Édouard Branly

Édouard Eugène Désiré Branly (23 October 1844 – 24 March 1940) was a French inventor, physicist and professor at the Institut Catholique de Paris. He is primarily known for his early involvement in wireless telegraphy and his invention of the Branly coherer around 1890.

Édouard Eugène Désiré Branly
Portrait of Edouard Branly (1844-1940), Physicist (2536834552)
Born23 November 1844
Died24 March 1940 (aged 95)
Paris

Biography

He was born on 23 October 1844. Édouard Branly died in 1940. His funeral was at the Notre Dame cathedral in Paris and was attended by the President of France, Albert Lebrun.[1][2] He was interred in Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris.[3]

Coherer

Temistocle Calzecchi-Onesti's experiments with tubes of metal filings, as reported in "Il Nuovo Cimento" in 1884, led to the development of the first radio wave detector, the coherer, by Branly some years later. It was the first widely used detector for radio communication. This consisted of iron filings contained in an insulating tube with two electrodes that will conduct an electric current under the action of an applied electrical signal. The operation of the coherer is based upon the large electrical contact resistance offered to the passage of electric current by loose metal filings, which decreases when direct current or alternating current is applied between the terminals of the coherer at a predetermined voltage. The mechanism is based on the thin layers of oxide covering all the filings, which is highly resistive. The oxide layers are broken down when a voltage is applied of the right magnitude, causing the coherer to "latch" into its low-resistance state until the voltage is removed and the coherer is physically tapped.

Branly coherer
Branly's coherer

The coherer became the basis for radio reception, and remained in widespread use for about ten years, until about 1907. British radio pioneer Oliver Lodge made the coherer into a practical receiver by adding a "decoherer" which tapped the coherer after each reception to dislodge clumped filings, thus restoring the device's sensitivity. It was further developed by Guglielmo Marconi, then replaced about 1907 by crystal detectors.

In 1890, Branly[4][5][6] demonstrated what he later called the "radio-conductor",[7] which Lodge in 1893 named the coherer, the first sensitive device for detecting radio waves.[8] Shortly after the experiments of Hertz, Dr. Branly discovered that loose metal filings, which in a normal state have a high electrical resistance, lose this resistance in the presence of electric oscillations and become practically conductors of electricity. This Branly showed by placing metal filings in a glass box or tube, and making them part of an ordinary electric circuit. According to the common explanation, when electric waves are set up in the neighborhood of this circuit, electromotive forces are generated in it which appear to bring the filings more closely together, that is, to cohere, and thus their electrical resistance decreases, from which cause this piece of apparatus was termed by Sir Oliver Lodge a coherer.[9] Hence the receiving instrument, which may be a telegraph relay, that normally would not indicate any sign of current from the small battery, can be operated when electric oscillations are set up.[10] Prof. Branly further found that when the filings had once cohered they retained their low resistance until shaken apart, for instance, by tapping on the tube.[11]

In On the Changes in Resistance of Bodies under Different Electrical Conditions, he described how the electrical circuit was made by means of two narrow strips of copper parallel to the short sides of the rectangular plate, and forming good contact with it by means of screws. When the two copper strips were raised the plate was cut out of the circuit. He also used as conductors fine metallic filings,[12] which he sometimes mixed with insulating liquids. The filings were placed in a tube of glass or ebonite, and were held between two metal plates. When the electrical circuit, consisting of a Daniell cell, a galvanometer of high resistance, and the metallic conductor, consisting of the ebonite plate, and the sheet of copper, or of the tube containing the filings, was completed, only a very small current flowed; but there was a sudden diminution of the resistance which was proved by a large deviation of the galvanometer needle when one or more electric discharges were produced in the neighbourhood of the circuit. In order to produce these discharges a small Wimshurst influence machine may be used, with or without a condenser, or a Ruhmkorff coil. The action of the electrical discharge diminishes as the distance increases; but he observed it easily, and without taking any special precautions, at a distance of several yards. By using a Wheatstone bridge, he observed this action at a distance of 20 yards, although the machine producing the sparks was working in a room separated from the galvanometer and the bridge by three large apartments, and the noise of the sparks was not audible. The changes of resistance were considerable with the conductors described. They varied, for instance, from several millions of ohms to 2000, or even to 100, from 150,000 to 500 ohms, from 50 to 35, and so on. The diminution of resistance was not momentary, and sometimes it was found to remain for twenty-four hours. Another method of making the test was, by connecting the electrodes of a capillary electrometer to the two poles of a Daniell cell with a sulphate of cadmium solution. The displacement of mercury which takes place when the cell is short-circuited, only takes place very slowly when an ebonite plate, covered with a sheet of copper of high resistance, is inserted between one of the poles of the cell, and the corresponding electrode of the electrometer; but when sparks are produced by a machine, the mercury is rapidly thrown into the capillary tube owing to the sudden diminution in the resistance of the plate.[13]

Branly found that, upon examination of the conditions necessary to produce the phenomena, the following data:[13]

  • The circuit need not be closed to produce the result.
  • The passage of an induced current in the body produces a similar effect to that of a spark at a distance.
  • An induction-coil with two equal lengths of wire was used, a current is sent through the primary while the secondary forms part of a circuit containing the tube with filings and a galvanometer.[14] The two induced currents caused the resistance of the filings to vary.[15]
  • When working with continuous currents the passage of a strong current lowers the resistance of the body for feeble currents.[16]

Summing up, he stated that in all these tests the use of ebonite plates covered with copper or mixtures of copper and tin was less satisfactory than the use of filings; with the plates he was unable to obtain the initial resistance of the body after the action of the spark or of the current, while with the tubes and filings the resistance could be brought back to its normal value by striking a few sharp blows on the support of the tube.[13]

Honours

Musée Edouard Branly plaque
Plaque at the Musée Édouard Branly on rue d'Assas in Paris

Branly was nominated thrice for a Nobel Prize, but never received it. In 1911, he was elected to the French Academy of Sciences, winning over his rival Marie Curie. Both had opponents in the Academy: she a female and he a devout catholic, who had left Sorbonne for a chair in the Catholic University of Paris. Branly eventually won the election by two votes. In 1936 he was elected to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences.[17]

Branly was named as Marconi's inspiration during the first radio communication across the English Channel, when Marconi's message was: "Mr. Marconi sends to Mr. Branly his regards over the Channel through the wireless telegraph, this nice achievement being partly the result of Mr. Branly's remarkable work."[2]

Branly's discovery of radioconduction was named an IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering and Computing in 2010.[18]

Legacy

The quai Branly – a road that runs alongside the River Seine in Paris – is named after Branly. It is the name of this road, not of Branly himself, that led to the naming of the Musée du quai Branly.

Branly is also commemorated by a technical High School (lycée) in Châtellerault, a commune in the Vienne department in the Poitou-Charentes region.[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ Funerals, politics, and memory in modern France, 1789-1996, Chapter 12, Avner Ben-Amos, accessed 14 May 2011
  2. ^ a b Édouard Branly, the Coherer, and the Branly effect - History of Communications, Jean-Marie Dilhac, Communications Magazine, IEEE, Volume: 47 Issue: 9, September 2009, (quoting J. Terrat-Branly, Mon père, Édouard Branly, Corrêa, 1941) accessed 10 May 2011
  3. ^ Édouard Branly, findgrave.com, 19 December 1999, accessed 10 May 2011
  4. ^ Variations of Conductivity under Electrical Influences, By Édouard Branly. Minutes of proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Volume 103 By Institution of Civil Engineers (Great Britain) Page 481 (Contained in, Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, vol. cix., 1890, p. 785.)
  5. ^ "On the Changes in Resistance of Bodies under Different Electrical Conditions". By E. Branly. Minutes of proceedings, Volume 104, Institution of Civil Engineers (Great Britain). 1891. Page 416 (Contained in, Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, 1891, vol. exit., p. 90.)
  6. ^ "Experiments on the conductivity of insulating bodies", by M. Édouard Branly, M.D. Philosophical magazine. Taylor & Francis., 1892. Page 530 (Contained in, Comptes Rendus de l' Académie des Sciences, 24 Nov. 1890 and 12 Jan. 1891, also, Bulletin de la Societi international d'electriciens, no. 78, May 1891)
  7. ^ "Increase of Resistance of Radio-conductors". E. Branly. (Comptes Rendus, 130. pp. 1068-1071, April 17, 1900.)
  8. ^ "Wireless Telegraphy". Modern Engineering Practice. VII. American School of Correspondence. 1903. p. 10.
  9. ^ although Dr. Branly himself termed it a radio-conductor.
  10. ^ Maver's wireless telegraphy: theory and practice By William Maver (jr.)
  11. ^ United States Naval Institute (1902). Proceedings: Volume 28, Part 2. Page 443.
  12. ^ Branly's filings used, were iron, aluminium, antimony, cadmium, bismuth, &c
  13. ^ a b c Minutes of proceedings, Volume 104 By Institution of Civil Engineers (Great Britain)
  14. ^ Before closing the circuit a test is made to see that the current at make and break gives the same deviation on the galvanometer. The filings are then placed in the secondary circuit, and the primary opened and closed at regular intervals
  15. ^ These deviations were obtained with an induction coil without core. The results obtained with a core were almost identical.
  16. ^ A circuit was used consisting of a battery, the body to be tested, and a galvanometer; the electromotive force of the battery used was 1 volt at first, then 100 volts, and then again 1 volt.
  17. ^ http://www.casinapioiv.va/content/accademia/en/academicians/deceased/branly.html
  18. ^ Édouard Branly (1890). "Milestones:Discovery of Radioconduction". IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  19. ^ Lycée Édouard Branly, accessed 10 May 2011

External links and resources

Athis-Mons

Athis-Mons (French pronunciation: ​[atisˈmɔ̃s]) is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 16.5 km (10.3 mi) from the center of Paris.

