Â

Â, â (a-circumflex) is a letter of the Inari Sami, Romanian, and Vietnamese alphabets. This letter also appears in French, Friulian, Frisian, Portuguese, Turkish, Walloon, and Welsh languages as a variant of letter “a”.

Berber languages

"â" can be used in Berber Latin alphabet to represent [ʕ].

Emilian-Romagnol

 is used to represent [aː] in Emilian dialects, as in Bolognese câna [kaːna] "cane".

Faroese

Johan Henrik Schrøter, who translated the Gospel of Matthew into Faroese in 1823, used â to denote a non-syllabic a, as in the following example:

Schrøter 1817 Modern Faroese
Brinhlid situr uj gjiltan Stouli,
Teâ hit veâna Vujv,
Drevur hoon Sjúra eâv Nordlondun
Uj Hildarhaj tiil sujn.
Brynhild situr í gyltum stóli,
tað hitt væna vív,
dregur hon Sjúrða av Norðlondum
í Hildarheið til sín.

 is not used in modern Faroese, however.

French

⟨â⟩, in the French language, is used as the letter ⟨a⟩ with a circumflex accent. It is a remnant of Old French, where the vowel was followed, with some exceptions, by the consonant ⟨s⟩. For example, the modern form bâton (English: stick) comes from the Old French baston. Phonetically, ⟨â⟩ is traditionally pronounced as /ɑ/, but is nowadays rarely distinguished from "a" /a/ in many dialects, such as in Parisian French.

In Maghreb French, ⟨â⟩ is used to transcribe the Arabic consonant ⟨ع/ʕ/, whose pronunciation is close to a non-syllabic [ɑ̯].

Friulian

 is used to represent the /ɑː/ sound.

Inari Sami

 is used to represent the /ɐ/ sound.

Italian

 occasionally used to represent the sound // in words like amârono (they loved).

Portuguese

In Portuguese, â is used to mark a stressed /ɐ/ in words whose stressed syllable is in an unpredictable location within the word, as in "lâmina" (blade) and "râguebi" (rugby). Where the location of the stressed syllable is predictable, the circumflex accent is not used. Â /ɐ/ contrasts with á, pronounced /a/.

Romanian

 is the 3rd letter of the Romanian alphabet and represents /ɨ/, which is also represented in Romanian as letter î. The difference between the two is that â is used in the middle of the word, as in "România", while î is used at the beginning : "înțelegere" (understanding). A compound word starting with the letter î will retain it, even if it goes in the middle of the word: "neînțelegere" (mis-understanding).

Russian

 is used in the ISO 9:1995 system of Russian transliteration as the letter Я.

Serbo-Croatian

In all standard varieties of Serbo-Croatian, "â" is not a letter but simply an "a" with the circumflex that denotes vowel length. It is used only occasionally and then disambiguates homographs, which differ only by syllable length. That is most common in the plural genitive case and so it is also called "genitive sign": "Ja sam sâm" (English: I am alone).

Turkish

 is used to indicate the consonant before "a" is palatalized, as in "istiklâl" (independence). It is also used to indicate /aː/ in words for which the long vowel changes the meaning, as in "adet" (pieces) and "âdet" (tradition) / "hala" (aunt) and "hâlâ" (still).

Vietnamese

 is the 3rd letter of the Vietnamese alphabet and represents /ɜ/. In Vietnamese phonology, diacritics can be added to form five forms to represent five tones of â:

  • Ầ ầ
  • Ẩ ẩ
  • Ẫ ẫ
  • Ấ ấ
  • Ậ ậ

Ukrainian

Much like in Russian, Â is used in the ISO 9:1995 system of Ukrainian transliteration as the letter Я.

Welsh

In Welsh, â is used to represent long stressed a [aː] when, without the circumflex, the vowel would be pronounced as short [a], e.g., âr [aːr] "arable", as opposed to ar [ar] "on", or gwâr [ɡwaːr] "civilised, humane", rather than gwar [ɡwar] "nape of the neck". It is often found in final syllables in which the letters occur twice a and combine to produce a long stressed vowel. That commonly happens when a verb stem ending in stressed a combines with the nominalising suffix -ad, as in cantiata- + -ad giving caniatâd [kanjaˈtaːd] "permission", and also when a singular noun ending in a receives the plural suffix -au, as in drama + -au becoming dramâu [draˈmaɨ, draˈmai] "dramas, plays". It is also useful in writing borrowed words with final stress, e.g. brigâd [brɪˈɡaːd] "brigade".

