwaite, Anthony France and the Coming of the Second World War 1936-1939, Frank Cass, London, United Kingdom, 1977.
  • Cairns, John C. "Reflections on France, Britain and the Winter War Problem" pages 269–295 from The French Defeat of 1940 Reassessments edited by Joel Blatt Berghahn Books, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America, 1998, ISBN 1-57181-109-5.
  • Imlay, Talbot "France and the Phoney War, 1939-1940" pages 261–282 from French Foreign and Defence Policy, 1918-1940 The Decline and Fall of A Great Power edited by Robert Boyce, London, United Kingdom: Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-15039-6.
  • Irvine, William "Domestic Politics and the Fall of France in 1940" pages 85–99 from The French Defeat of 1940 Reassessments edited by Joel Blatt Berghahn Books, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America, 1998, ISBN 1-57181-109-5.
  • Jackson, Peter "Intelligence and the End of Appeasement" pages 234–260 from French Foreign and Defence Policy, 1918-1940 The Decline and Fall of A Great Power edited by Robert Boyce, London, United Kingdom: Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-15039-6.
  • Lacaze, Yvon "Daladier, Bonnet and the Decision-Making Process During the Munich Crisis, 1938" pages 215–233 from French Foreign and Defence Policy, 1918-1940 The Decline and Fall of A Great Power edited by Robert Boyce, London, United Kingdom: Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-15039-6.
  • Réau, Elisabeth du "Edouard Daladier: The Conduct of the War and the Beginnings of Defeat" pages 100–126 from The French Defeat of 1940 Reassessments edited by Joel Blatt Berghahn Books, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America, 1998, ISBN 1-57181-109-5.
  • Rémond, Réné and Janine Bourdin (eds.) Édouard Daladier, chef de gouvernement (avril 1938-septembre 1939): colloque de la Fondation nationale des sciences politiques. Paris, 1975.
  • Shirer, William L. The Collapse of the Third Republic An Inquiry into the Fall of France in 1940, Simon & Schuster, New York, New York, United States of America, 1969.
  • Thomas, Martin "France and the Czechoslovak Crisis" pages 122–159 from The Munich Crisis 1938 Prelude to World War II edited by Igor Lukes and Erik Goldstein, Frank Cass, London, United Kingdom, 1999.
  • France since 1870: Culture, Politics and Society by Charles Sowerine.
  • Origins of the French Welfare State: The Struggle for Social

Reform in France, 1914–1947 by Paul V. Dutton

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Jean Fabry
Minister of Colonies
1924–1925
Succeeded by
Orly André-Hesse
Preceded by
Paul Painlevé
Minister of War
1925
Succeeded by
Paul Painlevé
Preceded by
Yvon Delbos
Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts
1925–1926
Succeeded by
Lucien Lamoureux
Preceded by
Bertrand Nogaro
Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts
1926
Succeeded by
Édouard Herriot
Preceded by
Georges Pernot
Minister of Public Works
1930
Succeeded by
Georges Pernot
Preceded by
Georges Pernot
Minister of Public Works
1930–1931
Succeeded by
Maurice Deligne
Preceded by
Charles Guernier
Minister of Public Works
1932
Succeeded by
Georges Bonnet
Preceded by
Joseph Paul-Boncour
Minister of War
1932–1934
Succeeded by
Jean Fabry
Preceded by
Joseph Paul-Boncour
President of the Council
1933
Succeeded by
Albert Sarraut
Preceded by
Camille Chautemps
President of the Council
1934
Succeeded by
Gaston Doumergue
Preceded by
Joseph Paul-Boncour
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1934
Succeeded by
Louis Barthou
Preceded by
Vice President of the Council
1936–1937
Succeeded by
Léon Blum
Preceded by
Louis Maurin
Minister of National Defence and War
1936–1940
Succeeded by
Paul Reynaud
Preceded by
Léon Blum
Vice President of the Council
1938
Succeeded by
Camille Chautemps
Preceded by
Léon Blum
President of the Council
1938–1940
Succeeded by
Paul Reynaud
Preceded by
Georges Bonnet
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1939–1940
Succeeded by
Paul Reynaud
Preceded by
Paul Reynaud
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1940
Succeeded by
Paul Reynaud
1933 in France

This article lists notable events, births and deaths from the year 1933 in France. Major occurrences include the founding of Air France via merger, and the Lagny-Pomponne rail accident, which killed 204 people.

1938 in France

Events from the year 1938 in France.

1940 in France

Events from the year 1940 in France.

Camille Chautemps

Camille Chautemps (1 February 1885 – 1 July 1963) was a French Radical politician of the Third Republic, three times President of the Council (Prime Minister).