Inhabitants are called Athégiens.

A small part of Orly International Airport lies on the territory of the commune of Athis-Mons.

Camille Tissot

Camille Papin Tissot (15 October 1868 – 2 October 1917) was a French naval officer and pioneer of wireless telegraphy who established the first French operational radio connections at sea.

Ensemble Scolaire Saint Michel de Picpus

Ensemble Scolaire Saint Michel de Picpus is a Roman Catholic private school system in the Paris metropolitan area. It has a preschool/nursery (maternelle) and elementary school in the 12th arrondissement of Paris. It has two junior-senior high (collège-lycée) campuses: one in the 12th arrondissement of Paris and one in Saint-Mandé, Val-de-Marne.

Hotel de Berny Museum

The Hotel de Berny Museum (French: Musée d'art local et d'histoire régionale or Musée de l'Hôtel de Berny) is a local history museum for the region of Picardy. It is located in Amiens. It is currently closed for building works. It is a Museum of France.

Institut Catholique de Paris

The Institut Catholique de Paris (ICP), known in English as the Catholic University of Paris (and in Latin as Universitas catholica Parisiensis), is a private university located in Paris, France.

Institut supérieur d'électronique de Paris

ISEP, short for "Institut supérieur d’électronique de Paris", is a French Grande école located in Paris. It specializes in electronics, telecommunication and computer science.

The school was founded in 1955 on the place where Édouard Branly, physics professor at the Catholic University of Paris, discovered the coherer in 1890.

The school has two campuses, one in paris in the 6ème, one in an outskirt named issy les moulineaux

ISEP has three main departments (Electronics, Telecommunication, Information systems) and ten laboratories for teaching and research. ISEP has relationships with several companies in its industry (Thales, STMicroelectronics, ATMEL) and has a strong worldwide program orientation (co-operation agreements with more than 20 international institutions, member of 3 international exchange programs). ISEP also initiated an International master's degree program.

It is one amongst the top four Grandes écoles according to the French magazines l'Express and L'Étudiant in 2010. In 2015, the school was ranked best in France for "digital" related subject and best overall private school by l'Usine Nouvelle.

List of IEEE milestones

This list of IEEE Milestones describes the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) milestones, representing key historical achievements in electrical and electronic engineering.

Prior to 1800

1751 – Book Experiments and Observations on Electricity by Benjamin Franklin

1757–1775 – Benjamin Franklin's Work in London

1799 – Volta's Electrical Battery Invention

1800–1850

1836 – Callan's Pioneering Contributions to Electrical Science and Technology

1828–1837 – Schilling's Pioneering Contribution to Practical Telegraphy

1838 – Demonstration of Practical Telegraphy1850–1870

1852 – Electric Fire Alarm System

1861–1870 – Maxwell's Equations

1861 – Transcontinental Telegraph

1866 – Landing of the Transatlantic Cable

1866 – County Kerry Transatlantic Cable Stations

1870–1890

1876 – First Intelligible Voice Transmission over Electric Wire

1876 – First Distant Speech Transmission in Canada

1876 – Thomas Alva Edison Historic Site at Menlo Park

1882 – Vulcan Street Plant

1882 – Pearl Street Station

1882 – First Central Station in South Carolina

1884 – First AIEE Technical Meeting

1886 – Alternating Current Electrification (demonstrated by William Stanley, Jr.)

1886 – First Generation and Experimental Proof of Electromagnetic Waves

1887 – Thomas A. Edison West Orange Laboratories and Factories

1887 – Weston Meters, first portable current and voltage meters

1888 – Richmond Union Passenger Railway

1889 – Power System of Boston's Rapid Transit

1890–1900

1890 – Discovery of Radioconduction with a Coherer by Édouard Branly

1890 – Keage Power Station, Japan's First Commercial Hydroelectric Plant

1891 – Ames Hydroelectric Generating Plant

1893 – Birth and Growth of Battery Industries in Japan

1893 – Mill Creek No. 1 Hydroelectric Plant

1894 – Millimeter-wave Communication Experiments by Jagadish Chandra Bose

1895 – Popov's Contribution to the Development of Wireless Communication

1895 – Adams Hydroelectric Generating Plant

1895 – Krka-Šibenik Electric Power System

1895 – Guglielmo Marconi's Experiments in Wireless Telegraphy

1895 – Electrification by Baltimore and Ohio Railroad

1897 – Early Swiss Wireless Experiments that sent a signal over one and a half kilometers.

1897 – Chivilingo Hydroelectric Plant

1898 – Decew Falls Hydro-Electric Plant

1898 – Rheinfelden Hydroelectric Power Plant

1899 – First Operational Use Of Wireless Telegraphy in the Anglo-Boer War

1900–1920

1900 – Georgetown Steam Hydro Generating Plant

1901 – Transmission of Transatlantic Radio Signals

1901 – Reception of Transatlantic Radio Signals

1901 – Early Developments in Remote-Control by Leonardo Torres-Quevedo

1902 – Poulsen-Arc Radio Transmitter

1903 – Vucje Hydroelectric Plant

1904 – Alexanderson Radio Alternator

1904 – Fleming Valve

1906 – Pinawa Hydroelectric Power Project

1906 – First Wireless Radio Broadcast by Reginald A. Fessenden

1906 – Grand Central Terminal Electrification

1907 – Alternating-Current Electrification of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad

1909 – Shoshone Transmission Line

1911 – Discovery of superconductivity

1914 – Panama Canal Electrical and Control Installations

1920–1930

1920 – Westinghouse Radio Station KDKA (AM)

1920 – Funkerberg Königs Wusterhausen first radio broadcast in Germany

1924 – Directive Short Wave Antenna (Yagi-Uda antenna)

1924 – Enrico Fermi's Major Contribution to Semiconductor Statistics

1924–1941 – Development of Electronic Television

1925 – Bell Telephone Laboratories

1928 – One-Way Police Radio Communication

1929 – Shannon Scheme for the Electrification of the Irish Free State

1929 – Yosami Radio Transmitting Station

1929 – Largest Private (dc) Generating Plant in the U.S.A.

1929 – First Blind Takeoff, Flight and Landing

1930–1950

1930–1945 – Development of Ferrite Materials and Their Applications

1931 – Invention of Stereo Sound Reproduction

1932 – First Breaking of Enigma Code by the Team of Polish Cipher Bureau

1933 – Two-Way Police Radio Communication

1934 – Long-Range Shortwave Voice Transmissions from Byrd's Antarctic Expedition

1937 – Westinghouse "Atom Smasher"

1939 – Atanasoff–Berry Computer

1939 – Shannon Development of Information Theory

1939 – Single-element Unidirectional Microphone - Shure Unidyne

1940 – FM Police Radio Communication

1941 – Opana Radar Site

1939–1945 – Code-breaking at Bletchley Park during World War II

1940–1945 – MIT Radiation Laboratory

1942–1945 – US Naval Computing Machine Laboratory

1945 – Merrill Wheel-Balancing System

1945 – Rincón del Bonete Plant and Transmission System

1946 – Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC)

1947 – Invention of the First Transistor at Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc.

1947 – Invention of Holography

1948 – Birth of the Barcode

1950–1960

1950 – First External Cardiac Pacemaker

1951 – Manufacture of Transistors

1951 – Experimental Breeder Reactor I

1946–1953 – Monochrome-Compatible Electronic Color Television

1955 – WEIZAC Computer

1956 – RAMAC

1956 – Ampex Videotape Recorder

1956 – The First Submarine Transatlantic Telephone Cable System (TAT-1)

1957–1958 – First Wearable Cardiac Pacemaker

1958 – First Semiconductor Integrated Circuit (IC)

1959 – Semiconductor Planar Process and Integrated Circuit

1960–1970

1960–1984 – IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center

1961–1964 – First Optical Fiber Laser and Amplifier

1962 – Mercury spacecraft MA-6, Col. John Glenn piloted the Mercury Friendship 7 spacecraft in the first United States human-orbital flight on 20 February 1962. (1)

1962 – Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

1962 – First Transatlantic Transmission of a Television Signal via Satellite

1962 – First Transatlantic Television Signal via Satellite

1962 – First Transatlantic Reception of a Television Signal via Satellite

1962 – Alouette-ISIS Satellite Program

1963 – NAIC/Arecibo Radiotelescope

1963 – First Transpacific Reception of a Television (TV) Signal via Satellite

1963 – Taum Sauk Pumped-Storage Electric Power Plant

1963 – ASCII

1964 – Mount Fuji Radar System

1964 – Tokaido Shinkansen (Bullet Train)

1964 – High-definition television

1964 – TPC-1 Transpacific Cable System

1965 – First 735 kV AC Transmission System

1965 – Dadda multiplier

1962–1967 – Pioneering Work on the Quartz Electronic Wristwatch

1966 – Interactive Video Games

1966 – Shakey, the first mobile robot to be able to reason about its own actions

1967 – First Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry

1968 – Liquid Crystal Display by George H. Heilmeier

1968 – CERN Experimental Instrumentation

1969 – Birth of the Internet

1969 – Inception of the ARPANET

1950–1969 – Electronic Technology for Space Rocket Launches

1969 – Electronic Quartz Wristwatch

1970–present

1965–1971 – Railroad Ticketing Examining System (developed by OMRON of Japan)

