Árpád (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈaːrpaːd]; c. 845 – c. 907) was the head of the confederation of the Hungarian tribes at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries. He might have been either the sacred ruler or kende of the Hungarians, or their military leader or gyula, although most details of his life are debated by historians, because different sources contain contradictory information. Despite this, many Hungarians refer to him as the "founder of our country", and Árpád's preeminent role in the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin has been emphasized by some later chronicles. The dynasty descending from Árpád ruled the Kingdom of Hungary until 1301.
Statue of Árpád at Ráckeve (Hungary)
|Grand Prince of the Hungarians|
|Reign||c. 895 – c. 907|
|Died||c. 907 (aged 62)|
Fehéregyháza (Hungary) (uncertain)
Árpád was the son of Álmos who is mentioned as the first head of the confederation of the Hungarian tribes by all Hungarian chronicles. His mother's name and family are unknown. According to historian Gyula Kristó, Árpád was born around 845. His name derived from the Hungarian word for barley, árpa, which is of Turkic origin.
The Byzantine Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus (r. 913–959) states that the Hungarians "had never at any time had any other prince" before Árpád, which is in sharp contrast to the Hungarian chronicles' report of the position of Árpád's father. In Porphyrogenitus's narration, the Khazar khagan initiated the centralization of the command of the Hungarian tribes in order to strengthen his own suzerainty over them. The khagan initially wanted to appoint a chieftain named Levedi to lead the Hungarians. However, Levedi did not accept this offer and suggested that either Álmos or Árpád should be promoted instead of him. The khagan approached the Hungarians with this new proposal. They preferred Árpád to his father, because he was "greatly admired for wisdom and counsel and valour, and capable of this rule". Thereafter, Árpád was made "prince according to the custom ... of the Chazars, by lifting him upon a shield." Constantine Porphyrogenitus refers to Árpád as "great prince of Turkey" (referring to Hungary) (Greek: ὁ μέγας Τουρκίας ἄρχων).
The reliability of the Byzantine emperor's report of Árpád's election is debated by modern historians: for instance, Victor Spinei states that it is "rather vague and scarcely credible", but András Róna-Tas writes that its core is reliable. The latter historian adds that Árpád's election was promoted by Álmos who forced Levedi kende to renounce. Accordingly, in Róna-Tas's view, Árpád succeeded Levedi as sacred ruler or kende, which enabled his father to preserve his own position of the actual leader of the Hungarians or gyula.
The earliest reliable source of Árpád's life is an early 10th-century document, the Continuation of the Chronicle by George the Monk. It narrates that the Byzantine Emperor Leo VI the Wise (r. 886–912) sent his envoy Nicetas Sclerus to the Hungarians in 894 or 895 "to give presents" and incite them against the Bulgarian Empire. Sclerus met with their two leaders, Árpád and Kurszán, at the Lower Danube. Sclerus's mission succeeded: a Hungarian army soon crossed the Danube on Byzantine ships against Bulgaria. An interpolation in Porphyrogenitus's text suggests that the invading Hungarians were under the command of Árpád's son, Liüntika.
The positions held by Árpád and Kurszán at the time of their negotiations with Sclerus are debated by historians. Spinei wrote that Árpád was the gyula, and Kurszán was the kende. In contrast, Kristó said that Kurszán was the gyula and Árpád represented his father, Álmos kende. 
At that time, the Bulgarians had disregarded the peace treaty and were raiding through the Thracian countryside. Justice pursued them for breaking their oath to Christ our God, the emperor of all, and they quickly met up with their punishment. While our forces were engaged against the Saracens, divine Providence led the [Hungarians], in place of the Romans, to campaign against the Bulgarians. Our Majesty's fleet of ships supported them and ferried them across the Danube. [Providence] sent them out against the army of the Bulgarians that had so wickedly taken up arms against Christians and, as though they were public executioners, they decisively defeated them in three engagements, so that the Christian Romans might not willingly stain themselves with the blood of the Christian Bulgarians.
The Hungarian army defeated the Bulgarians, but the latter hired the Pechenegs against them. The Bulgarians and Pechenegs simultaneously invaded the Hungarians' territories in the western regions of the Pontic steppes in 895 or 896. The destruction of their dwelling places by the Pechenegs forced the Hungarians to leave for a new homeland across the Carpathian Mountains towards the Pannonian Plain.
