Ányos István Jedlik (Hungarian: Jedlik Ányos István; Slovak: Štefan Anián Jedlík; in older texts and publications: Latin: Stephanus Anianus Jedlik; 11 January 1800 – 13 December 1895) was a Hungarian inventor, engineer, physicist, and Benedictine priest. He was also a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and author of several books. He is considered by Hungarians and Slovaks to be the unsung father of the dynamo and electric motor.
Ányos István Jedlik
|Born||11 January 1800|
|Died||13 December 1895 (aged 95)|
|Known for||Electric motor, dynamo, self-excitation, impulse generator, cascade connection|
|Fields||Inventor, engineer, physicist|
He was born in Szimő, Kingdom of Hungary (today Zemné, Slovakia). His mother was a member of a Hungarian noble family, while his father's family was of Slovak origin moving in 1720 from Liptó County to Szimő.
Jedlik's education began at high schools in Nagyszombat (today Trnava) and Pressburg (today Bratislava). In 1817 he became a Benedictine, and from that time continued his studies at the schools of that order, where he was known by his Latin name Stephanus Anianus. He lectured at Benedictine schools up to 1839, then for 40 years at the Budapest University of Sciences department of physics-mechanics. Few guessed at that time that his activities would play an important part in bringing up a new generation of physicists. He became the dean of the Faculty of Arts in 1848, and by 1863 he was rector of the University. From 1858 he was a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and from 1873 was an honorary member. After his retirement he continued working and spent his last years in complete seclusion at the priory in Győr, where he died.
In 1827, Jedlik started experimenting with electromagnetic rotating devices which he called lightning-magnetic self-rotors, and in 1828 he demonstrated the first device which contained the three main components of practical direct current motors: the stator, rotor, and commutator. In the prototype both the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic. The first electromotor, built in 1828, and Jedlik's operating instructions are kept at the Museum of Applied Arts in Budapest. The motor still works perfectly today. However, Jedlik only reported his invention decades later and the true date of it is uncertain.
He was a prolific author. In 1845, Jedlik was the first university professor in the Kingdom of Hungary who began teaching his students in Hungarian instead of Latin. His cousin Gergely Czuczor, a Hungarian linguist, asked him to create a Hungarian technical vocabulary in physics, the first of its kind, by which he became one of its founders.
In the 1850s he conducted optical and wave-mechanical experiments, and at the beginning of the 1860s he constructed an excellent optical grate.
He was ahead of his contemporaries in his scientific work, but he did not speak about his most important invention, his prototype dynamo, until 1856; it was not until 1861 that he mentioned it in writing in a list of inventory of the university. Although that document might serve as evidence of Jedlik's being the first dynamo, the invention of the dynamo is linked to Siemens's name because Jedlik's invention did not rise to notice at that time.
In 1863 he discovered the possibility of voltage multiplication and in 1868 demonstrated it with a "tubular voltage generator", which was successfully displayed at the Vienna World Exposition in 1873. It was an early form of the impulse generators now applied in nuclear research. The jury of the World Exhibition of 1873 in Vienna awarded his voltage multiplying condenser of cascade connection with a prize "For Development". Through this condenser, Jedlik framed the principle of surge generation by cascaded connection. (The cascade connection was an other important invention of Ányos Jedlik)
In 1827, Jedlik started experimenting with electromagnetic rotating devices which he called electromagnetic self-rotors.
In the prototype of the single-pole electric starter, both the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic. In essence, the concept is that instead of permanent magnets, two opposed electromagnets induce the magnetic field around the rotor. He formulated the concept of the self-excited dynamo about 1861, six years before Siemens and Wheatstone.
As one side of the coil passes in front of the north pole, crossing the line of force, current is induced. As the frame rotates further the current diminishes, then arriving at the front of the south pole it rises again but flows in the opposite direction. The frame is connected to a commutator, thus the current always flows in the same direction in the external circuit.