1970 - SPICE Circuit Simulation Program

1972 – Nelson River HVDC Transmission System

1964–1973 – Pioneering Work on Electronic Calculators

1971–1978 – The First Word Processor for the Japanese Language

1972 – Development of the HP-35, the First Handheld Scientific Calculator

1974 – Birth of CP/M Operating System

1975 – Gapless Metal Oxide Surge Arrester (MOSA) for electric power systems

1975 – Line Spectrum Pair (LSP) for high-compression speech coding

1976 – Development of VHS, a World Standard for Home Video Recording

1976 – Introduction of the Apple I Computer

1977 – Introduction of the Apple II Computer

1977 – Lempel–Ziv Data Compression Algorithm

1977 – Vapor-phase Axial Deposition Method for Mass Production of High-quality Optical Fiber

1978 – Digital Image from Synthetic Aperture Radar

1978 – Speak & Spell, the First Use of a Digital Signal Processing IC for Speech Generation

1979 – Compact Disc Audio Player

1979 – 20-inch Diameter Photomultiplier Tubes

1980 – International Standardization of Group 3 Facsimile

1980 – RISC (Reduced Instruction-Set Computing) Microprocessor

1981 – 16-Bit Monolithic Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) for Digital Audio

1981 – Map-Based Automotive Navigation System

1984 – First Direct-broadcast satellite Service

1984 – The MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar

1985 – Toshiba T1100, for Contribution to the Development of Laptop PCs

1985 – Emergency Warning Code Signal Broadcasting System

1987 – High Temperature Superconductor

1987 – SPARC RISC Architecture

1988 – Sharp 14-Inch Thin Film Transistor Liquid-Crystal Display (TFT-LCD) for TV

1988 – Solid State High Voltage DC Converter Station

1988 – Trans-Atlantic Telephone Fiber-optic Submarine Cable, TAT-8

1988 – Virginia Smith High-Voltage Direct-Current Converter Station

1989 – Development of CDMA for Cellular CommunicationsSpecial citations

1856–1943 – Nikola Tesla, Electrical Pioneer

1979 – Computer History Museum

List of schools in France

This is a list of schools France

Lycée Saint-Louis-de-Gonzague, Paris

Canadian Bilingual School of Paris⎪École Canadienne Bilingue de Paris, Paris

Notre-Dame International High School, Verneuil-sur-Seine

L’Ensemble Scolaire Maurice-Tièche, Collonges-sous-Salève

Lycée Thiers, Marseille

La Martiniere Lyon, Lyon

Lycée International de Saint Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye

Lycée Louis-le-Grand, Paris

Sarina Dorie

Lycée Janson de Sailly, Paris

Lycée La Fontaine (Paris)

Cité Scolaire Internationale de Lyon (know also as the CSI or Lycée International de Lyon)

Lycée Galilée, Franqueville-Saint-Pierre

Collège Lycée International Cévenol, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon

