Ányos Jedlik

Ányos István Jedlik (Hungarian: Jedlik Ányos István; Slovak: Štefan Anián Jedlík;[1] in older texts and publications: Latin: Stephanus Anianus Jedlik; 11 January 1800 – 13 December 1895) was a Hungarian[2] inventor, engineer, physicist, and Benedictine priest. He was also a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and author of several books. He is considered by Hungarians and Slovaks to be the unsung father of the dynamo and electric motor.

Ányos István Jedlik
Jedlikanyos
Ányos Jedlik
Born11 January 1800
Died13 December 1895 (aged 95)
CitizenshipHungarian
Known forElectric motor, dynamo, self-excitation, impulse generator, cascade connection
Scientific career
FieldsInventor, engineer, physicist

Career

Jedlik-Czuczor
Jedlik and his cousin Gergely Czuczor in Győr

He was born in Szimő, Kingdom of Hungary (today Zemné, Slovakia). His mother was a member of a Hungarian noble family, while his father's family was of Slovak origin[3] moving in 1720 from Liptó County to Szimő.[4]

Jedlik's education began at high schools in Nagyszombat (today Trnava) and Pressburg (today Bratislava). In 1817 he became a Benedictine, and from that time continued his studies at the schools of that order, where he was known by his Latin name Stephanus Anianus. He lectured at Benedictine schools up to 1839, then for 40 years at the Budapest University of Sciences department of physics-mechanics. Few guessed at that time that his activities would play an important part in bringing up a new generation of physicists. He became the dean of the Faculty of Arts in 1848, and by 1863 he was rector of the University. From 1858 he was a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and from 1873 was an honorary member. After his retirement he continued working and spent his last years in complete seclusion at the priory in Győr, where he died.

Scientific work

Jedlik motor
Jedlik's "lightning-magnetic self-rotor", 1827 (the world's first electric motor)
Csöves villámfeszítő
Jedlik's tubular voltage generator, which is probably the earliest impulse generator

In 1827, Jedlik started experimenting with electromagnetic rotating devices which he called lightning-magnetic self-rotors, and in 1828 he demonstrated the first device which contained the three main components of practical direct current motors: the stator, rotor, and commutator.[5][6][7][8][9][10] In the prototype both the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic. The first electromotor, built in 1828, and Jedlik's operating instructions are kept at the Museum of Applied Arts in Budapest. The motor still works perfectly today.[11] However, Jedlik only reported his invention decades later and the true date of it is uncertain.[12]

He was a prolific author. In 1845, Jedlik was the first university professor in the Kingdom of Hungary who began teaching his students in Hungarian instead of Latin. His cousin Gergely Czuczor, a Hungarian linguist, asked him to create a Hungarian technical vocabulary in physics, the first of its kind, by which he became one of its founders.

In the 1850s he conducted optical and wave-mechanical experiments, and at the beginning of the 1860s he constructed an excellent optical grate.

He was ahead of his contemporaries in his scientific work, but he did not speak about his most important invention, his prototype dynamo, until 1856; it was not until 1861 that he mentioned it in writing in a list of inventory of the university. Although that document might serve as evidence of Jedlik's being the first dynamo, the invention of the dynamo is linked to Siemens's name because Jedlik's invention did not rise to notice at that time.

In 1863 he discovered the possibility of voltage multiplication and in 1868 demonstrated it with a "tubular voltage generator", which was successfully displayed at the Vienna World Exposition in 1873.[13] It was an early form of the impulse generators now applied in nuclear research.[14] The jury of the World Exhibition of 1873 in Vienna awarded his voltage multiplying condenser of cascade connection with a prize "For Development". Through this condenser, Jedlik framed the principle of surge generation by cascaded connection. (The cascade connection was an other important invention of Ányos Jedlik)[15][16]

Dynamo invention

Anyos Jedlik manuscript2
Drawn plan of a "telephon" by Ányos Jedlik in Hungarian. Pannonhalma Archabbey, Kingdom of Hungary.

Jedlik's best known invention is the principle of dynamo self-excitation.