Cartel des Gauches

The Cartel of the Left (French: Cartel des gauches, IPA: [kaʁtɛl de ɡoʃ]) was the name of the governmental alliance between the Radical-Socialist Party the socialist French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO), and other smaller left-republican parties on two occasions between the World Wars (1924-26 and 1932-33). The Cartel des gauches twice won general elections, in 1924 and in 1932. The first Cartel was led by Radical-Socialist Édouard Herriot, but the second was weakened by parliamentary instability and was without one clear leader. Following the 6 February 1934 crisis, President of the Council Édouard Daladier had to resign, and a new Union Nationale coalition, led by the right-wing Radical Gaston Doumergue, took power.

Château de Chazeron

The Château de Chazeron is a castle situated in the commune of Loubeyrat in the French département of Puy-de-Dôme, 3 km (1.9 mi) north-west of Châtel-Guyon.Originally a medieval castle, Chazeron was altered in the 17th century by the architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart. He built a staircase on the site of the keep and added an arcaded gallery. The moat was filled in, three of the external walls were demolished and two wings were added.During the Second World War, Léon Blum, Georges Mandel, Édouard Daladier, Paul Reynaud and Maurice Gamelin were imprisoned in the castle in 1942 before their appearance at the Riom Trial.Today, the castle is a cultural centre, exhibiting drawings and avant-garde furniture. The keep offers views over the Sardon valley and the Limagne plain.The castle has been listed as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture since 1944.

Congress of Europe

The Hague Congress or the Congress of Europe, considered by many as the first federal moment of the European history, was held in The Hague from 7–11 May 1948 with 750 delegates participating from around Europe as well as observers from Canada and the United States of America.

The Congress brought together representatives from across a broad political spectrum, providing them with the opportunity to discuss ideas about the development of European political co-operation. Important political figures such as Konrad Adenauer, Winston Churchill, Harold Macmillan, Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe, Pierre-Henri Teitgen, François Mitterrand (both ministers in Robert Schuman's government), three former French prime ministers, Paul Reynaud, Édouard Daladier, Paul Ramadier, Paul van Zeeland, Albert Coppé and Altiero Spinelli took part.

A broad range of philosophers, journalists, church leaders, lawyers, professors, entrepreneurs and historians also took an active role in the congress. A call was launched for a political, economic and monetary Union of Europe. This landmark conference was to have a profound influence on the shape of the European Movement, which was created soon afterwards.

The Spanish statesman Salvador de Madariaga proposed the establishment of a College of Europe at the Congress. This would be a college where university graduates from many different countries, some only a short while before at war with each other, could study and live together.

The Congress also discussed the future structure and role of the Council of Europe. Teitgen and Maxwell-Fyfe were instrumental in creating the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms at the Council of Europe.

The Congress provided the means to heighten public opinion for European unity. On 20 July 1948, at the Hague meeting of ministers of Western European Union, Schuman's Foreign Minister Georges Bidault proposed the creation of a European Assembly (realized in the later Council of Europe) and a customs and economic union (the later European Coal and Steel Community and the two communities of the Treaties of Rome). Thus the conclusions of the Congress became French government policy and then the subject of European governmental policy.

Deputy Prime Minister of France

The Deputy Prime Minister of France, more properly known as the Vice President of the Council of Ministers, was a sinecure position that existed during the Third and Fourth Republics, as well as the Vichy regime during World War II. It was reserved for the leaders of junior parties during coalition governments.

During the Vichy regime, the title was in fact bestowed on the de facto prime minister.

Its first holder was Eugène Penancier, who served under Édouard Daladier in 1932, and its last was Guy Mollet, who served under Pierre Pflimlin in 1958.

Eugène Penancier

Eugène Penancier (24 February 1873 – 4 July 1955) was a French politician. The first Deputy Prime Minister of France, he also served as Minister of Justice in the 1930s. He was born in Bray-sur-Seine and graduated from the University of Paris in 1897; his thesis was entitled Des Défauts et des périls de la législation actuelle sur les pensions de retraites civiles et des projets de réforme présentés jusqu'à ce jour. During his career he served as mayor of his birthplace, and was a Senator from Seine-et-Marne from 1920 until 1936. He was Justice Minister from January 31 to October 26, 1933, and again from January 30 to February 9, 1934, both under Édouard Daladier. A street in Bray-sur-Seine bears his name.

Jean Chiappe

Jean Baptiste Pascal Eugène Chiappe (Ajaccio, 3 May 1878 – 27 November 1940) was a high-ranking French civil servant.

Chiappe was director of the Sûreté générale in the 1920s. He was subsequently given the post of Préfet de police in the 1930s, a role in which he was very popular. His politics tended towards the right, and successive leftist governments tried in vain to dislodge him.