Chavagnes International College, Chavagnes-en-Paillers

Collège Lycée International, Ferney-Voltaire

Institution Sainte-Marie, La Seyne-sur-Mer

Lycée Adolphe Cherioux, Vitry-sur-Seine

Lycée Alain, Le Vésinet

Lycée Alain Borne, Montélimar

Lycée Alain Chartier, Bayeux

Lycée Alain René Lesage, Vannes

Lycée Alain-Fournier, Bourges

Lycée Albert-Calmette, Nice

Lycée Albert Camus, Bois-Colombes

Lycée Albert Camus, Nantes

Lycée Albert Camus, Rillieux-la-Pape

Lycée Albert Camus, Firminy

Lycée Albert Châtelet, Douai

Lycée Albert Châtelet, Saint-Pol-sur-Ternoise

Lycée Albert Einstein, Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois

Lycée Albert Schweitzer, Le Raincy

Lycée Albert Schweitzer, Mulhouse

Lycée Albert Thomas, Roanne

Lycée Albert Triboulet, Romans-sur-Isère

Lycée Alexandra David Neel, Digne-les-Bains

Lycée Alexandre Ribot, Saint-Omer

Lycée Alexis de Tocqueville, Cherbourg-Octeville

Lycée Alfred de Vigny, Loches

Lycée Alfred Kastler, Cergy

Lycée Alfred Kastler, Denain

Lycée Alfred Kastler, Talence

Lycée Alfred Kastler, Guebwiller

Lycée Alfred Mézières, Longwy

Lycée Aliénor D'Aquitaine, Poitiers

Lycée Alphonse Daudet, Nîmes

Lycée Alphonse Daudet, Tarascon

Lycée Alphonse-Benoît, L'Isle-sur-la-Sorgue

Lycée Ambroise Brugière, Clermont-Ferrand

Lycée Ambroise Paré, Laval

Lycée Amédé Gasquet, Clermont-Ferrand

Lycée Amiral de Grasse, Grasse

Lycée Amiral Ronarc'H, Brest

Lycée Ampère-Bourse, Lyon

Lycée Anatole France, Lillers

Lycée André Argouges, Grenoble

Lycée Andre Boulloche, Livry-Gargan

Lycée André Lurçat, Maubeuge

Lycée André Malraux, Remiremont

Lycée André Malraux, Béthune

Lycée André Malraux, Montereau-Fault-Yonne

Lycée André Maurois, Elbeuf

Lycée André Maurois, Deauville

Lycée Antoine Bourdelle, Montauban

Lycée Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, Saint-Raphaël

Lycée Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, Fameck

Lycée Antonin Artaud, Marseille

Lycée Arago, Paris

Lycée Arcisse de Caumont, Bayeux

Lycée Aristide Bergès, Seyssinet-Pariset

Lycée Aristide Briand, Évreux

Lycée Aristide Briand, Saint-Nazaire

Lycée Aristide Briand, Gap

Lycée Arthur Rimbaud, Istres

Lycée Arthur Rimbaud, Sin-le-Noble

Lycée Arthur Varoquaux, Tomblaine

Lycée Atlantique, Luçon

Lycée Auguste Angellier, Dunkirk

Lycée Auguste Behal, Lens

Lycée Auguste et Louis Lumière, La Ciotat

Lycée Auguste Pavie, Guingamp

Lycée Auguste Renoir, Cagnes-sur-Mer

Lycée Auguste Renoir, Limoges

Lycée Auguste Renoir, Asnières-sur-Seine

Lycée Augustin Fresnel, Caen

Lycée Augustin Fresnel, Bernay

Lycée Augustin Thierry, Blois

Lycée Balzac, Tours

Lycée Banville, Moulins

Lycée Bartholdi, Colmar

Lycée Baudelaire, Roubaix

Lycée Baudimont, Arras

Lycée Beau Site, Nice

Lycée Beauregard, Montbrison

Lycée Beaussier, La Seyne-sur-Mer

Lycée Bellevue, Le Mans

Lycée Bellevue, Toulouse

Lycée Bellevue, Saintes

Lycée Benjamin Franklin, Orléans

Lycée Benjamin Franklin, Auray

Lycée Bernard Palissy, Saintes

Lycée Bernard Palissy, Agen

Lycée Bernard Palissy - Ancien "Lycée Mixte", Gien

Lycée Berthollet, Annecy

Lycée Bertran de Born, Périgueux

Lycée Bertrand D'Argentré, Vitré

Lycée Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand

Lycée Blaise Pascal, Orsay

Lycée Blaise Pascal, Rouen

Lycée Blaise Pascal, Forbach

Lycée Blaise Pascal, Châteauroux

Lycée Blaise Pascal, Segré

Lycée Blaise Pascal, Colmar

Lycée Blaise Pascal, Brie-Comte-Robert

Lycée Blaise Pascal Cité Scolaire, Longuenesse

Lycée Bonaparte, Toulon

Lycée Bonaparte Site Bonaparte, Autun

Lycée Borde Basse, Castres

Lycée Boucher de Perthes, Abbeville

Lycée Bristol, Cannes

Lycée Brizeux, uimper

Lycée Buffon, Paris

Lycée C F Lebrun, Coutances

Lycée Camille Claudel, Digoin

Lycée Camille Claudel, Vauréal

Lycée Camille Claudel, Fourmies

Lycée Camille Claudel, Blois

Lycée Camille Desmoulins, Le Cateau-Cambrésis

Lycée Camille Guérin, Poitiers

Lycée Camille Jullian, Bordeaux

Lycée Camille Pissarro, Pontoise

Lycée Camille Saint-Saëns, Rouen

Lycée Camille Sée, Paris

Lycée Camille Vernet, Valence

Lycée Carcouet, Nantes

Lycée Carnot, Dijon

Lycée Carnot, Bruay-la-Buissière

Lycée Carnot, Cannes

Lycée Carnot, Paris

Lycée Cassini, Clermont

Lycée Champlain, Chennevières-sur-Marne

Lycée Champollion, Grenoble

Lycée Champollion, Figeac

Lycée Chanzy, Charleville-Mézières

Lycée Chaptal, Paris

Lycée Chaptal, Quimper

Lycée Chaptal, Mende

Lycée Charlemagne, Thionville

Lycée Charlemagne, Paris

Lycée Charles de Coulomb, Angoulême

Lycée Charles de Foucauld, Brest

Lycée Charles de Gaulle, Longperrier

Lycée Charles Despiau, Mont-de-Marsan

Lycée Charles Deulin, Condé-sur-l'Escaut

Lycée Charles Hermite, Dieuze

Lycée Charles Jully, Saint-Avold

Lycée Charles Le Chauve, Roissy-en-Brie

Lycée Charles Poncet, Cluses

Lycée Charles Renouvier, Prades

Lycée Charlie Chaplin, Décines-Charpieu

Lycée Chevrollier, Angers

Lycée Choiseul, Tours

Lycée Chrestien de Troyes, Troyes

Lycée Claude Bernard, Villefranche-sur-Saône

Lycée Claude Bernard, Paris

Lycée Claude de France, Romorantin-Lanthenay

Lycée Claude Debussy, Saint-Germain-en-Laye

Lycée Claude et Pierre Virlogeux, Riom

Lycée Claude Fauriel, Saint-Étienne

Lycée Claude Gellée, Épinal

Lycée Claude Lebois, Saint-Chamond

Lycée Claude Monet, Le Havre

Lycée Claude Monet, Paris

Lycée Clémenceau, Nantes

Lycée Clémenceau, Reims

Lycée Clémenceau, Montpellier

Lycée Clément Marot, Cahors

Lycée Climatique d'Altitude, Briançon

Lycée Clos Banet, Perpignan

Lycée Clos Maire, Beaune

Lycée Colbert, Lorient

Lycée Colbert, Lyon

Lycée Colbert, Tourcoing

Lycée Colbert, Paris

Lycée Colbert de Torcy, Sablé-sur-Sarthe

Lycée Condorcet, Lens

Lycée Condorcet, Saint-Quentin

Lycée Condorcet, Paris

Lycée Condorcet, Belfort

Lycée Condorcet, Méru

Lycée Condorcet, Limay

Lycée Cordouan, Royan

Lycée Corneille, Rouen

Lycée Cornouaille, Quimper

Lycée Courbet, Belfort

Lycée Curie, Vire

Lycée D' Estour. de Constant, La Flèche

Lycée D'Arsonval, Brive-la-Gaillarde

Lycée D'Arsonval, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés

Lycée D'Artois, Nœux-les-Mines

Lycée D'Avesnières, Laval

Lycée D'Enseignement Général et Technologique La Fayette, Clermont-Ferrand

Lycée D'Enseignement Général et Technologique Paul Constans, Montluçon

Lycée D'Hôtellerie et de Tourisme de Gascogne, Talence

Lycée Darius Milhaud, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre

Lycée David D'Angers, Angers

Lycée de Bagatelle, Saint-Gaudens

Lycée de Borda, Dax

Lycée de Corbeil, Corbeil-Essonnes

Lycée de Grand Air, Arcachon

Lycée de l'Arc, Orange

Lycée de l'Edit, Roussillon

Lycée de l'Elorn, Landerneau

Lycée de l'Empéri, Salon-de-Provence

Lycée de l'Escaut, Valenciennes

Lycée de l'Europe, Dunkirk

Lycée de l'Image et du Son, Angoulême

Lycée de l'Iroise, Brest

Lycée de la Camargue, Nîmes

Lycée de la Communication, Metz

Lycée de la Plaine de l'Ain, Ambérieu-en-Bugey

Lycée de la Plaine de Neauphle, Trappes

Lycée de la Vallée de Chevreuse, Gif-sur-Yvette

Lycée de la Vallée du Cailly, Déville-lès-Rouen

Lycée de la Venise Verte, Niort

Lycée de Montgeron, Montgeron

Lycée de Presles, Cusset

Lycée de Sèvres, Sèvres

Lycée de Val de Murigny, Reims

Lycée Delamare Deboutteville, Forges-les-Eaux

Lycée Denis Diderot, Carvin

Lycée Denis Diderot, Marseille

Lycée Déodat de Severac, Céret

Lycée Déodat de Séverac, Toulouse

Lycée des 7 Mares, Maurepas

Lycée des Bourdonnières, Nantes

Lycée des Eaux Claires, Grenoble

Lycée des Eucalyptus, Nice

Lycée des Flandres, Hazebrouck

Lycée des Glières, Annemasse

Lycée Descartes, Tours

Lycée Descartes, Antony

Lycée Descartes, Montigny-le-Bretonneux

Lycée Descartes, Rabat

Lycée Diderot, Paris

Lycée Diderot, Narbonne

Lycée Diderot, Langres

Lycée Docteur Gustave Jaume, Pierrelatte

Lycée Docteur Koeberlé, Sélestat

Lycée Docteur Lacroix, Narbonne

Lycée Dominique Villars, Gap

Lycée Don Bosco, Nice

Lycée Dorian, Paris

Lycée Douanier Rousseau, Laval

Lycée du Bois D'Amour, Poitiers

Lycée du Bugey, Belley

Lycée du Canada, Évreux

Lycée du Castella, Pamiers

Lycée du Dauphiné, Romans-sur-Isère

Lycée du Golf, Dieppe

Lycée du Granier, La Ravoire

Lycée du Grésivaudan, Meylan

Lycée du Noordover, Grande-Synthe

Lycée du Parc de Vilgénis, Massy

Lycée du Parc Impérial, Nice

Lycée du Sacré Coeur, Tourcoing

Lycée du Sacré Coeur, Aix-en-Provence

Lycée du Sacré Coeur, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés

Lycée du Sacré-Coeur, Amiens

Lycée du Val de Saône, Trévoux

Lycée du Vimeu, Friville-Escarbotin

Lycée Duhamel du Monceau, Pithiviers

Lycée Dumont D'Urville, Toulon

Lycée Dumont D'Urville, Caen

Lycée Dupleix, Landrecies

Lycée Duplessis Mornay, Saumur

Lycée Dupuy de Lome, Lorient

Lycée E Bouchardon, Chaumont

Lycée E Freyssinet, Saint Brieuc

Lycée Edgar Quinet, Bourg-en-Bresse

Lycée Edgar Quinet, Paris

Lycée Edmond Perrier, Tulle

Lycée Édouard Belin, Vesoul

Lycée Édouard Branly, Boulogne-sur-Mer

Lycée Édouard Branly, Nogent-sur-Marne

Lycée Édouard Branly, Châtellerault

Lycée Édouard Branly, Amiens

Lycée Édouard Branly, Lyon

Lycée Édouard Branly, Dreux

Lycée Édouard Gand, Amiens

Lycée Édouard Herriot, Voiron

Lycée Édouard Herriot, Lyon

Lycée Édouard Herriot, Sainte-Savine

Lycée Édouard Vaillant, Vierzon

Lycée Élie Cartan, La Tour-du-Pin

Lycée Émile Combes, Pons

Lycée Émile Duclaux, Aurillac

Lycée Émile Littré, Avranches

Lycée Émile Loubet, Valence

Lycée Émile Zola, Aix-en-Provence

Lycée Émile Zola, Rennes

Lycée Émile Zola, Châteaudun

Lycée Émile Zola, Wattrelos

Lycée Emilie de Breteuil, Montigny-le-Bretonneux

Lycée Emmanuel D'Alzon, Nîmes

Lycée Emmanuel Mounier, Grenoble

Lycée Emmanuel Mounier, Châtenay-Malabry

Lycée Enseignement Général et Technologique Voltaire, Orléans

Lycée Ernest Bichat, Lunéville

Lycée Ernest Couteaux, Saint-Amand-les-Eaux

Lycée Ernest Pérochon, Parthenay

Lycée Ernest Renan, Saint-Brieuc

Lycée Estienne D'Orves, Nice

Lycée et Lycee Professionnel Bellevue, Toulouse

Lycée et Lycée Professionnel Raymond Queneau, Yvetot

Lycée Étienne Bezout, Nemours

Lycée Eugène Delacroix, Maisons-Alfort

Lycée Eugène Delacroix, Drancy

Lycée Eugène Thomas, Le Quesnoy

Lycée Europe Robert Schuman, Cholet

Lycée Evariste Galois (Sartrouville)

Lycée Evariste Galois (Beaumont-sur-Oise)