In 1827, Jedlik started experimenting with electromagnetic rotating devices which he called electromagnetic self-rotors.[6]

In the prototype of the single-pole electric starter, both the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic. In essence, the concept is that instead of permanent magnets, two opposed electromagnets induce the magnetic field around the rotor. He formulated the concept of the self-excited dynamo about 1861, six years before Siemens and Wheatstone.[17][18]

As one side of the coil passes in front of the north pole, crossing the line of force, current is induced. As the frame rotates further the current diminishes, then arriving at the front of the south pole it rises again but flows in the opposite direction. The frame is connected to a commutator, thus the current always flows in the same direction in the external circuit.

Bibliography

Books for university students

Szímő14
Jedlik's bust in his native village of Zemné

The following are all given in the Hungarian Electronic Library:[19]

  1. Tentamen publicum e Physica ... ex Institutine primi semestris Aniani Jedlik [Public examination on Physics ... from the first semester education of Ányos Jedlik] (in Latin). Pozsony. 1839.
  2. Tentamen publicum e Physica quod in regia univers. Hung. e praelectionibus [Public examination on Physics for election to the Royal Hungarian University] (in Latin). Pest: Trattner-Károlyi. 1845.
  3. Mathesis adplicata [Applied Science] (in Latin). Pest: Kőnyomat.
  4. Compendium Hydrostaticae et Hydrodinamicae usibus Auditorum Suorum adaptatum per Anianum Jedlik [Compendium of Hydrostatics and Hydrodynamics. Lecture Notes adapted by Ányos Jedlik] (in Latin). Pest: Kőnyomat. 1847.
  5. Elements of natural science. 16. Pest: Eisinfels. 1850.
  6. Viznyugtanhoz tartozó Pótlékok [Supplements for science of still/calm water] (in Hungarian). Pest: Kőnyomat. 1850.
  7. Goldsmith, Irta (1851). Ányos Jedlik, ed. Fénytan [Science of Light] (in Hungarian). Pest: Kőnyomat.
  8. Goldsmith, Irta (1990) [1851]. Ányos Jedlik, ed. Hőtan [Science of Heat] (in Hungarian). Budapest: Műszaki Könyvkiadó.

Contributions by Jedlik in other works:

  1. Vagács, Caesar, ed. (1854). "A hévmérő s kellékei" [The thermometer and its accessories]. Olvasmány a főgymnasiumi középosztályok [Reading material for grammar school students] (in Hungarian). Hartleben. pp. 259–261.
  2. ibid., pp. 256–258
  3. Német – magyar tudományos műszótár a csász. kir. gymnasiumok és reáliskolák számára [German – Hungarian Scientific Dictionary for Imperial and Royal grammar schools and primary schools] (in German and Hungarian). VIII. Pest: Hekenast. 1858.
  4. "Ueber die Anwendung des Elektro-Magnetes bei elektro-dynamischen Rotationen" [On the application of electromagnets in electrodynamic rotations]. Aemtlicher Bericht über die XXXII. Versammlung deutscher Naturforscher und Aerzte zu Wien im Sept. 1856 [Report of the 32nd Conference of German Naturalists and Physicists at Vienna, September 1856] (in German). Vienna. 1858. pp. 170–175.
  5. "Modification der Grove'schen und Bunsen'schen Batterie" [Modification of the Grove and Bunsen batteries]. Aemtlicher Bericht über die XXXII. Versammlung deutscher Naturforscher und Aerzte zu Wien im Sept. 1856 [Report of the 32nd Conference of German Naturalists and Physicists at Vienna, September 1856] (in German). Vienna. 1858. pp. 176–178.
  6. Egyetemes Magyar Encyclopaedia [Universal Hungarian Encyclopaedia] (in Hungarian). 1–13. Pest: Szent István Társulat. 1859–1876.