Finally, on 3 February 1934, Édouard Daladier, new president of the Conseil, recalled him from his post. The far-right leagues promptly organized a large demonstration of support on 6 February 1934, which rapidly degenerated into a riot against the republic and the government.

This disturbance is referenced in Luis Buñuel's film Diary of a Chambermaid (1964). At the denouement of the film, right-wing protesters are seen chanting Vive Chiappe! outside the café owned by a sympathizer in Cherbourg. This was Buñuel's payback for Chiappe's role in banning the Buñuel-Dalí film L'Age d'Or (1930), when Chiappe was Prefect of Police for Paris.

In autumn 1940, Chiappe was made high-commissioner of France in the Levant. The aircraft taking him to Lebanon was shot down by mistake by Italian air force taking part in the Battle of Cape Spartivento near Sardinia. The pilot, Henri Guillaumet, the other members of the crew including Marcel Reine, and the two passengers, Chiappe and his leader of the cabinet, were killed.

Lost in Munich

Lost in Munich (Czech: Ztraceni v Mnichově) is a 2015 Czech comedy film directed by Petr Zelenka. The movie plot and title is inspired by Lost in La Mancha, a documentary film about Terry Gilliam's unfinished movie.The narrative revolves a haunted making of the movie Lost in Munich which tells the story about unsuccessful journalist and 90-year-old parrot who used to live with the French prime minister Édouard Daladier and is still repeating Daladier's quotes related to the Munich Agreement. The failed film production (with the feigned French co-production) is the allegory to the alleged French betrayal in 1938.The film received the Czech Film Critics' Awards for Best Film, Director and Screenplay. It was selected as the Czech entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 89th Academy Awards but it was not nominated.

Louis Serre (politician)

Louis Serre (17 August 1873, in Lagnes – 8 January 1939, in Avignon) was a French industrialist and politician. He was educated at the college of Carpentras and was on the faculty of the Paris Law Faculty. He was MP for Vaucluse 1914 to 1919 under the Parti républicain, radical et radical-socialiste (RRRS) and Senator of Vaucluse from 1920 to 1936 under the Gauche démocratique (GD). He was Minister of Trade and Industry from 31 January to 26 October 1933 under the government of Édouard Daladier.

Ludovic-Oscar Frossard

Ludovic-Oscar Frossard (5 March 1889 – 11 February 1946), also known as L.-O. Frossard or Oscar Frossard, was a French socialist and communist politician. He was a founding member in 1905 and Secretary-General of the French Socialist Party (SFIO) from 1918 to 1920, as well as a founding member and Secretary-General of the French Communist Party (PCF) from 1920 to 1922.

On 1 January 1923 Frossard resigned his positions and left the Communist movement over political differences. Frossard briefly attempted to establish an independent Communist political organization before returning to the ranks of the SFIO, gaining election to parliament under that party's banner in 1928, 1932, and 1936.

From 1935 until 1940 Frossard held a series of ministerial positions in successive governments of Pierre Laval, Albert Sarraut, Camille Chautemps, Léon Blum, Édouard Daladier, Paul Reynaud, and the first government of Philippe Pétain. Following the armistice between France and Nazi Germany, Frossard declined to participate in the Vichy French government headed by Pétain, but continued to work as a journalist. His position lead to his investigation, trial, and acquittal over accusations of collaborationism following the fall of the Pétain regime.

Minister of Public Works (France)

The Minister of Public Works (French: Ministre de l'Equipement) was a cabinet member in the Government of France. Formerly known as "Ministre des Travaux Publics" (1830–1870), in 1870, it was largely subsumed by the position of Minister of Transportation. Since the 1960s, the positions of Minister of Public Works has reappeared, often linked with Minister of Housing ("Logement"). It has also been linked to Minister of Transportation, Minister of Tourism, Minister of Territorial Development ("Aménagement du territoire") and Minister of the Sea.

Mouvement Franciste

The Francist Movement (French: Mouvement Franciste, MF) was a French Fascist and Antisemitic league created by Marcel Bucard in September 1933; it edited the newspaper Le Francisme. Mouvement Franciste reached of membership of 10,000, and was financed by Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. Its members were deemed the francistes or Chemises bleues (Blueshirts), and gave the Roman salute (a paramilitary character which was mirrored in France by François Coty's Solidarité Française).

The Mouvement took part in the violent Paris rallies of 6 February 1934, during which the entire far right (from Action Française to Croix-de-Feu) protested the implications of the Stavisky Affair and possibly attempted to topple the Édouard Daladier government. It incorporated the Solidarité Française after Coty's death later in the same year.

All the 6 February participant movements were outlawed in 1936, when Léon Blum's Popular Front government passed new legislation on the matter. After a failed attempt in 1938, the Movement was refounded as a Party (Parti Franciste) in 1941, after France was overrun by Nazi Germany.

