Çayönü

Çayönü Tepesi is a Neolithic settlement in southeastern Turkey which prospered from circa 8,630 to 6,800 BC.[1] It is located forty kilometres north-west of Diyarbakır, at the foot of the Taurus mountains. It lies near the Boğazçay, a tributary of the upper Tigris River and the Bestakot, an intermittent stream.

Çayönü
Çayonu
The site of Çayönü, in southeastern Turkey
Çayönü is located in Near East
Çayönü
Shown within Near East
Çayönü is located in Turkey
Çayönü
Çayönü (Turkey)
LocationDiyarbakır Province, Turkey
Coordinates38°12′59″N 39°43′35″E / 38.21639°N 39.72639°ECoordinates: 38°12′59″N 39°43′35″E / 38.21639°N 39.72639°E
TypeSettlement
History
Founded8,630 BC[1]
Abandoned6,800 BC[1]
PeriodsNeolithic

Archaeology

Cayönü - Zellplangebäude
Cayönü ruins.
Cayönü - skull-building
So-called skull building
Cayönü - Grillplangebäude
Grill architecture

The site was excavated for 16 seasons between 1964 and 1991, initially by Robert John Braidwood and Halet Çambel and later by Mehmet Özdoğan and Aslı Erim Özdoğan.[2][3] The settlement covers the periods of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA), the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB), and the Pottery Neolithic (PN).

The stratigraphy is divided into the following subphases according to the dominant architecture:[4]

  • round, PPNA
  • grill, PPNA
  • channeled, Early PPNB
  • cobble paved, Middle PPNB
  • cell, Late PPNB
  • large room, final PPNB

An analysis of blood found at the site suggested that human sacrifice occurred there.[5]

Origin of domestication

Animal life - domestication of pigs and cattle

Çayönü is possibly the place where the pig (Sus scrofa) was first domesticated.[6]

Farming - cultivation of cereals

Genetic studies of emmer wheat, the precursor of most current wheat species, show that the slopes of Mount Karaca (Karaca Dağ), which is located in close vicinity to Çayönü, was the location of first domestication. A different DNA approach pointed to Kartal Daği.[7]

Robert Braidwood wrote that "insofar as unit HA can be considered as representing all of the major pre-historic occupation at Cayonu, cultivated emmer along with cultivated einkorn was present from the earliest sub-phase."[8]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Collins, Andrew (2014). Gobekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods: The Temple of the Watchers and the Discovery of Eden. Simon and Schuster. p. 93. ISBN 9781591438359.
  2. ^ Çambel, H., Braidwood, R.J. (Eds.), The Joint Istanbul-Chicago Universities’ Prehistoric Research in Southeastern Anatolia. Istanbul University Publications 2589, Istanbul, 1980
  3. ^ Özdoğan A. Çayönü In: Özdoğan M., Başgelen N., editors. Neolithic in Turkey: The Cradle of Civilization, New Discoveries. EGE Yayınları; Istanbul, pp. 35–64, 1999
  4. ^ Pearson, J; Grove, M; Ozbek, M; Hongo, H (2013). "Food and social complexity at Çayönü Tepesi, southeastern Anatolia: Stable isotope evidence of differentiation in diet according to burial practice and sex in the early Neolithic". J Anthropol Archaeol. 32: 180–189. doi:10.1016/j.jaa.2013.01.002. PMC 4066944. PMID 24976671.
  5. ^ Thomas H. Loy and Andrée R. Wood, Blood Residue Analysis at Çayönü Tepesi, Turkey, Journal of Field Archaeology, vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 451-460, (Winter, 1989)
  6. ^ Ervynck A , Dobney K , Hongo H , Meadow R, Born Free? New Evidence for the Status of Sus scrofa at Neolithic Çayönü Tepesi (Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey), Paléorient, vol. 27, pp. 47–73, 2002
  7. ^ [1] Peter Civáň, Zuzana Ivaničová, Terence A. Brown, Reticulated Origin of Domesticated Emmer Wheat Supports a Dynamic Model for the Emergence of Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent, PLOS One, November 29, 2013
  8. ^ Beginnings of Village-Farming Communities in Southeastern Turkey, 1972 by Braidwood et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 71, No. 2, pp. 568-572, February 1974