Lycée Fabert, Metz

Lycée Faidherbe, Lille

Lycée Félix Esclangon, Manosque

Lycée Félix Faure, Beauvais

Lycée Félix Le Dantec, Lannion

Lycée Félix Mayer, Creutzwald

Lycée Fénelon, Cambrai

Lycée Fénelon, Lille

Lycée Fénelon, Paris

Lycée Ferdinand Buisson, Elbeuf

Lycée Ferdinand Foch, Rodez

Lycée Fernand Daguin, Mérignac

Lycée Fernand Darchicourt, Hénin-Beaumont

Lycée Fernand Renaudeau, Cholet

Lycée Flora Tristan, Noisy-le-Grand

Lycée Florent Schmitt, Saint Cloud

Lycée Fragonard, L'Isle-Adam

Lycée Francisque Sarcey, Dourdan

Lycée François Ier, Vitry-le-François

Lycée François Ier, Le Havre

Lycée François Arago, Perpignan

Lycée François Bazin, Charleville-Mézières

Lycée François Couperin, Fontainebleau

Lycée François Ier, Fontainebleau

Lycée François Joseph Talma, Brunoy

Lycée François Magendie, Bordeaux

Lycée François Mauriac, Bordeaux

Lycée François Mauriac - Forez, Andrézieux-Bouthéon

Lycée François Rabelais, Fontenay-le-Comte

Lycée François Truffaut, Beauvais

Lycée François Truffaut, Bondoufle

Lycée François Villon, Les Mureaux

Lycée François Villon, Paris

Lycée Frédéric Chopin, Nancy

Lycée Frédéric et Irène Joliot Curie, Nanterre

Lycée Frédéric Faÿs, Villeurbanne

Lycée Frédéric Joliot- Curie, Aubagne

Lycée Fréderic Mistral, Fresnes

Lycée Frédéric Mistral, Avignon

Lycée Fulbert, Chartres

Lycée Fustel de Coulanges, Massy

Lycée Fustel de Coulanges, Strasbourg

Lycée Gabriel Fauré, Annecy

Lycée Gabriel Fauré, Foix

Lycée Gabriel Fauré, Paris

Lycée Gabriel Guist'Hau, Nantes

Lycée Gabriel Touchard, Le Mans

Lycée Galilee, Combs-la-Ville

Lycée Galilée, Cergy

Lycée Galilée, Franqueville-Saint-Pierre

Lycée Gambetta, Tourcoing

Lycée Gambetta, Arras

Lycée Gaston Bachelard, Chelles

Lycée Gaston Berger, Lille

Lycée Gay Lussac, Chauny

Lycée Gay Lussac, Limoges

Lycée Général et Technologique Louis Pasquet, Arles

Lycée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Étampes

Lycée George Sand, Cosne-Cours-sur-Loire

Lycée George Sand, Le Mée-sur-Seine

Lycée Georges Braque, Argenteuil

Lycée Georges Brassens (Villeneuve-le-Roi)

Lycée Georges Brassens (Évry, Essonne)

Lycée Georges Brassens (Rive-de-Gier)

Lycée Georges Brassens (Neufchâtel-en-Bray)

Lycée Georges Cabanis, Brive-la-Gaillarde

Lycée Georges Clemenceau, Villemomble

Lycée Georges Cuvier, Montbéliard

Lycée Georges de La Tour, Metz

Lycée Georges de La Tour, Nancy

Lycée Georges Dumézil, Vernon

Lycée Gérard de Nerval, Soissons

Lycée Gérard de Nerval, Luzarches

Lycée Gérard Philipe, Bagnols-sur-Cèze

Lycée Giocante de Casabianca, Bastia

Lycée Godart Roger, Épernay

Lycée Grand Air, La Baule-Escoublac

Lycée Grandmont, Tours

Lycée Guez de Balzac, Angoulême

Lycée Guillaume Apollinaire (Thiais)

Lycée Guillaume Apollinaire (Nice)

Lycée Guillaume Budé, Limeil-Brévannes

Lycée Guillaume Fichet, Bonneville

Lycée Guillaume Le Conquérant, Lillebonne

Lycée Gustave Eiffel, Bordeaux

Lycée Gustave Eiffel, Dijon

Lycée Gustave Eiffel, Gagny

Lycée Gustave Eiffel, Cachan

Lycée Gustave Flaubert, Rouen

Lycée Gustave Monod, Enghien-les-Bains

Lycée Guy de Maupassant, Fécamp

Lycée Guy Mollet, Arras

Lycée Haute Follis, Laval

Lycée Hector Berlioz, Vincennes

Lycée Hélène Boucher, Paris

Lycée Hélène Boucher, Thionville

Lycée Henri Avril, Lamballe

Lycée Henri Bergson, Angers

Lycée Henri Bergson, Paris

Lycée Henri Brisson, Vierzon

Lycée Henri Cornat, Valognes

Lycée Henri Darras, Liévin

Lycée Henri-IV, Paris

Lycée Henri Iv, Béziers

Lycée Henri Loritz, Nancy

Lycée Henri Martin, Saint Quentin

Lycée Henri Matisse, Cugnaux

Lycée Henri Meck, Molsheim

Lycée Henri Moissan, Meaux

Lycée Henri Nominé, Sarreguemines

Lycée Henri Parriat, Montceau-les-Mines

Lycée Henri Poincaré, Nancy

Lycée Henri Vincenot, Louhans

Lycée Henri Vogt, Commercy

Lycée Henri Wallon (Valenciennes)

Lycée Henri Wallon (Aubervilliers)

Lycée Hilaire de Chardonnet, Chalon-sur-Saône

Lycée Hippolyte Fontaine, Dijon

Lycée Hoche, Versailles

Lycée Honoré D'Urfé, Saint-Étienne

Lycée Honoré Daumier, Marseille

Lycée Honoré de Balzac, Mitry-Mory

Lycée Hugues Capet, Senlis

Lycée Ile de France, Rennes

Lycée Industriel et Commercial Privé, Tourcoing

Lycée Institution Saint-Malo, Saint-Malo

Lycée International, Ferney-Voltaire

Lycée International de Paris Honoré de Balzac, Paris

Lycée International des Pontonniers, Strasbourg

Lycée Ismaël Dauphin, Cavaillon

Lycée J Amyot, Melun

Lycée J Desfontaines, Melle

Lycée Jacques Amyot, Auxerre

Lycée Jacques Audiberti, Antibes

Lycée Jacques Brel, Vénissieux

Lycée Jacques Brel, La Courneuve

Lycée Jacques Callot, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy

Lycée Jacques Cartier, Saint-Malo

Lycée Jacques Coeur, Bourges

Lycée Jacques Decour, Paris

Lycée Jacques Duhamel, Dole

Lycée Jacques Feyder, Épinay-sur-Seine

Lycée Jacques Marquette, Pont-à-Mousson

Lycée Jacques Monod, Clamart

Lycée Jacques Monod, Saint-Jean-de-Braye

Lycée Jacques Prévert, Taverny

Lycée Jacques Prévert, Pont-Audemer

Lycée Jacques Prévert, Longjumeau

Lycée Jacques Prévert, Boulogne-Billancourt

Lycée Jacques Prévert, Savenay

Lycée Janson de Sailly, Paris

Lycée Jaufré Rudel, Blaye

Lycée Jean Aicard, Hyères

Lycée Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Thionville

Lycée Jean-Baptiste Corot, Douai

Lycée Jean Baptiste de Baudre, Agen

Lycée Jean-Baptiste Dumas, Ales

Lycée Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, Saint-Germain-en-Laye

Lycée Jean Bart, Dunkirk

Lycée Jean Calvin, Noyon

Lycée Jean Dautet, La Rochelle

Lycée Jean de La Fontaine, Château-Thierry

Lycée Jean de La Fontaine, Paris

Lycée Jean de Pange, Sarreguemines

Lycée Jean de Prades, Castelsarrasin

Lycée Jean Durand, Castelnaudary

Lycée Jean Favard, Guéret

Lycée Jean Giraudoux, Châteauroux

Lycée Jean Guehenno, Fougères

Lycée Jean Guéhenno, Flers

Lycée Jean Hippolyte, Jonzac

Lycée Jean Jacques Rousseau, Montmorency

Lycée Jean Jaurès (Montreuil, Seine-Saint-Denis)

Lycée Jean Jaurès (Reims)

Lycée Jean Jaurès (Argenteuil)

Lycée Jean Jaurès (Châtenay-Malabry)

Lycée Jean Joseph Fourier, Auxerre

Lycée Jean Lurçat, Perpignan

Lycée Jean Lurçat, Martigues

Lycée Jean Lurçat, Paris

Lycée Jean Mace, Rennes

Lycée Jean Macé, Vitry-sur-Seine

Lycée Jean Macé, Niort

Lycée Jean Michel, Lons-le-Saunier

Lycée Jean Monnet, Cognac

Lycée Jean Monnet, La Queue-les-Yvelines

Lycée Jean Monnet, Strasbourg

Lycée Jean Monnet, Franconville

Lycée Jean Monnet, Crépy-en-Valois

Lycée Jean Monnet, Montpellier

Lycée Jean Monnet, Vitrolles

Lycée Jean Monnet, Joué-lès-Tours

Lycée Jean Moulin (Béziers)

Lycée Jean Moulin (Draguignan)

Lycée Jean Moulin (Forbach)

Lycée Jean Moulin (Thouars)

Lycée Jean Moulin (Albertville)

Lycée Jean Moulin (Torcy, Seine-et-Marne)

Lycée Jean Moulin (Saint-Amand-Montrond)

Lycée Jean Moulin (Roubaix)

Lycée Jean Moulin (Lyon)

Lycée Jean Moulin (Langon, Gironde)

Lycée Jean Moulin (Pézenas)

Lycée Jean-Paul Sartre, Bron

Lycée Jean Perrin, Marseille

Lycée Jean Perrin, Lambersart

Lycée Jean Perrin, Rezé

Lycée Jean Perrin, Lyon

Lycée Jean Pierre Timbaud, Brétigny-sur-Orge

Lycée Jean Prévost, Montivilliers

Lycée Jean Puy, Roanne

Lycée Jean Racine, Montdidier

Lycée Jean Renoir, Bondy

Lycée Jean Rostand, Chantilly

Lycée Jean Rostand, Caen

Lycée Jean Rostand, Mantes-la-Jolie

Lycée Jean Victor Poncelet, Saint-Avold

Lycée Jean Vilar (Plaisir, Yvelines)

Lycée Jean Vilar (Meaux)