The Illuminated Chronicle says that Árpád's father Álmos "could not enter Pannonia, for he was killed in Erdelw" or Transylvania. Engel, Kristó and Molnár, who accept the reliability of this report, wrote that Álmos's death was a ritual murder, similar to the sacrifice of the Khazar khagans in case of a disaster affecting their people. In contrast with them, Róna-Tas states that even if the report on Álmos's murder "reflects true event, the only possible explanation would be that Árpád or someone in his entourage" killed the aged prince. Spinei rejects the Illuminated Chronicle's report on Álmos's murder in Transylvania, because the last mention of Álmos in the contrasting narration of the Gesta Hungarorum is connected to a siege of Ungvár (Uzhhorod, Ukraine) by the Hungarians. The latter chronicle says that Álmos appointed Árpád "as leader and master" of the Hungarians on this occasion.
Árpád's name "is completely unknown" to all sources written in East Francia, which was one of the main powers of the Carpathian Basin at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries. These sources, including the Annales Alamannici and the Annales Eisnidlenses, only mention another Hungarian leader, Kurszán. According to Kristó and other historians, these sources suggest that Kurszán must have been the gyula commanding the Hungarian forces, while Árpád succeeded his murdered father as the sacred kende. Proposing a contrasting theory, the Romanian historian Curta wrote that Kurszán was the kende and Árpád gyula only succeeded him when Kurszán was murdered by Bavarians in 902 or 904.
In contrast to nearly contemporaneous sources, Hungarian chronicles written centuries after the events—for instance, the Gesta Hungarorum and the Illuminated Chronicle—emphasize Árpád's pre-eminent role in the conquest of the Carpathian Basin. The Gesta Hungarorum also highlights Árpád's military skills and his generosity. This chronicle also emphasizes that Tétény, one of the heads of the seven Hungarian tribes, acquired "the land of Transylvania for himself and his posterity" only after Árpád had authorized him to conquer it.
Having crossed the Danube, they encamped beside the Danube as far as Budafelhévíz. Hearing this, all the Romans living throughout the land of Pannonia, saved their lives by flight. Next day, Prince Árpád and all his leading men with all the warriors of Hungary entered the city of King Attila and they saw all the royal palaces, some ruined to the foundations, others not, and they admired beyond measure the stone buildings and were happier than can be told that they had deserved to take without fighting the city of King Attila, of whose line Prince Árpád descended. They feasted every day with great joy in the palace of King Attila, sitting alongside one another, and all the melodies and sweet sounds of zithers and pipes along with all the songs of minstrels were presented to them ... Prince Árpád gave great lands and properties to the guests staying with them, and, when they heard this, many guests thronged to him and gladly stayed with him.
The Gesta Hungarorum says that Árpád took "an oath of the leading men and warriors of Hungary," and "had his son, Prince Zoltán elevated" to prince in his life. However, the reliability of this report and the list of the grand princes in the Gesta Hungarorum is dubious. For instance, it ignores Fajsz, who ruled when Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus was completing his De Administrando Imperio around 950.
The date of Árpád's death is debated. The Gesta Hungarorum states that he died in 907. However, Kristó wrote that he actually died in 900 or later because the Gesta says 903 is the starting date of the Hungarian "land-taking" instead of its actual date around 895. If the Gesta's report on his funeral is reliable, Árpád was buried "at the head of a small river that flows through a stone culvert to the city of King Attila" where a village, Fehéregyháza, developed near Buda a century later.
The Hungarians arrived in their new homeland within the Carpathians under Árpád. Árpád is the principal actor in the Gesta Hungarorum, which attributes "almost all memorable events" of the "Hungarian land-taking" to him. Furthermore, until the extinction of the male line of his dynasty in 1301, Hungary was ruled by "a single line of princes", all descending from Árpád. Árpád is known among Hungarians as honalapító or the "founder of our homeland".
Porphyrogenitus says Árpád "had four sons: first, Tarkatzous; second, Ielech; third, Ioutotzas; fourth, Zaltas". However, he also refers to one "Liuntikas, son of" Árpád; Kristó wrote that Liuntikas (Liüntika) was an alternative name of Tarkatzous (Tarhos). The name and family of the mother of Árpád's sons are unknown. The following is a family tree presenting Árpád's ancestors and his descendants to the end of the 10th century:
|Előd or Ügyek||Emese|
|Termatzus||Zerind the Bald||Kings of Hungary***|
*Liüntika and Tarkatzus are supposed to have been identical.