External links

  1. ^ Liverani, Mario (2013). The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. Routledge. p. 13, Table 1.1 "Chronology of the Ancient Near East". ISBN 9781134750917.
  2. ^ a b Shukurov, Anvar; Sarson, Graeme R.; Gangal, Kavita (7 May 2014). "The Near-Eastern Roots of the Neolithic in South Asia". PLOS ONE. 9 (5): 1-20 and Appendix S1. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095714. ISSN 1932-6203.
  3. ^ Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Arpin, Trina; Pan, Yan; Cohen, David; Goldberg, Paul; Zhang, Chi; Wu, Xiaohong (29 June 2012). "Early Pottery at 20,000 Years Ago in Xianrendong Cave, China". Science. 336 (6089): 1696–1700. doi:10.1126/science.1218643. ISSN 0036-8075.
  4. ^ Thorpe, I. J. (2003). The Origins of Agriculture in Europe. Routledge. p. 14. ISBN 9781134620104.
  5. ^ Price, T. Douglas (2000). Europe's First Farmers. Cambridge University Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780521665728.
  6. ^ Jr, William H. Stiebing; Helft, Susan N. (2017). Ancient Near Eastern History and Culture. Routledge. p. 25. ISBN 9781134880836.
Chia Jani

Chia Jani is an archaeological site in Iran, located along the Qouchemi stream, which flows to the Ravand River about 3 km (1.9 mi) south, in south central part of the Islamabad Plain in the Central-West Zagros Mountains.

Domestic pig

The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus or only Sus domesticus), often called swine, hog, or simply pig when there is no need to distinguish it from other pigs, is a domesticated large, even-toed ungulate. It is variously considered a subspecies of the Eurasian boar or a distinct species. The domestic pig's head-plus-body-length ranges from 0.9 to 1.8 m (35 to 71 in), and adult pigs typically weigh between 50 and 350 kg (110 and 770 lb), with well-fed individuals often exceeding this weight range. The size and weight of a hog largely depends on its breed. Compared to other artiodactyls, its head is relatively long, pointed, and free of warts. Even-toed ungulates are generally herbivorous, but the domestic pig is an omnivore, like its wild relative.

When used as livestock, domestic pigs are farmed primarily for the consumption of their flesh, called pork. The animal's bones, hide, and bristles are also used in commercial products. Domestic pigs, especially miniature breeds, are kept as pets.

Einkorn wheat

Einkorn wheat (from German Einkorn, literally "single grain") can refer either to the wild species of wheat, Triticum boeoticum, or to the domesticated form, Triticum monococcum. The wild and domesticated forms are either considered separate species, as here, or as subspecies: Triticum monococcum subsp. boeoticum (wild) and T. monococcum subsp. monococcum (domesticated). Einkorn is a diploid species (2n = 14 chromosomes) of hulled wheat, with tough glumes ('husks') that tightly enclose the grains. The cultivated form is similar to the wild, except that the ear stays intact when ripe and the seeds are larger. The domestic form is known as "petit épeautre" in French, "Einkorn" in German, "einkorn" or "littlespelt" in English, "piccolo farro" in Italian and "escanda menor" in Spanish. The name refers to the fact that each spikelet contains only one grain.

Einkorn wheat was one of the first plants to be domesticated and cultivated. The earliest clear evidence of the domestication of einkorn dates from 10,600 to 9,900 years before present (8650 BCE to 7950 BCE) from Çayönü and Cafer Höyük, two Early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B archaeological sites in southern Turkey. Remnants of einkorn were found with the iceman mummy Ötzi, dated to 3100 BCE.

Ergani

Ergani (Ottoman Turkish: عثمانيه‎ Osmaniye, Kurdish: Erxenî‎, Zazaki: Erğeni), formerly known as Arghni or Arghana, is a district of Diyarbakır Province of Turkey. The mayor is Ramazan Kartalmiş (BDP).

Gazimağusa District

Gazimağusa District is a district of Northern Cyprus It is divided into three sub-districts: Mağusa Sub-district, Akdoğan Sub-district and Geçitkale Sub-district. Its capital is Famagusta (Turkish: Gazimağusa).

Its population was 69,838 in the 2011 census. The current Governor is Beran Bertuğ. İskele District was separated from Gazimağusa (Famagusta) District in 1998.

Hacilar

Hacilar is an early human settlement in southwestern Turkey, 23 km south of present-day Burdur. It has been dated back 7040 BC at its earliest stage of development. Archaeological remains indicate that the site was abandoned and reoccupied on more than one occasion in its history.