A circumflex is also used in the word â, which is both a preposition, meaning "with, by means of, as", and the third person non-past singular of the verbal noun mynd "go". That distinguishes it in writing from the similarly-pronounced a, meaning "and; whether; who, which, that".

Character mappings

Character  â
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH CIRCUMFLEX LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH CIRCUMFLEX
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 194 U+00C2 226 U+00E2
UTF-8 195 130 C3 82 195 162 C3 A2
Numeric character reference   â â
Named character reference  â
ISO 8859-1/2/3/4/9/10/14/15/16 194 C2 226 E2
EBCDIC 98 62 66 42

Windows Alt Key Codes

â=Alt+0226 Â=0194

 Alt + 0194
â Alt + 0226
Alt
Alt

[1]

TeX and LaTeX

 and â are obtained by the commands \^A and \^a.

See also

References

  1. ^ Pyatt, Elizabeth J. "Windows Alt Key Codes". symbolcodes.tlt.psu.edu. Retrieved 2016-11-04.
Atlin Lake

Atlin Lake is the largest natural lake in the Canadian province of British Columbia. The northern tip of the lake is in Yukon, as is Little Atlin Lake. However, most of the lake lies within the Atlin District of British Columbia. Atlin Lake is believed to be the source of the Yukon River although it is drained via the short Atlin River into Tagish Lake.

The name comes from Áa Tlein (in Canadian spelling  Tłèn), the Tlingit name meaning simply "big lake".The community of Atlin, British Columbia, is located on the eastern shore of the lake. The southern part of the lake is in the Atlin Provincial Park and Recreation Area.

Circumflex

The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin and Greek scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus "bent around"—a translation of the Greek περισπωμένη (perispōménē). The circumflex in the Latin script is chevron-shaped ( ˆ ), while the Greek circumflex may be displayed either like a tilde ( ˜ ) or like an inverted breve ( ̑ ).

In English the circumflex, like other diacritics, is sometimes retained on loanwords that used it in the original language (for example, crème brûlée).

The diacritic is also used in mathematics, where it is typically called a hat or roof or house.

DG International

This is the DG International (Data General International) character set.

Ellipsis

An ellipsis (plural ellipses; from the Ancient Greek: ἔλλειψις, élleipsis, 'omission' or 'falling short') is a series of dots (typically three, such as "…") that usually indicates an intentional omission of a word, sentence, or whole section from a text without altering its original meaning.Opinions differ as to how to render ellipses in printed material. According to the Chicago Manual of Style, each dot should be separated from its neighbor by a non-breaking space. Such spaces should be omitted, however, according to the Associated Press. A third option, illustrated in the opening sentence of this article, is to use the precomposed Unicode character with code point U+2026, in which the gaps are not as wide as standard spaces.

French Braille

French Braille is the original braille alphabet, and the basis of all others. The alphabetic order of French has become the basis of the international braille convention, used by most braille alphabets around the world. However, only the 25 basic letters of the French alphabet plus w have become internationalized; the additional letters are largely restricted to French Braille and the alphabets of some neighboring European countries.

Genus of a multiplicative sequence

In mathematics, a genus of a multiplicative sequence is a ring homomorphism, from the ring of smooth compact manifolds up to the equivalence of bounding a smooth manifold with boundary (i.e. up to suitable cobordism) to another ring, usually the rational numbers, having the property that they are constructed from a sequence of polynomials in characteristic classes that arise as coefficients in formal power series with good multiplicative properties.

Inverted breve

Inverted breve or arch is a diacritical mark, shaped like the top half of a circle ( ̑ ), that is, like an upside-down breve (˘). It looks similar to the circumflex (ˆ), but the circumflex has a sharp tip; the inverted breve is rounded: compare  â Ê ê Î î Ô ô Û û (circumflex) versus Ȃ ȃ Ȇ ȇ Ȋ ȋ Ȏ ȏ Ȗ ȗ (inverted breve).