**The father of Tas was one of Árpád's four or five sons, but his name is unknown.
***All later grand princes and kings of Hungary descended from Taksony.
The Ruling Prince Árpád stamp was issued by Hungary on 1 January 1943 as part of the Characters and Relics of Hungarian History series. <Ref: colnect.com/en/stamps/stamp/179980-Ruling_Prince_Árpád_c_850-907-Characters_and_Relics_of_Hungarian_History-Hungary> The Stained- glass Windows series of stamps issued by Hungary on 15 November 1972 includes a Prince Árpád’s Messenger by the artist Jenó Percz stamp. <Ref: colnect.com/en/stamps/stamp/175549-Messenger_of_Árpád_by_Jenő_Percz-Stained-glass_Windows-Hungary> A Cinderella stamp/ Christmas seal was brought up in Hungary on the Árpád Day 1973. <Ref: A stampsandstuff.net/photos/1650284755.jpg>
ÁrpádBorn: c. 845 Died: c. 907
| Grand Prince of the Hungarians
c. 895 – c. 907
Archduke Joseph Árpád Benedikt Ferdinand Franz Maria Gabriel (Hungarian: Habsburg–Lotaringiai József Árpád; 8 February 1933 – 30 April 2017) was a member of the Hungarian Palatine branch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine.
He was born in Budapest, the son of Archduke Joseph Francis of Austria and his wife, Princess Anna of Saxony. He was the great-grandson of Archduchess Gisela of Austria.He received a degree in economics from the University of Lisbon.Arpad Elo
Arpad Emmerich Elo (born Árpád Imre Élő; August 25, 1903 – November 5, 1992) was the creator of the Elo rating system for two-player games such as chess. Born in Egyházaskesző, Austro-Hungarian Empire, he moved to the United States with his parents in 1913.
Elo was a professor of physics at Marquette University in Milwaukee and a chess master. By the 1930s he was the strongest chess player in Milwaukee, then one of the nation's leading chess cities. He won the Wisconsin State Championship eight times.Elo died in Brookfield, Wisconsin.Arpad Sterbik
Arpad Sterbik Capar (Hungarian: Sterbik Árpád, Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈʃtɛrbik ˈaːrpaːd]; Serbian: Арпад Штербик / Arpad Šterbik; born 20 November 1979) is a Spanish handball player who plays for Telekom Veszprém and the Spanish national team.Born in Senta, SFR Yugoslavia, Sterbik is a ethnic Hungarian from Serbia who acquired Hungarian citizenship shortly after playing in Hungary and holds Spanish citizenship per post naturalization process. Internationally he has represented Yugoslavia, Serbia and Montenegro and Spain, winning a World Championship bronze medal and one gold. On club level, he has league and cup titles both in Hungary and Spain, and most notably he won the EHF Champions League, the premier continental club competition in Europe. His performances were acknowledged several times, having been named Hungarian Handballer of the Year in 2002 and IHF World Player of the Year in 2005.Elizabeth of Hungary
Saint Elizabeth of Hungary, T.O.S.F. (German: Heilige Elisabeth von Thüringen, Hungarian: Árpád-házi Szent Erzsébet; 7 July 1207 – 17 November 1231), also known as Saint Elizabeth of Thuringia or Saint Elisabeth of Thuringia, was a princess of the Kingdom of Hungary, Landgravine of Thuringia, Germany, and a greatly venerated Catholic saint who was an early member of the Third Order of St. Francis, by which she is honored as its patroness.Elizabeth was married at the age of 14, and widowed at 20. After her husband's death she sent her children away and regained her dowry, using the money to build a hospital where she herself served the sick. She became a symbol of Christian charity after her death at the age of 24 and was canonized on 25 May 1235.Emeric, King of Hungary
Emeric, also known as Henry or Imre (Hungarian: Imre, Croatian: Emerik, Slovak: Imrich; 1174 – 30 November 1204), was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1196 and 1204. In 1184, his father, Béla III of Hungary, ordered that he be crowned king, and appointed him as ruler of Croatia and Dalmatia around 1195. Emeric ascended the throne after the death of his father. During the first four years of his reign, he fought his rebellious brother, Andrew, who forced Emeric to make him ruler of Croatia and Dalmatia as appanage.