See also

References

  1. ^ Z dejín vied a techniky na Slovensku (in Slovak). 11-13. Vydavatel'stvo Slovenskej akadémie vied. 1985. p. 132.
  2. ^ Simon, Andrew L. (1999). Made in Hungary: Hungarian Contributions to Universal Culture [1]. Simon Publications p.246.
    • Teichmann, Jürgen; Stinner, Arthur; Rieß, Falk (eds.). From the itinerant lecturers of the 18th century to popularizing physics in the 21st century – exploring the relationship between learning and entertainment "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 28, 2008. Retrieved February 17, 2008.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Conference sponsored by the University of Oldenburg, Deutsches Museum, University of Winnipeg.
    • Károly Simonyi: History of the Hungarian physic
    • Wagner, Francis S. (1977). Hungarian Contributions to World Civilization. Bratislava: Alpha Publications. ISBN 978-0-912404-04-2.
    • Denton, Tom (2004). Automobile Electrical and Electronic Systems. Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-6219-2.
    • "Bulletin of the International Committee of Historical Sciences". International Committee of Historical Sciences (Presses Universitaires de France). 1933.
    • Pledge, H. T. (2007). Science since 1500: A Short History of Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology. London: Read Books. ISBN 978-1-4067-6872-5.
  3. ^ Tibenský, Ján. Dejiny vedy a techniky na Slovensku. Hoci vyrastal v maďarskom prostredí a maďarsky aj cítil, po svojich predkoch bol nepochybne slovenského pôvodu. Translation: Although he grew up in Magyar (Hungarian) environment and also felt Magyar (ethnic Hungarian), he was indisputably of Slovak origin after his ancestors
  4. ^ Mayer, Farkas (1995). Jedlink Ányos (1800–1895) Családfája ("Family tree") (PDF) (in Hungarian). Magyar Tudománytörténeti Intézet munkatársai (Hungarian Institute of the History of Science, Árpád Király chief ed.). p. 1. Retrieved August 23, 2010. "A Jedlik-ágról, a név alapján, csak azt lehet sejteni, hogy a Vágon tutajjal érkező, Szimőn megtelepedő, itt elmagyarosodott szlovák család lehetett [...] A Jedlik család ősei 1720-ban Liptóból jöttek tutajon Szimőre." ("It is likely that the Jedlik family arrived from Liptó by boat on the River Vág in 1720 and started to live in Szimő.")
  5. ^ Thompson, Silvanus P., ed. (1891). Electricity and magnetism, translated from the French of Amédée Guillemin. London: MacMillan.
  6. ^ a b Heller, Augustus (April 1896). "Anianus Jedlik". Nature. Norman Lockyer. 53 (1379): 516. Bibcode:1896Natur..53..516H. doi:10.1038/053516a0. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  7. ^ "Technology and Applications Timeline". Electropaedia. May 28, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  8. ^ Thein, M. (March 22, 2009). "Elektrische Maschinen in Kraftfahrzeugen" [Electrical machinery in motor vehicles] (PDF) (in German). Zwickau: Falkutat der Kraftfahrzeugen. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 14, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  9. ^ "Elektrische Chronologie". Elektrisiermaschinen im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert – Ein kleines Lexikon [Electrical machinery in the 18th and 19th centuries – a small thesaurus] (in German). University of Regensburg. March 31, 2004. Archived from the original on June 9, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  10. ^ "History of Batteries (and other things)". Electropaedia. June 9, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  11. ^ Lunar Radar
  12. ^ http://www.eti.kit.edu/english/1376.php
  13. ^ Sipka, László (Summer 2001). "Innovators and Innovations". Hungarian Quarterly. XLII (162). Archived from the original on June 15, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  14. ^ Sisa, Stephen (1995). "42. The Hungarian Genius". The Spirit of Hungary: A Panorama of Hungarian History and Culture. Ontario, Canada: Vista Books. p. 308. ISBN 0-9628422-0-6. Archived from the original on June 11, 2004. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  15. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 22, 2012. Retrieved March 3, 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  16. ^ http://www.hellotrade.com/energosolar/electronic-engineering.html
  17. ^ Singer, Charles Joseph; Williams, Trevor Illtyd (1954). A history of technology. Clarendon Press. p. 187. ISBN 1-56072-432-3. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  18. ^ O'Dea, William T. (1933). Handbook of the collections illustrating electrical engineering. HMSO. p. 6. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  19. ^ "Jedlik Ányos (1800–1895) Akadémikus, Fizikaprofesszor. Könyveinek és Cikkeiinek Bibliográfiája" [Ányos Jedlik (1800–1895) Academic, Professor of Physics. Books and Articles] (PDF) (in Hungarian). Magyar Elektronikus Könyvtár (Hungarian Electronic Library). September 6, 2007. Retrieved August 23, 2010.