Lycée Jean XXIII, Roubaix

Lycée Jean Zay, Orléans

Lycée Jean Zay, Aulnay-sous-Bois

Lycée Jean Zay, Jarny

LYCÉE Jean-Baptiste Corot, Savigny-sur-Orge

Lycée Jean-Baptiste de La Salle, Lyon

Lycée Jean-Baptiste Say, Paris

Lycée Jean-François Millet, Cherbourg-Octeville

Lycée Jean-Henri Fabre, Carpentras

Lycée Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Sarcelles

Lycée Jeanne D'Arc, Clermont-Ferrand

Lycée Jeanne D'Arc, Rouen

Lycée Jeanne D'Arc, Nancy

Lycée Jeanne D'Arc, Rennes

Lycée Jeanne D'Arc Saint-Ivy, Pontivy

Lycée Jeanne Hachette, Beauvais

Lycée Jehan Ango, Dieppe

Lycée Jehan de Beauce, Chartres

Lycée Jessé de Forest, Avesnes-sur-Helpe

Lycée Joachim du Bellay, Angers

Lycée Joffre, Montpellier

Lycée Joliot Curie, Rennes

Lycée Joliot Curie, Hirson

Lycée Joliot Curie, Dammarie-lès-Lys

Lycée Joliot-Curie, Romilly-sur-Seine

Lycée Joliot-Curie, Sète

Lycée Joseph Loth, Pontivy

Lycée Joseph Marie Carriat, Bourg-en-Bresse

Lycée Joubert, Ancenis

Lycée Jules Ferry, Versailles

Lycée Jules Ferry, Coulommiers

Lycée Jules Ferry, Saint-Dié-des-Vosges

Lycée Jules-Ferry, Paris

Lycée Jules Ferry, Conflans-Sainte-Honorine

Lycée Jules Fil, Carcassonne

Lycée Jules Haag, Besançon

Lycée Jules Mousseron, Denain

Lycée Jules Renard, Nevers

Lycée Jules Uhry, Creil

Lycée Jules Verne, Nantes

Lycée Julie Daubié, Rombas

Lycée Juliette Récamier, Lyon

Lycée Julliot de La Morandière, Granville

Lycée Kerichen, Brest

Lycée Kerneuzec, Quimperlé

Lycée Kléber, Strasbourg

Lycée l'Assomption, Rennes

Lycée l'Essouriau, Les Ulis

Lycée l'Oiselet, Bourgoin-Jallieu

Lycée la Briquerie, Thionville

Lycée La Bruyère, Versailles

Lycée la Colinière, Nantes

Lycée la Croix Rouge, Brest

Lycée La Fayette, Champagne-sur-Seine

Lycée la Folie Saint-James, Neuilly-sur-Seine

Lycée la Herdrie, Basse-Goulaine

Lycée la Hotoie, Amiens

Lycée La Martinière Duchère, Lyon

Lycée La Martinière Monplaisir, Lyon

Lycée La Martinière Terreaux, Lyon

Lycée La Mennais, Ploërmel

Lycée La Pléiade, Pont-de-Chéruy

Lycée la Providence, Amiens

Lycée La Versoie, Thonon-les-Bains

Lycée Lacassagne, Lyon

Lycée Laetitia Bonaparte, Ajaccio

Lycée Lakanal, Sceaux

Lycée Lalande, Bourg-en-Bresse

Lycée Lamarck, Albert

Lycée Lamartine, Belley

Lycée Lamartine, Mâcon

Lycée Lamartine, Paris

Lycée Langevin Wallon, Champigny-sur-Marne

Lycée Laure Gatet, Périgueux

Lycée Lavoisier, Auchel

Lycée Lavoisier, Paris

Lycée Lazare Carnot, Arras

Lycée Le Castel, Dijon

Lycée Le Corbusier (Poissy)

Lycée Le Corbusier (Aubervilliers)