Emeric cooperated with the Holy See against the Bosnian Patarenes, whom the Catholic Church considered to be heretics. Taking advantage of a civil war, Emeric expanded his suzerainty over Serbia. He failed to prevent the Republic of Venice, which was assisted by crusaders of the Fourth Crusade, from seizing Zadar in 1202. He also could not impede the rise of Bulgaria along the southern frontiers of his kingdom. Emeric was the first Hungarian monarch to use the "Árpád stripes" as his personal coat of arms and to adopt the title of King of Serbia. Before his death, Emeric had his four-year-old son, Ladislaus III, crowned king.Géza, Grand Prince of the Hungarians
Géza (c. 940 – 997), also Gejza, was Grand Prince of the Hungarians from the early 970s. He was the son of Grand Prince Taksony and his Oriental—Khazar, Pecheneg or Volga Bulgarian—wife. He married Sarolt, a daughter of an Eastern Orthodox Hungarian chieftain. After ascending the throne, Géza made peace with the Holy Roman Empire. Within Hungary, he consolidated his authority with extreme cruelty, according to the unanimous narration of nearly contemporaneous sources. He was the first Hungarian monarch to support Christian missionaries from Western Europe. Although he was baptised (his baptismal name was Stephen), his Christian faith remained shallow and he continued to perform acts of pagan worship. He was succeeded by his son, Stephen who was crowned the first King of Hungary in 1000 or 1001.List of Hungarian monarchs
For a list of presidents until present day, see List of heads of state of Hungary. For the semi-independent monarchs of Transylvania in the 16th and 17th centuries, see List of Princes of Transylvania.This is a List of Hungarian monarchs, which includes the grand princes (895–1000) and the kings and ruling queens of Hungary (1000–1918).
The Principality of Hungary established 895 or 896, following the 9th-century Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin. The Kingdom of Hungary existed from 1000 (or arguably from 1001; the coronation of Saint Stephen) until 1918 (when Charles IV "renounced participation" in state affairs, but did not abdicate). The Árpád dynasty, the male-line descendants of Grand Prince Árpád, ruled Hungary continuously from 895 to 1301.Mary of Hungary, Queen of Naples
Mary of Hungary (c. 1257 – 25 March 1323), of the Árpád dynasty, was Queen consort of the Kingdom of Naples. She was a daughter of Stephen V of Hungary and his wife Elizabeth the Cuman. Mary served as Regent in Provence in 1290–1294 and in Naples in 1295–96, 1296–98, and 1302, during the absences of her consort.SMS Árpád
SMS Árpád was a pre-dreadnought battleship built by the Austro-Hungarian Navy in the early 20th century. She was launched on 11 September 1901 as the second of three Habsburg-class battleships. Along with her sister ships, she participated at the bombardment of Ancona during World War I. Due to a shortage of coal, she was soon decommissioned after the bombardment of Ancona and used as harbor defense ship for the remainder of the war. After the war, all of the Habsburg-class battleships were ceded to Great Britain as war prizes. She was scrapped in Italy in 1921.Zoltán of Hungary
Zoltán (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈzoltaːn]; c. 880 or 903 – c. 950), also Zolta, is mentioned in the Gesta Hungarorum as the third Grand Prince of the Hungarians who succeeded his father Árpád around 907. Although modern historians tend to deny this report on his reign, because other chronicles do not list him among the Hungarian rulers, there is consensus that even if Zoltán never ascended the throne, all monarchs ruling in Hungary from the House of Árpád after around 955 were descended from him.Árpád Bridge
Árpád Bridge or Árpád híd is a bridge in Budapest, Hungary, connecting northern Buda (Óbuda) and Pest across the Danube.
Until the inauguration of Megyeri Bridge in 2008, it was the longest bridge in Hungary, spanning about 2 km (1.24 mi) with the sections leading up to the bridge, and 928 m (0.58 mi) without them. It is 35.3 m (116 ft) wide with pedestrian and bicycle paths and a tramline.
At its Óbuda end is Flórián tér, Szentlélek tér (near the Main Square of Óbuda, the Vasarely and Kassák Museums).
Margaret Island is connected to Árpád Bridge through an embranchment approximately in the middle of the bridge, and crosses the Southern tip of Óbuda Island as well, although there is no road, pedestrian or any other connection whatsoever between the two. (See Sziget Festival)
At the Pest end, the adjoining Line 3 (North-South) metro station is also called "Árpád híd".Árpád Bárány
Árpád Bárány (born 24 June 1931) is a Hungarian fencer. He won a gold medal in the team épée event at the 1964 Summer Olympics.Árpád Göncz
Árpád Göncz (Hungarian: [ˈaːrpaːd ˈɡønt͡s]; 10 February 1922 – 6 October 2015) was a Hungarian liberal politician, who served as President of Hungary from 2 May 1990 to 4 August 2000. Göncz played a role in the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. He was also founding member of the Alliance of Free Democrats (SZDSZ) and Speaker of the National Assembly of Hungary (de facto Acting President) before becoming President. He was Hungary's first freely elected head of state, as well as the first in 42 years who was not a Communist or a fellow traveler.