External links

1800

1800 (MDCCC)

was an exceptional common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1800th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 800th year of the 2nd millennium, the 100th and last year of the 18th century, and the 1st year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1800, the Gregorian calendar was

11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. As of March 1 (O.S. February 18), when the Julian calendar acknowledged a leap day and the Gregorian calendar did not, the Julian calendar fell one day further behind, bringing the difference to 12 days until 1899.

1828

1828 (MDCCCXXVIII)

was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1828th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 828th year of the 2nd millennium, the 28th year of the 19th century, and the 9th year of the 1820s decade. As of the start of 1828, the Gregorian calendar was

12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1828 in science

The year 1828 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

Dynamo

A dynamo is an electrical generator that creates direct current using a commutator. Dynamos were the first electrical generators capable of delivering power for industry, and the foundation upon which many other later electric-power conversion devices were based, including the electric motor, the alternating-current alternator, and the rotary converter. Today, the simpler alternator dominates large scale power generation, for efficiency, reliability and cost reasons. A dynamo has the disadvantages of a mechanical commutator. Also, converting alternating to direct current using power rectification devices (such as vacuum tubes or more recently via solid state technology) is effective and usually economical.

Ernő Rubik

Ernő Rubik (Hungarian: [ˈrubik ˈɛrnøː]; born 13 July 1944) is a Hungarian inventor, architect and professor of architecture. He is best known for the invention of mechanical puzzles including Rubik's Cube (1974), Rubik's Magic, Rubik's Magic: Master Edition, and Rubik's Snake.While Rubik became famous for inventing the Rubik's Cube and his other puzzles, much of his recent work involves the promotion of science in education. Rubik is involved with several organizations such as Beyond Rubik's Cube, the Rubik Learning Initiative and the Judit Polgar Foundation all of whose aim is to engage students in science, mathematics, and problem solving at a young age.

Győr

Győr (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈɟøːr] (listen); German: Raab, names in other languages) is the most important city of northwest Hungary, the capital of Győr-Moson-Sopron County and Western Transdanubia region, and—halfway between Budapest and Vienna—situated on one of the important roads of Central Europe. The city is the sixth-largest in Hungary, and one of the seven main regional centres of the country.

History of the automobile

The early history of the automobile can be divided into a number of eras, based on the prevalent means of propulsion. Later periods were defined by trends in exterior styling, size, and utility preferences.

In 1769 the first steam-powered automobile capable of human transportation was built by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot.In 1808, François Isaac de Rivaz designed the first car powered by an internal combustion engine fueled by hydrogen.

In 1870 Siegfried Marcus built the first gasoline powered combustion engine, which he placed on a pushcart, building four progressively more sophisticated combustion-engine cars over a 10-to-15-year span that influenced later cars. Marcus created the two-cycle combustion engine. The car's second incarnation in 1880 introduced a four-cycle, gasoline-powered engine, an ingenious carburetor design and magneto ignition. He created an additional two models further refining his design with steering, a clutch and a brake.

The four-stroke petrol (gasoline) internal combustion engine that still constitutes the most prevalent form of modern automotive propulsion was patented by Nikolaus Otto. The similar four-stroke diesel engine was invented by Rudolf Diesel. The hydrogen fuel cell, one of the technologies hailed as a replacement for gasoline as an energy source for cars, was discovered in principle by Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1838. The battery electric car owes its beginnings to Ányos Jedlik, one of the inventors of the electric motor, and Gaston Planté, who invented the lead–acid battery in 1859.In 1885, Karl Benz developed a petrol or gasoline powered automobile. This is also considered to be the first "production" vehicle as Benz made several other identical copies. The automobile was powered by a single cylinder four-stroke engine.

In 1913, the Ford Model T, created by the Ford Motor Company five years prior, became the first automobile to be mass-produced on a moving assembly line. By 1927, Ford had produced over 15,000,000 Model T automobiles.