Lycée Le Grand Chênois, Montbéliard

Lycée Le Likes, Quimper

Lycée Le Mans Sud, Le Mans

Lycée Le Sacré Coeur, Angers

Lycée Le Verrier, Saint-Lô

Lycée Léon Blum (Anc Lycée du Lac), Créteil

Lycée Léon Blum Site Jean Jaurès, Le Creusot

Lycée Léon Bourgeois, Épernay

Lycée Léonard de Vinci, Amboise

Lycée Léonard de Vinci, Villefontaine

Lycée Léonard de Vinci, Melun

Lycée Léonard de Vinci, Saint-Michel-sur-Orge

Lycée Léonard Limosin, Limoges

Lycée Léonce Vieljeux, La Rochelle

Lycée Les Arcades, Dijon

Lycée Les Bruyères, Sotteville-lès-Rouen

Lycée Les Catalins, Montélimar

Lycée Les Eyrieux, Bagnols-sur-Cèze

Lycée Les Fontenelles, Louviers

Lycée Les Lombards, Troyes

Lycée Lesven, Brest

Lycée Libergier, Reims

Lycée Livet, Nantes

Lycée Louis Aragon, Givors

Lycée Louis Armand, Poitiers

Lycée Louis Armand, Villefranche-sur-Saône

Lycée Louis Armand, Paris

Lycée Louis Armand, Chambéry

Lycée Louis Armand, Mulhouse

Lycée Louis Audouin Dubreuil, Saint-Jean-d'Angély

Lycée Louis Barthou, Pau

Lycée Louis Bascan, Rambouillet

Lycée Louis Bertrand, Briey

Lycée Louis Blaringhem, Bethune

Lycée Louis Davier, Joigny

Lycée Louis de Foix, Bayonne

Lycée Louis Feuillade, Lunel

Lycée Louis Jouvet, Taverny

Lycée Louis Lapicque, Épinal

Lycée Louis Le Grand, Paris

Lycée Louis Liard, Falaise

Lycée Louis Majorelle, Toul

Lycée Louis Pasteur (Somain), Somain

Lycée Louis Pasteur (Hénin-Beaumont), Hénin-Beaumont

Lycée Pasteur, Neuilly-sur-Seine

Lycée Louis Pasteur (Strasbourg), Strasbourg

Lycée Louis Pergaud, Besançon

Lycée Louis Thuillier, Amiens

Lycée Louis Vincent, Metz

Lycée Louise Michel, Grenoble

Lycée Louise Michel, Gisors

Lycée Louise Michel, Champigny-sur-Marne

Lycée Louise Michel, Bobigny

Lycée Lumière, Lyon

Lycée Madame de Staël, Montluçon

Lycée Madeleine Michelis, Amiens

Lycée Maine de Biran, Bergerac

Lycée Malherbe, Caen

Lycée Mangin, Sarrebourg

Lycée Mansart, Saint-Cyr-l'École

Lycée Marceau, Chartres

Lycée Marcel Gambier, Lisieux

Lycée Marcel Gimond, Aubenas

Lycée Marcel Pagnol, Marseille

Lycée Marcel Pagnol, Athis-Mons

Lycée Marcel Sembat, Sotteville-lès-Rouen

Lycée Marcelin Berthelot, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés

Lycée Marcelin Berthelot, Châtellerault

Lycée Marcelin Berthelot, Toulouse

Lycée Marcelin Berthelot, Pantin

Lycée Marguerite de Flandre, Gondecourt

Lycée Marguerite de Navarre, Bourges

Lycée Marguerite de Navarre, Alençon

Lycée Marguerite de Valois, Angoulême

Lycée Marguerite Yourcenar, Beuvry

Lycée Margueritte, Verdun

Lycée Margueritte Yourcenar, Le Mans

Lycée Marie Curie, Versailles

Lycée Marie Curie, Tarbes

Lycée Marie Curie, Nogent-sur-Oise

Lycée Marie Curie, Sceaux

Lycée Marie Curie, Marseille

Lycée Marie Curie, Échirolles

Lycée Marie Curie, Strasbourg

Lycée Marie de Champagne, Troyes

Lycée Marie Laurencin, Mennecy

Lycée Marie Madeleine Fourcade, Gardanne

Lycée Mariette, Boulogne-sur-Mer

Lycée Marseilleveyre, Marseille

Lycée Mas de Tesse, Montpellier

Lycée Massena, Nice

Lycée Maurice Genevoix, Marignane

Lycée Maurice Genevoix, Bressuire

Lycée Maurice Genevoix, Ingré

Lycée Maurice Ravel, Paris

Lycée Max Linder, Libourne

Lycée Maxence Van Der Meersch, Roubaix

Lycée Maximilien Sorre, Cachan

Lycée Mermoz, Montpellier

Lycée Mézeray, Argentan

Lycée Michel Anguier, Eu

Lycée Michel de Montaigne, Mulhouse

Lycée Michel Montaigne, Bordeaux

Lycée Michelet, Vanves

Lycée Michelet, Montauban

Lycée Michelet, Marseille

Lycée Militaire, Aix-en-Provence

Lycée Militaire D'Autun, Autun

Lycée Mireille Grenet, Compiègne

Lycée Molière, Paris

Lycée Monge, Chambéry

Lycée Monge, Charleville-Mézières

Lycée Mont Blanc René Dayve, Passy

Lycée Montaigne, Paris

Lycée Montaury, Nîmes

Lycée Montchapet, Dijon

Lycée Montesquieu, Le Mans

Lycée Montesquieu, Bordeaux

Lycée Montesquieu, Herblay

Lycée Montgrand, Marseille

Lycée Montmajour, Arles

Lycée Murat, Issoire

Lycée Napoléon, L'Aigle

Lycée Nevers, Montpellier

Lycée Newton Enrea, Clichy

Lycée Nicephore Niepce, Chalon-sur-Saône

Lycée Nicolas Brémontier, Bordeaux

Lycée Notre-Dame, Guingamp

Lycée Notre-Dame, Le Mans

Lycée Notre-Dame, Fontenay-le-Comte

Lycée Notre-Dame, Dijon

Lycée Notre-Dame, Valenciennes

Lycée Notre-Dame, Boulogne-Billancourt

Lycée Notre-Dame - Saint Sigisbert, Nancy

Lycée Notre-Dame D'Annay, Lille

Lycée Notre-Dame D'Espérance, Saint-Nazaire

Lycée Notre-Dame de Bury, Margency

Lycée Notre-Dame de Grâce, Maubeuge

Lycée Notre-Dame de la Merci, Montpellier

Lycée Notre-Dame de la Paix, Ploemeur

Lycée Notre-Dame de la Paix, Lille

Lycée Notre-Dame des Dunes, Dunkirk

Lycée Notre-Dame des Oiseaux, Verneuil-sur-Seine

Lycée Notre-Dame du Bon Secours, Perpignan

Lycée Notre-Dame du Grandchamp, Versailles

Lycée Notre-Dame du Roc, La Roche-sur-Yon

Lycée Odilon Redon, Pauillac

Lycée Oehmichen, Châlons-en-Champagne

Lycée Olympe de Gouges, Noisy-le-Sec

Lycée Ozanam, Lille

Lycée Pierre-Simon de Laplace, Caen

Lycée P&M Curie Saint Lô, Saint-Lô

Lycée P. Bayen, Châlons-en-Champagne

Lycée Pablo Néruda, Saint-Martin-d'Hères

Lycée Pablo Néruda, Dieppe

Lycée Pablo Picasso, Fontenay-sous-Bois

Lycée Pablo Picasso, Avion

Lycée Pape Clément, Pessac

Lycée Parc Chabrières, Oullins

Lycée Parc des Loges, Évry

Lycée Pasteur (Besançon), Besançon

Lycée Paul Bert, Paris

Lycée Paul Cézanne, Aix-en-Provence

Lycée Paul Claudel, Laon

Lycée Paul Doumer, Le Perreux-sur-Marne

Lycée Paul Duez, Cambrai

Lycée Paul Éluard, Saint-Denis

Lycée Paul Guérin, Niort

Lycée Paul Hazard, Armentières

Lycée Paul Héroult, Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne

Lycée Paul Langevin, Martigues

Lycée Paul Langevin, Suresnes

Lycée Paul Langevin, Beauvais

Lycée Paul Lapie, Courbevoie

Lycée Paul Painlevé, Oyonnax

Lycée Paul Sabatier, Carcassonne

Lycée Paul Valéry, Paris

Lycée Paul Valéry, Sète

Lycée Paul-Louis Courier, Tours

Lycée Philibert Dessaignes, Blois

Lycée Philippe de Girard, Avignon

Lycée Pierre Bayle, Sedan

Lycée Pierre Bourdan, Guéret

Lycée Pierre Brossolette, Villeurbanne

Lycée Pierre Corneille, La Celle-Saint-Cloud

Lycée Pierre D'Ailly, Compiègne

Lycée Pierre D'Aragon, Muret

Lycée Pierre de Coubertin, Calais

Lycée Pierre de Coubertin, Meaux

Lycée Pierre-de-Fermat, Toulouse

Lycée Pierre de la Ramée, Saint Quentin

Lycée Pierre et Marie Curie, Châteauroux

Lycée Pierre et Marie Curie, Neufchateau

Lycée Pierre Forest, Maubeuge

Lycée Pierre Mechain, Laon

Lycée Pierre Mendès France (Vitrolles, Bouches-du-Rhône)

Lycée Pierre Mendès France (La Roche-sur-Yon)

Lycée Pierre Mendès France (Péronne, Somme)

Lycée Pierre Mendès France (Épinal)

Lycée Pierre Mendès France (Savigny-le-Temple)

Lycée Pierre Termier, Grenoble

Lycée Polyvalent Augustin Cournot, Gray

Lycée Polyvalent Baudelaire, Cran-Gevrier

Lycée Polyvalent Camille See, Colmar

Lycée Polyvalent Elie Faure, Lormont

Lycée Polyvalent Georges Colomb, Lure

Lycée Polyvalent Georges Leygues, Villeneuve-sur-Lot

Lycée Polyvalent International Victor-Hugo, Colomiers

Lycée Polyvalent Jean Baptiste Vuillaume, Mirecourt

Lycée Polyvalent Jean Mermoz, Saint-Louis

Lycée Polyvalent Jean Rostand, Strasbourg

Lycée Polyvalent Marlioz, Aix-les-Bains

Lycée Polyvalent Nicolas Appert, Orvault

Lycée Polyvalent Pardailhan, Auch

Lycée Polyvalent Philibert Delorme, L'Isle-d'Abeau

Lycée Polyvalent Régional, Sens

Lycée Polyvalent Régional Gaston Crampe, Aire-sur-l'Adour

Lycée Polyvalent Regional Maurice Merleau Ponty, Rochefort

Lycée Polyvalent Régional Pré de Cordy, Sarlat-la-Canéda

Lycée Polyvalent Régional Voillaume, Aulnay-sous-Bois

Lycée Polyvalent Stanislas, Wissembourg

Lycée Polyvalent Xavier Marmier, Pontarlier

Lycée Pontus de Thiard, Chalon-sur-Saône

Lycée Porte de Normandie, Verneuil-sur-Avre

Lycée Porte Océane, Le Havre

Lycée Portes de l'Oisans, Vizille

Lycée Pothier, Orléans

Lycée Privé Carcado Saisseval, Paris

Lycée Privé de l'Assomption, Bordeaux

Lycée Privé Godefroy de Bouillon, Clermont-Ferrand

Lycée Privé Jehanne D'Arc, Tourcoing

Lycée Privé la Sagesse, Valenciennes

Lycée Privé la Sagesse, Cambrai

Lycée Privé Les Feuillants, Poitiers

Lycée Privé Notre-Dame, Chartres

Lycée Privé Notre-Dame du Marais, Fougères

Lycée Privé Polyvalent Saint-Paul, Lens

Lycée Privé Saint Joseph, Le Havre

Lycée Privé Saint-André Notre-Dame, Niort

Lycée Privé Saint-François de Sales, Évreux

Lycée Privé Saint-Joseph, Bressuire

Lycée Privé Sainte-Marie de La Bastide, Bordeaux

Lycée Privé Sainte-Marie de Nevers, Toulouse

Lycée Privé Sainte-Marie des Champs, Toulouse

Lycée Privé Stanislas, Paris

Lycée Professionnel Marie Balavenne, Saint Brieuc

Lycée Professionnel Paul Langevin, Beaucaire

Lycée Public, Loudéac

Lycée Public Beaumont, Redon

Lycée Public Chateaubriand, Rennes

Lycée Rabelais, Chinon

Lycée Rabelais, Saint Brieuc

Lycée Rabelais, Meudon

Lycée Racine, Paris

Lycée Raoul Dautry, Limoges

Lycée Raoul Follereau, Nevers

Lycée Raoul Follereau, Belfort

Lycée Raspail, Paris

Lycée Raymond Naves, Toulouse

Lycée Raymond Poincaré, Bar-le-Duc

Lycée Raymond Queneau, Villeneuve-d'Ascq

Lycée Raynouard, Brignoles

Lycée Réaumur, Laval

Lycée Rémi Belleau, Nogent-le-Rotrou

Lycée René Auffray, Clichy

Lycée René Cassin (Bayonne)

Lycée René Cassin (Arpajon)

Lycée René Cassin (Gonesse)

Lycée René Descartes, Rennes

Lycée René Josué Valin, La Rochelle

Lycée Richelieu, Rueil-Malmaison

Lycée Robert de Luzarches, Amiens

Lycée Robert Doisneau, Corbeil-Essonnes

Lycée Robert Garnier, La Ferté-Bernard

Lycée Robert Schuman, Metz

Lycée Robert Schuman, Le Havre

Lycée Robert Schuman, Haguenau

Lycée Robert Schuman, Colombes

Lycée Robespierre, Arras

Lycée Rodin, Paris

Lycée Romain Rolland (Argenteuil)

Lycée Romain Rolland (Goussainville, Val-d'Oise)

Lycée Romain Rolland (Clamecy, Nièvre)

