The Äynu (also Ainu, Abdal, and Aini) are an ethnic group native to the Xinjiang region of western China. There are estimated to be around 30,000 Äynu people, mostly located on the fringe of the Taklamakan Desert.
The origins of the Äynu people are disputed. Some historians theorize that the ancestors of the Äynu were an Iranian-related nomadic people who came from Persia several hundred years ago or more, while others conclude that the Persian vocabulary of the Äynu language is a result of Iranian languages being once the major trade languages of the region, or Persian traders intermarrying with local women.
The Äynu people's native language is Äynu, a Turkic language with a strong influence from Persian. Äynu is usually only spoken at home, while Uyghur is spoken in public, by Äynu men and women alike.
The Äynu people engage mostly in agriculture, although in the past some were peddlers, circumcisers, or beggars.
There is a tradition of discrimination against the Äynu by their neighbors, who identify the Äynu as Abdal, a name which carries a derogatory meaning. Intermarriage with their neighbors the Uyghur people is uncommon. However, the Chinese government counts the Äynu people as Uyghur.
Abdal may refer to:
Abdal, a rank of forty Sufi saints
Dervish, or Sufi ascetic
Abdal (caste), a Muslim community found in North India
Abdal, Azerbaijan, a village in Nagorno-Karabakh
Abdal, Punjab, a village in Amritsar Dist. of Indian state of Punjab
Abdal, Gurdaspur, Punjab, a village in Gurdaspur Dist. of Indian state of Punjab
Abdal, Iran, a village in Zanjan Province, Iran
Abdal, Nebraska, a ghost town in the United States
Qara Shemsi Abdal, a 19th-century Ottoman poet
Äynu people of Xinjiang region, China
Äynu language, the language of the ÄynuAini
Ayni or Aini may refer to:
Aini, Maharashtra, a small village in Ratnagiri district, Maharashtra state in Western India
Ayni District in Sughd Province, Tajikistan
Ayni, Ayni District, the capital of Ayni District in Tajikistan
Ayni, Varzob District, a town in Varzob district, Tajikistan
Farkhor Air Base, aka Ayni Air Base, in Tajikistan
Lea Aini, Israeli author
Sadriddin Aini, Tajik writer
Artocarpus hirsutus, a tropical evergreen tree
Äynu people, a people from the Xinjiang region of western China
Äynu language, the language of the Äynu
Áine, an Irish goddess
Ayni, a form of communal work in the AndesAinu
Ainu or Aynu may refer to:
Ainu people, of Japan and Siberia
Ainu language of Japan and Siberia
Ainur (Middle-earth), primordial spirits in Tolkien's legendarium
Äynu people, of Western China
The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560. They were based in Bactria and expanded east to the Tarim Basin, west to Sogdia and south through Afghanistan to northern India. They were a tribal confederation and included both nomadic and settled urban communities. They were part of the four major states known collectively as Xyon (Xionites) or Huna, being preceded by the Kidarites, and succeeded by the Alkhon and lastly the Nezak. All of these peoples have often been linked to the Huns who invaded Eastern Europe during the same period, and/or have been referred to as "Huns", but there is no consensus among scholars about such a connection.
The Sveta Huna who invaded northern India are probably the Hephthalites, but the exact relation is not clear.
The stronghold of the Hephthalites was Tokharistan on the northern slopes of the Hindu Kush, in what is present-day northeastern Afghanistan. By 479, the Hephthalites had conquered Sogdia and driven the Kidarites westwards, and by 493 they had captured parts of present-day Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin in what is now Northwest China. They expanded into northwestern India as well.The sources for Hephthalite history are poor and historians' opinions differ. There is no king-list and historians are not sure how they arose or what language they spoke.
They seem to have called themselves Ebodalo (ηβοδαλο, hence Hephthal), often abbreviated Eb (ηβ), a name they wrote in the Bactrian script on some of their coins. The origin of the name "Hephthalites" is unknown, possibly from either a Khotanese word *Hitala meaning "Strong" or from postulated Middle Persian *haft āl "the Seven".Languages of China
The languages of China are the languages that are spoken in China. The predominant language in China, which is divided into seven major language groups (classified as dialects by the Chinese government for political reasons), is known as Hanyu (simplified Chinese: 汉语; traditional Chinese: 漢語; pinyin: Hànyǔ) and its study is considered a distinct academic discipline in China. Hanyu, or Han language, spans eight primary varieties, that differ from each other morphologically and phonetically to such a degree that they will often be mutually unintelligible, similarly to English and German or Danish. The languages most studied and supported by the state include Chinese, Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur and Zhuang. China has 299 living languages listed at Ethnologue. According to the 2010 edition of the Nationalencyklopedin, 955 million out of China's then-population of 1.34 billion spoke some variety of Mandarin Chinese as their first language, accounting for 71% of the country's population.Standard Chinese (known in China as Putonghua), a form of Mandarin Chinese, is the official national spoken language for the mainland and serves as a lingua franca within the Mandarin-speaking regions (and, to a lesser extent, across the other regions of mainland China). Several other autonomous regions have additional official languages. For example, Tibetan has official status within the Tibet Autonomous Region, and Mongolian has official status within Inner Mongolia. Language laws of China do not apply to either Hong Kong or Macau, which have different official languages (Cantonese, English and Portuguese) than the mainland.List of ethnic groups in China
Multiple ethnic groups populate China, where "China" is taken to mean areas controlled by either of the two states using "China" in their formal names, the People's Republic of China (China) and Republic of China (Taiwan).
The typical use of the English phrase Chinese people generally refers to the Han 漢 people, also known as Han Chinese; they are the largest ethnic group in mainland China, where (as of 2010) some 91.51% of the population was classified as Han (~1.2 billion). Han is the name the Chinese have used for themselves since the Han Dynasty BC 202, whereas the name "Chinese" (used in the West) is of uncertain origin, but possibly derives ultimately from Sanskrit Cina-s "the Chinese," which in turn perhaps comes from the Qin dynasty which preceded the Han dynasty. Besides the Han-Chinese majority of 92%, 55 other ethnic (minority) groups are categorized in present China, numbering approximately 105 million people (8%), mostly concentrated in the bordering northwest, north, northeast, south, and southwest but with some in central interior areas.
The major minority ethnic groups in China are Zhuang (16.9 million), Hui (10.5 million), Manchu (10.3 million), Uyghur (10 million), Miao (9.4 million), Yi (8.7 million), Tujia (8.3 million), Tibetan (6.2 million), Mongol (5.9 million), Dong (2.8 million), Buyei (2.8 million), Yao (2.7 million), Bai (1.9 million), Korean (1.8 million), Hani (1.6 million), Li (1.4 million), Kazakh (1.4 million), and Dai (1.2 million).Äynu
Äynu may refer to:
the Äynu people
the Äynu languageÄynu language
Äynu (also Aini, Ejnu, Abdal) is a Turkic cryptolect spoken in western China known in various spelling as Aini, Aynu, Ainu, Eyni or by the Uyghur Abdal (ئابدال), in Russian sources Эйну́, Айну, Абдал, by the Chinese as Ainu. Some linguists call it a mixed language, having a mostly Turkic grammar, essentially Yugur (close to Uyghur), but a mainly Iranian vocabulary. Other linguists argue that it does not meet the technical requirements of a mixed language. It is spoken by the Äynu, a nomadic people. The Äynu people call their language Äynú (ئەينۇ) [ɛjˈnu].