Impulse generator

An impulse generator is an electrical apparatus which produces very short high-voltage or high-current surges. Such devices can be classified into two types: impulse voltage generators and impulse current generators. High impulse voltages are used to test the strength of electric power equipment against lightning and switching surges. Also, steep-front impulse voltages are sometimes used in nuclear physics experiments. High impulse currents are needed not only for tests on equipment such as lightning arresters and fuses but also for many other technical applications such as lasers, thermonuclear fusion, and plasma devices.

List of Hungarians

This is a list of Hungarians notable within Hungary and/or abroad. It includes a list of Hungarians born outside present-day Hungary.

List of people on the postage stamps of Hungary

This is a list of people on stamps of Hungary.

Link

The year given is the year of issue of the first stamp depicting that person.

Data has been entered up to the end of 1960.

László Verebélÿ

László Verebélÿ (born Budapest, 27 August 1883, died Budapest, 22 November 1959) was a Hungarian university professor and electrical engineer. He worked in Hungary, Italy, Germany, Austria, England and the United States and did important work on the development of Hungary's electricity network after World War I.

Moses G. Farmer

Moses Gerrish Farmer (February 9, 1820 – May 25, 1893) was an electrical engineer and inventor. Farmer was a member to the AIEE, later known as the IEEE.

Order of the Iron Crown (Austria)

The Austrian Imperial Order of the Iron Crown (German: Kaiserlicher Orden der Eisernen Krone; Italian: Ordine imperiale della Corona ferrea) was one of the highest orders of merit of Austria and Austria-Hungary until 1918. It was re-established in 1815 by Emperor Franz I of Austria. The original Order of the Iron Crown had previously been an order of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy.

The order had three classes and all classes conferred automatic hereditary ennoblement; the third class conferred the rank of Ritter, the second class conferred the rank of Baron and the first class conferred the title of Privy Councillor, the style of Excellency, and the right to attend court. Appointment to the third or second class of the Order of the Iron Crown became one of the main routes to ennoblement for Austrian bourgeois families and for civil servants and military officers. The first class was in practice often awarded to people who were already noble. The order was also awarded to foreigners.

Pázmány Péter Catholic University

For other universities with similar names, see Pázmáneum (disambiguation)Pázmány Péter Catholic University is a private university of the Catholic Church in Hungary, recognized by the state. Founded in 1635, the PPCU is one of Hungary's oldest and most prestigious institutions of higher education.

The Faculty of Theology was established by archbishop Péter Pázmány in Nagyszombat, the Kingdom of Hungary (today Trnava, Slovakia) in 1635. The university is located in three cities: the Rectors' Office, the Faculty of Theology, the Faculty of Law, the Faculty of Information Technology, and the Postgraduate Institute of Canon-Law are located in Budapest. The campus of the Vitéz János Faculty of Teaching is in Esztergom, around the Esztergom Basilica. The campus of the Faculty of Humanities is in Piliscsaba, in the vicinity of Budapest.

The university has several research groups and institutes. One of the most important international research programmes of the university is the Syro-Hungarian Archeological Mission, which does the restoration of Margat's crusader fortress.

Nearly 10.000 students attend the university, enrolled in several Bachelor, Master, and PhD programmes.

International cooperations include the Erasmus programme and bilateral agreements. It was named in 2009 as one of the most active members of the Erasmus programme. It is a co-establisher of the International Research Universities Network and has strong connections with Radboud University Nijmegen, Catholic University of Leuven, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Bogota, Saint Louis University and University of Notre Dame.

Rotor (electric)

The rotor is a moving component of an electromagnetic system in the electric motor, electric generator, or alternator. Its rotation is due to the interaction between the windings and magnetic fields which produces a torque around the rotor's axis.

Timeline of the electric motor

Electric motors have a long history going back to the early nineteenth century.

Zemné

Zemné (Hungarian: Szímő) is a village and municipality in the Nové Zámky District in the Nitra Region of south-western Slovakia. The village is known as the birthplace of inventor Ányos Jedlik.

Zoltán Agócs

Zoltán Agócs (24 April 1938 Fiľakovo, Czechoslovakia – 14 February 2018, Senec, Slovakia) was an architect and professor from Czechoslovakia with Hungarian ancestry.

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