Kalopsida

Kalopsida (Greek: Καλοψίδα; Turkish: Çayönü) is a village in the Famagusta District of Cyprus, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) east of Lysi. It is under the de facto control of Northern Cyprus.

Before 1974, Kalopsida was an exclusively Greek Cypriot village; its residents were displaced during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. In 1973, 1,023 Greek Cypriots lived in Kalopsida. Presently, it is inhabited by displaced Turkish Cypriots from the south and some families from Turkey. It was renamed Çayönü in Turkish in 1975; Çayönü is the Turkish name of Paramali, which is where many of the Turkish Cypriots who now live in Kalopsida originate from.Kalopsidiotes (pronounced [kalopsiˈθcotes]; residents of Kalopsida) were known for being very brave and constantly carrying knives, which they regarded as a symbol of pride.

The village has a football club (Çayönü) in Northern Cyprus K-Pet 2nd League.

Lahuradewa

Lahuradewa (Lat. 26°46' N; Long. 82°57' E) is located in Sant Kabir Nagar District, in Sarayupar (Trans-Sarayu) region of the Upper Gangetic Plain in Uttar Pradesh state of India. The Sarayupar Plain is bounded by the Sarayu River in the west and south, Nepalese Terai in the north and the Gandak River in the east.

The site is noted to have been occupied as early as 9,000 BCE, and by 7,000-6000 BCE it provides the oldest evidence of ceramics in South Asia.Excavations reported earliest archaeological sites in South Asia for cultivation of rice, with Lahuradewa Period IA giving samples that were dated by AMS radiocarbon to 6,400 BCE.

List of ancient settlements in Turkey

Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.

List of football clubs in Northern Cyprus

This is a list of active association football clubs in Northern Cyprus as of 2017-2018 season.

List of populated places in Batman Province

Below is the list of populated places in Batman Province, Turkey by the districts. In the following lists first place in each list is the administrative center of the district

Malia, Cyprus

Malia (Greek: Μαλλιά, Turkish: Malya or Bağlarbaşı) is a village in the Limassol District of Cyprus, located 4 km south of Omodos.

The village is located south of Troodos wine area almost thirty kilometers northwest of the city of Limassol. The village’s name appears to come from the Greek "mallia," meaning "hair." Goodwin claims that "mallia" also means "sheep" in ancient Arcadian dialect. In 1958 Turkish Cypriots adopted the alternative name Bağlarbaşı, literally meaning something like "the best vineyard."

Historical Population

As can be seen in the chart below, Malia/Bağlarbaşı was a mixed village from the Ottoman period. The population of the village increased throughout the British period, rising from 494 persons in 1891 to 712 in 1960. The Turkish Cypriots always constituted the clear majority in the village. In 1960, Turkish Cypriots made up 88% of the village’s population.

Displacement:

No one was displaced during the emergency years of the late 1950s. However, in January 1963 about 300 Turkish Cypriots from the nearby villages of Prastio(279), Gerovasa(264) and Kidasi(310) (from Paphos district) sought refuge there. On 9 March 1964, following an attack by Greek Cypriot forces in which seven Turkish Cypriots were killed, approximately 1,000 Turkish Cypriots—both those from Malia and those who had taken refuge there—fled the village. They were scattered to the nearby villages of Avdimou/Düzkaya(260), Kantou/Çanakkale(265), Episkopi/Yalova(262), Kato Polemidia/Binatlı(277), Alektora/Gökağaç(256), Paramali/Çayönü(274), Mari/Tatlısu(363), Platanisteia/Çamlıca(276), Vretsia/Dağaşan(342) and Souskiou/Susuz(337). After 1968 many of the Malia Turkish Cypriots returned to their village, and Richard Patrick recorded 416 living there in 1971. The number of Turkish Cypriots of Mallia was 624 in 1960. Patrick also notes that the RoC government encouraged the return of the Malia Turkish Cypriots, along with Turkish Cypriot residents of three other grape-producing villages, because of the economic importance of the island’s wine industry and the fear that the large untended Turkish Cypriot vineyards would be destroyed. By December 1970 the RoC government claimed to have spent 6,719 pounds repairing 103 Turkish Cypriot houses in Malia that had been damaged and burned in March 1964.