He was a member of the international advisory council of the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation.Árpád Lengyel
Árpád Lengyel (4 September 1915 – 30 April 1993) was a Hungarian swimmer who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.
He was born in Kaposvár and died in Edgewater, New Jersey, United States.
In the 1936 Olympics he won a bronze medal in the 4 × 200 m freestyle relay event. He was also fourth in his first round heat of the 400 m freestyle event and fifth in his first round heat of the 100 m backstroke event and did not advance in both occasions.Árpád Szabó
Árpád Szabó (31 December 1878 – 31 July 1948) was a Hungarian politician, who served as Speaker of the National Assembly of Hungary in 1947 and Minister of Agriculture between 1947 and 1948.
He taught in Mezőberény since 1901. He became head of the local National Council on 14 November 1918. In 1930 he was a founding member of the Independent Smallholders, Agrarian Workers and Civic Party. He served as representative in the National Assembly from 1945 until his death. He was appointed legislative speaker for a short time in 1947.Árpád Tordai
Árpád Örs György Tordai (born 11 March 1997) is a Romanian professional footballer of Hungarian ethnicity, who plays as a goalkeeper for Viitorul Constanța.Árpád Tóth
Árpád Tóth (14 April 1886 in Arad – 7 November 1928 in Budapest) was a Hungarian poet and translator.Tóth went to Gymnasium (high school) in Debrecen and then studied German and Hungarian at the University of Budapest. In 1907, his poems began to appear in the papers A Hét and Vasárnapi Újság and after 1908 in Nyugat. In 1911, he became a theater critic for the paper Debreceni Nagy Újság.In 1913, he became a tutor to a wealthy family and received a little income from writing but still lived in poverty. Tuberculosis led him to rest at the Svedlér Sanitorium in the Tatra Mountains.
During the period of the revolutionary government after World War I, he became secretary of the Vörösmarty Academy, but lost the position and couldn't find new work after the government's fall. He remained poor and sick with tuberculosis for the rest of his life, succumbing to the disease in Budapest in 1928. His prolonged suffering led him to consider suicide at one point – although he did join the staff of Az Est in 1921.In Debrecen, a gymnasium named of after him. In April 2011, the Hungarian National Bank issued a commemorative silver coin celebrating the 125th anniversary of the poet's birth.Árpád Weisz
Árpád Weisz (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈaːrpaːd ˈvɛis]; also spelt Veisz; 16 April 1896 – 31 January 1944) was a Hungarian Olympic football player and manager. Weisz was Jewish, and was killed with his wife and children by the Nazis during The Holocaust in World War II at Auschwitz.Árpád dynasty
The Árpáds or Arpads (Hungarian: Árpádok, Croatian: Arpadovići, Serbian: Арпадовци, translit. Arpadovci, Slovak: Arpádovci) was the ruling dynasty of the Principality of Hungary in the 9th and 10th centuries and of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 to 1301. The dynasty was named after Grand Prince Árpád who was the head of the Hungarian tribal federation during the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, c. 895. It is also referred to as the Turul dynasty, but rarely.Both the first Grand Prince of the Hungarians (Álmos) and the first King of Hungary (Saint Stephen) were members of the dynasty.
Seven members of the dynasty were canonized or beatified by the Roman Catholic Church; therefore, since the 13th century the dynasty has often been referred to as the "Kindred of the Holy Kings". Two Árpáds were recognized as Saints by the Eastern Orthodox Church.
The dynasty came to end in 1301 with the death of King Andrew III of Hungary, while the last member of the House of Árpád, Andrew's daughter, Blessed Elizabeth of Töss, died in 1336 or 1338. All of the subsequent kings of Hungary (with the exception of King Matthias Corvinus) were cognatic descendants of the Árpád dynasty. The House of Croÿ and the Drummond family of Scotland claim to descend from Princes Géza and George, sons of medieval Hungarian kings: Géza II and Andrew I, respectively.