Lycée Romain-Rolland, Ivry-sur-Seine

Lycée Ronsard, Vendôme

Lycée Roosevelt, Reims

Lycée Rotrou, Dreux

Lycée Rouvière, Toulon

Lycée Sacré Coeur, Saint-Brieuc

Lycée Sadi Carnot, Saumur

Lycée Saint Exupéry, Saint-Dizier

Lycée Saint-Ambroise, Chambéry

Lycée Saint-Aspais, Melun

Lycée Saint-Benigne, Dijon

Lycée Saint-Charles, Marseille

Lycée Saint-Charles, Arras

Lycée Saint-Charles, Athis-Mons

Lycée Saint-Charles, Saint Brieuc

Lycée Saint Cricq, Pau

Lycée Saint-Esprit, Beauvais

Lycée Saint-Exupéry, Mantes-la-Jolie

Lycée Saint-Exupéry, Marseille

Lycée Saint-Exupéry, Créteil

Lycée Saint-Exupéry, Lyon

Lycée Saint-Félix, Nantes

Lycée Saint-Gabriel, Saint-Laurent-sur-Sèvre

Lycée Saint-Genès, Bordeaux

Lycée Saint-Jacques, Hazebrouck

Lycée Saint-Jean, Douai

Lycée Saint-Jean-Baptiste de La Salle, Nantes

Lycée Saint-John-Perse, Pau

Lycée Saint-Joseph, Avignon

Lycée Saint-Joseph, Épinal

Lycée Saint-Joseph, La Roche-sur-Yon

Lycée Saint-Joseph, Dijon

Lycée Saint-Joseph, Rodez

Lycée Saint-Jude, Armentières

Lycée Saint-Just, Lyon

Lycée Saint-Louis, Paris

Lycée Saint-Louis, Lorient

Lycée Saint-Marc, Lyon

Lycée Saint-Martin, Rennes

Lycée Saint-Martin, Angers

Lycée Saint-Michel, Reims

Lycée Saint-Paul, Vannes

Lycée Saint-Paul, Lille

Lycée Saint-Paul Bourdon-Blanc, Orléans

Lycée Saint-Pierre, Brunoy

Lycée Saint-Pierre de La Joliverie, Saint-Sébastien-sur-Loire

Lycée Saint-Rémi, Amiens

Lycée Saint-Rémy, Soissons

Lycée Saint-Sauveur, Redon

Lycée Saint-Sernin, Toulouse

Lycée Saint-Thomas d'Aquin, Oullins

Lycée Saint-Vaast-Saint-Dominique, Béthune

Lycée Saint-Vincent, Senlis

Lycée Saint-Vincent de Paul, Loos

Lycée Saint-Vincent de Paul, Châlons-en-Champagne

Lycée Saint-Vincent La Providence, Rennes

Lycée Sainte-Croix Saint-Euverte, Orléans

Lycée Sainte-Elisabeth, Nancy

Lycée Sainte-Famille, Amiens

Lycée Sainte-Geneviève, Rennes

Lycée Sainte-Marie, Cholet

Lycée Sainte-Marie, Antony

Lycée Sainte-Marie, Meaux

Lycée Sainte-Marie, Caen

Lycée Sainte-Marie Saint-Dominique, Bourges

Lycée Salvador Allende, Hérouville-Saint-Clair

Lycée Savary de Mauleon, Les Sables-d'Olonne

Lycée Scheurer Kestner, Thann

Lycée Sévigné, Tourcoing

Lycée Sévigné, Charleville-Mézières

Lycée Simone Weil, Le Puy-en-Velay

Lycée Simone Weil, Dijon

Lycée Sophie Barat, Châtenay-Malabry

Lycée Sophie Berthelot, Calais

Lycée Sophie Germain, Paris

Lycée Suzanne Valadon, Limoges

Lycée Talensac, Nantes

Lycée Technique, Lorgues

Lycée Technique Charles Bourseul, Douai

Lycée Technique Léonard de Vinci, Soissons

Lycée Technique Privé Saint Nicolas, Paris

Lycée Technique Privé Sainte Ursule, Caen

Lycée Technique Sidoine Apollinaire, Clermont-Ferrand

Lycée Technologique Dhuoda, Nîmes

Lycée Technologique Jean Monnet, Aurillac

Lycée Théodore Aubanel, Avignon

Lycée Théophile Gautier, Tarbes

Lycée Thibaut de Champagne, Provins

Lycée Thierry Maulnier, Nice

Lycée Thiers, Marseille

Lycée Thomas Corneille, Barentin

Lycée Toulouse-Lautrec, Toulouse

Lycée Turgot, Paris

Lycée Turgot, Limoges

Lycée Urbain Mongazon, Angers

Lycée Uruguay France, Avon

Lycée Val de Durance, Pertuis

Lycée Val de Garonne, Marmande

Lycée Val de Seine, Le Grand-Quevilly

Lycée Valentine Labbé, La Madeleine

Lycée Van Dongen, Lagny-sur-Marne

Lycée Van Gogh, Ermont

Lycée Vauban, Dunkirk

Lycée Vaucanson, Grenoble

Lycée Vaugelas, Chambéry

Lycée Vauvenargues, Aix-en-Provence

Lycée Verlaine, Rethel

Lycée Vial, Nantes

Lycée Victor Duruy, Paris

Lycée Victor Duruy, Mont-de-Marsan

Lycée Victor Grignard, Cherbourg-Octeville

Lycée Victor Hugo, Besançon

Lycée Victor Hugo, Caen

Lycée Victor Hugo, Carpentras

Lycée Victor Hugo, Hennebont

Lycée Victor Hugo, Marseille

Lycée Victor Hugo, Paris

Lycée Victor Hugo, Poitiers

Lycée Victor Louis (Anc Lycée de Talence), Talence

Lycée Viette, Montbéliard

Lycée Villars, Valenciennes

Lycée Vincent d'Indy, Privas

Lycée Vincent van Gogh, Aubergenville

Lycée Voltaire, Paris

Lycée Voltaire, Wingles

Lycée Watteau, Valenciennes

Lycée Yves Kernanec, Marcq-en-Barœul

Lycée Frédéric Mistral (Fresnes)

Lycée Frédéric Mistral is a sixth-form college/senior high school in Fresnes, Val-de-Marne, France, in the Paris metropolitan area.

As of 2016 there are about 1,000 general high school students and 500 vocational high school students with a combined total of fewer than 1,500 students. As of 2011 it had about 1,600 students.In 2016 Le Parisien described the school as "prestigious". As of 2011 it was ranked as the no. 1 senior high/sixth-form in the Academy of Créteil. Its Baccalaureate pass rate in 2010 was 96.1%.

Lycée Georges Brassens (Villeneuve-le-Roi)

Lycée Georges Brassens is a senior high school/sixth-form college in Villeneuve-le-Roi, Val-de-Marne, France, in the Paris metropolitan area.

Lycée Guillaume Apollinaire (Thiais)

Lycée Guillaume Apollinaire is a senior high school in Thiais, Val-de-Marne, France, in the Paris metropolitan area.

As of 2016 the school has 1,150 general students and 250 baccalaureat students.

Lycée Maximilien Perret

Lycée Maximilien Perret is a comprehensive senior high school/sixth-form college in Alfortville, Val-de-Marne, France, in the Paris metropolitan area. It has general and vocational education

It opened in 1997.

Lycée Maximilien Sorre

Lycée Maximilien Sorre (LMS) is a sixth-form college/senior high school in Cachan, Val de Marne, France, in the Paris metropolitan area.

Lycée intercommunal Darius-Milhaud

Lycée intercommunal Darius Milhaud is a senior high school in Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France, in the Paris metropolitan area. It serves residents of the communes of Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, Arcueil, Gentilly, and Villejuif, in Val-de-Marne. It is named after the French composer Darius Milhaud.

Lycée Général Darius Milhaud and Lycée Professionnel Erik Satie were a part of a school complex in September 1976. The unified school was established in 1991 from the merger of Milhaud and Satie.

Lycée polyvalent Pauline Roland

Lycée polyvalent Pauline Roland is a senior high school/sixth-form college in the Nord/Ouest neighbourhood of Chevilly-Larue, Val-de-Marne, France, in the Paris metropolitan area. It is in proximity to the border with l'Haÿ-les-Roses. The school building has a capacity of 1,188 students.

Musée Edouard Branly

The Musée Édouard Branly is a museum dedicated to the work of radio pioneer Édouard Branly (1844-1940). It is located in the 6th arrondissement at the Institut Catholique de Paris-ISEP, 21, rue d'Assas, Paris, France, and open by appointment only.The museum contains the research laboratory and equipment used by Édouard Branly, a physics professor at the Institut Catholique de Paris and inventor of the first widely used radio receiver, the Branly coherer circa 1884-1886. Its collection includes a number of early devices used in wireless experiments, such as electrolytic detectors, insulated tubes filled with metal filings, a Righi oscillator, generators, electromagnets, metallic blades mounted on glass, electrical contacts, and a column of six steel balls stacked in a glass cylinder.

Paul Tournon

Paul Tournon (b. 19 February 1881 - 22 December 1964) was a French architect. He was born in Marseille and died in Paris.

He was an architect in chief of many French civil buildings and national palaces, and a member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts.

He is known for his reinforced concrete religious buildings such as the Église Sainte-Thérèse-de-l'Enfant-Jésus in Élisabethville (Yvelines), with extensive sculptural work by sculptor Carlo Sarrabezolles. Also, Tournon designed the Église du Saint-Esprit in Paris, Cathédrale du Sacré-Cœur in Casablanca and several churches in Morocco.

Tournon was the son-in-law of Édouard Branly, the husband of Élisabeth Branly, painter, and the father of two girls, Florence Tournon-Branly, author of stained glasses, and Marion Tournon-Branly, architect and professor at the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts and the Fontainebleau Schools.

Route nationale 25

The Route nationale 25 is a motorway in northern France. It connects the towns of Amiens and Arras and is approximately 68 km long.

Élisabeth, Countess Greffulhe

Marie Anatole Louise Élisabeth, Countess Greffulhe (née de Riquet de Caraman-Chimay; 11 July 1860 – 21 August 1952) was a French socialite, known as a renowned beauty and queen of the salons of the Faubourg Saint-Germain in Paris.

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