In 1974, once again the entire Turkish Cypriot population of Malia fled the village, but this time to the Akrotiri British Base Area. They stayed there until February 1975, when they were transferred via Turkey to the northern part of the island, subsequently to be resettled in Prastio/Aydınköy(091) The total number of displaced Turkish Cypriots from Malia/Bağlarbaşı can be estimated to be 650-700 (624 in the 1960 census).

Current Inhabitants:

Currently the village is mainly inhabited by its original Greek Cypriot inhabitants and displaced Greek Cypriots from the north. The last Cypriot census of 2001 put the total population at only 59.Mallia Winery - Ktima Mallia

Mallia Winery is located in Malia village in Limassol region. It is owned and managed by the KEO Group. It is among the largest of the island’s regional wineries with an annual capacity of around 3 million bottles. The winery was established in 1928. In 1996 it was restored and 50 hectares of new vineyards planted which gave their first wines in 2001. Among their wide range of grapes Riesling is particularly interesting being otherwise unusual in Cyprus.

The mosque in the village of malia

This building dates to period: ca 1920, today it is not in use. Walls joined to boys’ school. Single room interior divided into three bays by rectangular pillars. Ceiling peaks under two pitched roof, lined in wood boards. i-beams support roof and link pillars transversely through space. First bay over doorway, covered with interior balcony supported on two flanking pillars. Balcony above separated 2/3 into harem (with lattice wood shutters) and 1/3 selamlik platform. Women’s side decorated with wood board pointed arches overlooking the main space. Three bays at lower level of platform also decorated with wood lattice pointed arches. All woodwork on the interior is painted in white and green stripes. Mihrab extruded from wall in simple grauful arc. Minaret accessible, concrete steps, stone exterior. Two pitched concrete porch on exterior.

Nevalı Çori

Nevalı Çori was an early Neolithic settlement on the middle Euphrates, in Şanlıurfa Province, Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. The site is known for having some of the world's oldest known communal buildings and monumental sculpture. Together with the earlier site of Göbekli Tepe, it has revolutionised scientific understanding of the Eurasian Neolithic period. The oldest domesticated Einkorn wheat was found there.The settlement was located about 490 m above sea level, in the foothills of the Taurus Mountains, on both banks of the Kantara stream, a tributary of the Euphrates.

Pre-Pottery Neolithic A

Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) denotes the first stage of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, in early Levantine and Anatolian Neolithic culture, dating to c. 12,000 – c. 10,800 years ago, that is, 10,000-8,800 BCE. Archaeological remains are located in the Levantine and Upper Mesopotamian region of the Fertile Crescent.

The time period is characterized by tiny circular mud brick dwellings, the cultivation of crops, the hunting of wild game, and unique burial customs in which bodies were buried below the floors of dwellings.The Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and the following Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) were originally defined by Kathleen Kenyon in the type site of Jericho (Palestine). During this time, pottery was not yet in use. They precede the ceramic Neolithic (Yarmukian). PPNA succeeds the Natufian culture of the Epipaleolithic (Mesolithic).

Prehistory of Anatolia

The prehistory of Anatolia stretches from the Paleolithic era through to the appearance of classical civilisation in the middle of the 1st millennium BC. It is generally regarded as being divided into three ages reflecting the dominant materials used for the making of domestic implements and weapons: Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age. The term Copper Age (Chalcolithic) is used to denote the period straddling the stone and Bronze Ages.

Anatolia (Turkish: Anadolu), also known by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is considered to be the westernmost extent of Western Asia. Geographically it encompasses the central uplands of modern Turkey, from the coastal plain of the Aegean Sea east to the western edge of the Armenian Highlands and from the narrow coast of the Black Sea south to the Taurus mountains and Mediterranean coast.

The earliest representations of culture in Anatolia can be found in several archaeological sites located in the central and eastern part of the region. Stone Age artifacts such as animal bones and food fossils were found at Burdur (north of Antalya). Although the origins of some of the earliest peoples are shrouded in mystery, the remnants of Bronze Age civilizations such as the Hattian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Hittite peoples provide us with many examples of the daily lives of its citizens and their trade. After the fall of the Hittites, the new states of Phrygia and Lydia stood strong on the western coast as Greek civilization began to flourish. Only the threat from a distant Persian kingdom prevented them from advancing past their peak of success.