Inverted breve can occur above or below the letter. It is not used in any natural language alphabet, but only as a phonetic indicator though it is identical in form to the Ancient Greek circumflex.

List of Latin-script alphabets

The tables below summarize and compare the letter inventory of some of the Latin-script alphabets. In this article, the scope of the word "alphabet" is broadened to include letters with tone marks, and other diacritics used to represent a wide range of orthographic traditions, without regard to whether or how they are sequenced in their alphabet or the table.

Mandala 3

The third Mandala of the Rigveda has 62 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra. It is one of the "family books" (mandalas 2-7), the oldest core of the Rigveda. Most hymns in this book are attributed to viśvāmitra gāthinaḥ

The verse 3.62.10 gained great importance in Hinduism as the Gayatri Mantra.

RV 3.53.14 refers to the Kīkaṭas, a non-Aryan tribe which most scholars have placed in Bihar (Magadha).

Mandala 4

The fourth Mandala of the Rigveda has 58 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra. It is one of the "family books" (mandalas 2-7), the oldest core of the Rigveda.

The Rigveda Anukramani attributes all hymns in this book to Vāmadeva Gautama, except for hymns 43 and 44, attributed to Purumīḍha Sauhotra and Ajamīḍha Sauhotra.

Mandala 5

The fifth Mandala of the Rigveda has 87 hymns. Most hymns in this book are attributed to the Atri family. The mandala is one of the "family books" (mandalas 2-7), the oldest core of the Rigveda.

The hymns are dedicated mainly to Agni and Indra, the Visvadevas, the Maruts, the twin-deity Mitra-Varuna and the Asvins. Two hymns each are dedicated to Ushas (the dawn) and to Savitar, one each to the Apris, Parjanya (rain), Prthivi (the Earth) and Varuna. 5.40 addresses Surya and Atri besides Indra.

Mandala 7

The seventh Mandala of the Rigveda ("book 7", "RV 7") has 104 hymns. In the Rigveda Anukramani, all hymns in this book are attributed to Vashista. Hymn 32 is additionally credited to Sakti Vashista, and hymns 101-102 (to Parjanya) are additionally credited to Kumara Agneya.

It is one of the "family books" (mandalas 2-7), the oldest core of the Rigveda.

The hymns are dedicated to Agni, Indra, the Visvadevas, the Maruts, Mitra-Varuna, the Asvins, Ushas (Dawn), Indra-Varuna, Varuna, Vayu (Wind), two each to Sarasvati, Rudra, the Waters, the Adityas, Vishnu, Vastospati, Brhaspati, one each to the Apris, to Vashista, Savitar, Bhaga, the Dadhikras, the Rbhus, Dyaus and Prthivi (Heaven and Earth), Parjanya (Rain) and Indra-Soma. 7.103 is dedicated to the frogs.

The rivers mentioned in the 7th Mandala are the Sarasvati, Asikni, Parusni and possibly the Yamuna (in 7.18.19 the name of a helper of Indra, maybe also the name of a woman or goddess). Hymns 95 and 96 are entirely dedicated to Sarasvati.

Mandala 8

The eighth Mandala of the Rigveda has 103 hymns. Other than the "family books" (Mandalas 2-7, dated as an old part of the RV) and RV 1 and RV 10 (dated as the latest portion of hymns composed shortly before redaction of the Rigveda into shakhas), Mandala 8 cannot straightforwardly be dated as a whole relative to the other books, and its hymns may include both ancient and late specimens. Most hymns in this book are attributed to the kāṇva family. The hymns 8.49 to 8.59 are the apocryphal vālakhilya, the majority of them are devoted to Indra; these are accepted as a recent portion, properly already post-Rigvedic.

The hymns are dedicated to Indra, Agni, the Asvins, the Maruts, the Adityas, Varuna, Mitra-Varuna, the Vishvadevas, and Soma. 8.100 is dedicated to Indra and Vak (Speech). Of the Valakhilya, six hymns are dedicated to Indra, and one each to the Asvins, the Vishvadevas and Indra-Varuna. 8.55 and 8.56 praise "Praskanva's Gift", the reward given to the rishi by Dasyave-vrka "the wolf of the Dasyus", a hero who in alliance with the Kanvas has won a victory over the Dasyus.