Together with Jacques Doriot's Parti Populaire Français and Marcel Déat's Rassemblement National Populaire, the francistes were the main collaborators of the Nazi occupiers and Vichy France. The Parti Franciste did not survive the end of World War II, and was considered treasonous.

Paul Faure (politician)

Paul Faure (3 February 1878 in Périgueux, Dordogne – 16 November 1960) was a French politician and one of the leaders of the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) between the two world wars. He was a minister of state under Camille Chautemps's third Ministry from June 1937 to January 1938, during the period of the Popular Front.

Faure first became a member of Jules Guesde's Parti ouvrier français (POF) in 1901 and was editor-in-chief of the Populaire du Centre. Starting from 1915, he rallied to the centrist and pacifist minority of Jean Longuet in the SFIO, and during the Tours Congress in 1920 he opposed adhesion to the Third International. The Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci underscored how, when Faure visited Imola in 1919, after the Bologna Congress, he had seemed to be in perfect agreement with the representatives of Italian "unitarism". Even after the Tours Congress Faure continued using Marxist rhetoric, but he became a moderate and, along with Léon Blum, directed the SFIO. He was elected to the National Assembly several times.

After Édouard Daladier negotiated the Munich agreement in 1938 Paul Faure supported the appeasement policy. After the Battle of France in 1940 he rallied to Vichy, which led to his being expelled from the SFIO in 1944. He then founded the Democratic Socialist Party (PSD) which participated to the Rassemblement des gauches républicaines. The PSD attracted only deputies accused of collaborationism and dedicated part of its efforts to attempts at rehabilitation of Philippe Pétain's reactionary regime. It had almost no influence in postwar France.

Rieucros Camp

The Rieucros Camp was an internment camp on a forested hillside near Mende in the French department of Lozère that operated from January 1939 to February 1942. Prime Minister Édouard Daladier established the camp by decree on January 21, 1939 to isolate members of the International Brigades from French society after the defeat of the Second Spanish Republic and subsequent exile, known as la Retirada, in the Spanish Civil War. Other "suspicious and undesirable foreign men," sometimes accused of common law crimes, were also interned. After France's entry into World War II, authorities transferred the men to the camp of le Vernet and began to intern "suspicious and undesirable foreign women" in October 1939. Following the Battle of France, Rieucros fell in the southern unoccupied zone and the Vichy regime assumed control of the camp from Third Republican authorities. In February 1942, authorities transferred the entire camp population of women and children to the camp of Brens.

The Last Battle (Harding)

The Last Battle: When U.S. and German Soldiers Joined Forces in the Waning Hours of World War II in Europe is a book by the historian Stephen Harding which tells the story of the World War II Battle for Castle Itter.

Published by Da Capo Press, on May 7, 2013, it describes a mixed force of United States Army, German Wehrmacht, and Austrian resistance fighters acting together to prevent the recapture of a number of French VIP prisoners being held at Itter Castle, Austria, by an SS assault party, ordered to retake the prison, days after Hitler’s suicide.

The fourteen prisoners being held in the facility included two former French Prime Ministers, Paul Reynaud and Édouard Daladier, two former commanders of the French military, the son of famous prime minister Georges Clemenceau, and Marie-Agnès de Gaulle, Resistance member and sister of General Charles de Gaulle.The story is based on military records, author interviews, personal memoirs, and official German, American, and French histories.

Édouard

Édouard is both a French given name and a surname, equivalent to Edward in English. Notable people with the name include:

Édouard Balladur (born 1929), French politician

Édouard Boubat (1923–1999), French photographer

Édouard Colonne (1838–1910), French conductor

Édouard Daladier (1884–1970), French prime minister at the start of World War II

Edouard Drumont (1844–1917), French anti-semitic journalist

Édouard Dujardin (1861–1949), French writer

Édouard Gagnon (1918–2007), French Canadian cardinal

Édouard Herriot (1872–1957), French prime minister, three times, and mayor of Lyon from 1905 to 1957

Edouard F. Henriques, Make-up artist

Édouard Lalo (1823–1892), French composer

Édouard Lockroy (1838–1913), French politician

Édouard Louis (born 1992), French Writer

Édouard Lucas (1842–1891), French mathematician

Édouard Mathé (1886–1934), French silent film actor

Édouard Manet (1832–1883), French impressionist painter

Édouard Ménétries (1802–1861), French entomologist

Édouard Michelin (1859–1940), French tyre magnate

Édouard Philippe (born 1970), French politician

Édouard Spach (1801–1879), French botanist

Édouard Stephan (1837–1923), French astronomer

Édouard Vuillard (1868–1940), French painterSurname:

Romain Édouard (born 1990), French chess playerFictional characters:

Édouard a novel by Claire de Duras published in 1825

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