Taurine cattle

Taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus), also called European cattle, are a subspecies of domesticated cattle originating in the Near East. Both taurine cattle and indicine cattle (zebus) are descended from the aurochs. Taurine cattle were originally considered a distinct species, but are now typically grouped with zebus and aurochs into one species, Bos taurus. Most modern breeds of cattle are taurine cattle.

Genetic research suggests the entire modern stock of taurine cattle may have arisen from as few as 80 aurochs tamed in the upper reaches of Mesopotamia about 10,500 years ago near the villages of Çayönü in southeastern Turkey and Dja'de el Mughara in northern Iraq.The genome sequence of the Hereford breed of taurine cattle was published by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium in 2009.

Terrazzo

Terrazzo is a composite material, poured in place or precast, which is used for floor and wall treatments. It consists of chips of marble, quartz, granite, glass, or other suitable material, poured with a cementitious binder (for chemical binding), polymeric (for physical binding), or a combination of both. Metal strips often divide sections, or changes in color or material in a pattern. Additional chips may be sprinkled atop the mix before it sets. After it is cured it is ground and polished smooth or otherwise finished to produce a uniformly textured surface.

Trialetian

Trialetian is the name for an Upper Paleolithic-Epipaleolithic stone tool industry from the area south of the Caucasus Mountains and to the northern Zagros Mountains. It is tentatively dated to the period between 16,000 / 13,000 BP and 8,000 BP.

Çayönü, Kozluk

Çayönü is a village in the District of Kozluk, Batman Province, Turkey. As of 2011, it had a population of 1393 people.


  Pre-Pottery Neolithic   Pottery Neolithic
BC
11000
Europe Egypt Syria
Levant
Anatolia Khabur Sinjar Mountains
Assyria
Middle Tigris Low
Mesopotamia
Iran
(Khuzistan)
Iran Indus/
India
China
10000 Pre-Pottery Neolithic A
Gesher[2]
Mureybet
(10,500 BC)
 
Early Pottery
(18,000 BC)[3]
9000 Jericho
Tell Abu Hureyra
(Agriculture)[4]
8000 Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
Jericho
Tell Aswad
Göbekli Tepe
Çayönü
Aşıklı Höyük
Initial Neolithic
(Pottery)
Nanzhuangtou
(8500–8000 BC)
7000 Egyptian Neolithic
Nabta Playa
(7500 BC)
Çatalhöyük
(7500-5500)
Hacilar
(7000 BC)
Tell Sabi Abyad
Bouqras
Jarmo Ganj Dareh
Chia Jani
Ali Kosh
Mehrgarh I[2]
6500 Neolithic Europe
Franchthi
Sesklo
(Agriculture)[5]
Pre-Pottery Neolithic C
('Ain Ghazal)
Pottery Neolithic
Tell Sabi Abyad
Bouqras
Pottery Neolithic
Jarmo
Chogha Bonut Teppe Zagheh Pottery Neolithic
Peiligang
(7000-5000 BC)
6000 Pottery Neolithic
Sesklo
Dimiti
Pottery Neolithic
Yarmukian
(Sha'ar HaGolan)
Pottery Neolithic
Ubaid 0
(Tell el-'Oueili)
Pottery Neolithic
Chogha Mish
Pottery Neolithic
Sang-i Chakmak
Pottery Neolithic
Lahuradewa


Mehrgarh II






Mehrgarh III
5600 Faiyum A
Amuq A

Halaf






Halaf-Ubaid
Umm Dabaghiya
Samarra
(6000-4800 BC)
Tepe Muhammad Djafar Tepe Sialk
5200 Linear Pottery culture
(5500-4500 BC)

Amuq B
Hacilar

Mersin
24-22
 

Hassuna

Ubaid 1
(Eridu 19-15)

Ubaid 2
(Hadji Muhammed)
(Eridu 14-12)

Susiana A
Yarim Tepe
Hajji Firuz Tepe
4800 Pottery Neolithic
Merimde
(Agriculture)[6]

Amuq C
Hacilar
Mersin
22-20
Hassuna Late

Gawra 20

Tepe Sabz
Kul Tepe Jolfa
4500
Amuq D
Gian Hasan
Mersin
19-17
Ubaid 3 Ubaid 3
(Gawra)
19-18
Ubaid 3 Khazineh
Susiana B

3800
Badarian
Naqada
Ubaid 4
Aegean
Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
Marmara
Mediterranean
Southeastern
Anatolia

Languages

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