According to some scholars, the 8th Mandala has the most striking similarity to the Avesta.: it contains allusions to Afghan Flora and Fauna, e.g. to camels (úṣṭra- = Avestan uštra (c.f. Zaraθ-uštra; RV 8.4.7, 8.5.37, 8.46.22, 8.46.31; elsewhere in the RV only in 1.138.2). The river name Suvastu in 8.19.37 refers to the Swat River in Gandhari.

Mara language

Mara is a Kuki-Chin language spoken by Mara people living in 60 villages of Chhimtuipui district, southern Mizoram, India and the adjacent people living in Burma.

The Mara language belongs to the Kuki-Chin branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. The speakers of the language are also known as Mara.

Mara is a recognised language in the School curriculum of Mara Autonomous District Council (MADC). Mara is a compulsory subject for all schools up to Class VII (Middle School) under Board of School Education, MADC.

Romanian alphabet

The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language. It is a modification of the classical Latin alphabet and consists of 31 letters, five of which (Ă, Â, Î, Ș, and Ț) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language:

The letters Q (chiu), W (dublu v), and Y (igrec or i grec) were formally introduced in the Romanian alphabet in 1982, although they had been used earlier. They occur only in foreign words and their Romanian derivatives, such as quasar, watt, and yacht. The letter K, although relatively older, is also rarely used and appears only in proper names and international neologisms such as kilogram, broker, karate. These four letters are still perceived as foreign, which explains their usage for stylistic purposes in words such as nomenklatură (normally nomenclatură, meaning "nomenclature", but sometimes spelled with k instead of c if referring to members of the Communist leadership in the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc countries, as Nomenklatura is used in English).In cases where the word is a direct borrowing having diacritical marks not present in the above alphabet, official spelling tends to favor their use (München, Angoulême etc., as opposed to the use of Istanbul over İstanbul).

Spectrum of a C*-algebra

In mathematics, the spectrum of a C*-algebra or dual of a C*-algebra A, denoted Â, is the set of unitary equivalence classes of irreducible *-representations of A. A *-representation π of A on a Hilbert space H is irreducible if, and only if, there is no closed subspace K different from H and {0} which is invariant under all operators π(x) with x ∈ A. We implicitly assume that irreducible representation means non-null irreducible representation, thus excluding trivial (i.e. identically 0) representations on one-dimensional spaces. As explained below, the spectrum  is also naturally a topological space; this is similar to the notion of the spectrum of a ring.

One of the most important applications of this concept is to provide a notion of dual object for any locally compact group. This dual object is suitable for formulating a Fourier transform and a Plancherel theorem for unimodular separable locally compact groups of type I and a decomposition theorem for arbitrary representations of separable locally compact groups of type I. The resulting duality theory for locally compact groups is however much weaker than the Tannaka–Krein duality theory for compact topological groups or Pontryagin duality for locally compact abelian groups, both of which are complete invariants. That the dual is not a complete invariant is easily seen as the dual of any finite-dimensional full matrix algebra Mn(C) consists of a single point.

TI calculator character sets

As part of the design process, Texas Instruments (TI) decided to modify the base Latin-1 character set for use with its calculator interface. By adding symbols to the character set, it was possible to reduce design complexity as much more complex parsing would have to have been used otherwise.

UC Browser

UC Browser is a web browser developed by the Chinese mobile Internet company UCWeb, which is in turn owned by the Alibaba Group. As of December 2018 it is the fourth most popular mobile browser in the world by market share, after Google Chrome, Safari, and Firefox. Originally launched in April 2004 as a J2ME-only application, it is available on a number of platforms including Android, BlackBerry OS, iOS, Java ME, Symbian, Windows Phone and Microsoft Windows.

VSCII

VSCII (Vietnamese Standard Code for Information Interchange) also known as TCVN 5712:1993 and ISO-IR-180, is a set of three Vietnamese national standard character encodings for using the Vietnamese language with computers. It should not be confused with the similarly-named unofficial VISCII encoding.

Unicode and the Windows-1258 code page are now used for virtually all Vietnamese computer data, but legacy VSCII and VISCII files may need conversion.

Alphabets (list)
Letters (list)
Multigraphs
Keyboard layouts (list)
Standards
Lists

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.