The following are all given in the Hungarian Electronic Library:
Contributions by Jedlik in other works:
Hoci vyrastal v maďarskom prostredí a maďarsky aj cítil, po svojich predkoch bol nepochybne slovenského pôvodu. Translation: Although he grew up in Magyar (Hungarian) environment and also felt Magyar (ethnic Hungarian), he was indisputably of Slovak origin after his ancestors
was an exceptional common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1800th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 800th year of the 2nd millennium, the 100th and last year of the 18th century, and the 1st year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1800, the Gregorian calendar was
11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. As of March 1 (O.S. February 18), when the Julian calendar acknowledged a leap day and the Gregorian calendar did not, the Julian calendar fell one day further behind, bringing the difference to 12 days until 1899.1828
was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1828th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 828th year of the 2nd millennium, the 28th year of the 19th century, and the 9th year of the 1820s decade. As of the start of 1828, the Gregorian calendar was
12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.1828 in science
The year 1828 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.Dynamo
A dynamo is an electrical generator that creates direct current using a commutator. Dynamos were the first electrical generators capable of delivering power for industry, and the foundation upon which many other later electric-power conversion devices were based, including the electric motor, the alternating-current alternator, and the rotary converter. Today, the simpler alternator dominates large scale power generation, for efficiency, reliability and cost reasons. A dynamo has the disadvantages of a mechanical commutator. Also, converting alternating to direct current using power rectification devices (such as vacuum tubes or more recently via solid state technology) is effective and usually economical.Ernő Rubik
Ernő Rubik (Hungarian: [ˈrubik ˈɛrnøː]; born 13 July 1944) is a Hungarian inventor, architect and professor of architecture. He is best known for the invention of mechanical puzzles including Rubik's Cube (1974), Rubik's Magic, Rubik's Magic: Master Edition, and Rubik's Snake.While Rubik became famous for inventing the Rubik's Cube and his other puzzles, much of his recent work involves the promotion of science in education. Rubik is involved with several organizations such as Beyond Rubik's Cube, the Rubik Learning Initiative and the Judit Polgar Foundation all of whose aim is to engage students in science, mathematics, and problem solving at a young age.Győr
Győr (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈɟøːr] (listen); German: Raab, names in other languages) is the most important city of northwest Hungary, the capital of Győr-Moson-Sopron County and Western Transdanubia region, and—halfway between Budapest and Vienna—situated on one of the important roads of Central Europe. The city is the sixth-largest in Hungary, and one of the seven main regional centres of the country.History of the automobile
The early history of the automobile can be divided into a number of eras, based on the prevalent means of propulsion. Later periods were defined by trends in exterior styling, size, and utility preferences.
In 1769 the first steam-powered automobile capable of human transportation was built by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot.In 1808, François Isaac de Rivaz designed the first car powered by an internal combustion engine fueled by hydrogen.
In 1870 Siegfried Marcus built the first gasoline powered combustion engine, which he placed on a pushcart, building four progressively more sophisticated combustion-engine cars over a 10-to-15-year span that influenced later cars. Marcus created the two-cycle combustion engine. The car's second incarnation in 1880 introduced a four-cycle, gasoline-powered engine, an ingenious carburetor design and magneto ignition. He created an additional two models further refining his design with steering, a clutch and a brake.
The four-stroke petrol (gasoline) internal combustion engine that still constitutes the most prevalent form of modern automotive propulsion was patented by Nikolaus Otto. The similar four-stroke diesel engine was invented by Rudolf Diesel. The hydrogen fuel cell, one of the technologies hailed as a replacement for gasoline as an energy source for cars, was discovered in principle by Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1838. The battery electric car owes its beginnings to Ányos Jedlik, one of the inventors of the electric motor, and Gaston Planté, who invented the lead–acid battery in 1859.In 1885, Karl Benz developed a petrol or gasoline powered automobile. This is also considered to be the first "production" vehicle as Benz made several other identical copies. The automobile was powered by a single cylinder four-stroke engine.
In 1913, the Ford Model T, created by the Ford Motor Company five years prior, became the first automobile to be mass-produced on a moving assembly line. By 1927, Ford had produced over 15,000,000 Model T automobiles.Impulse generator
An impulse generator is an electrical apparatus which produces very short high-voltage or high-current surges. Such devices can be classified into two types: impulse voltage generators and impulse current generators. High impulse voltages are used to test the strength of electric power equipment against lightning and switching surges. Also, steep-front impulse voltages are sometimes used in nuclear physics experiments. High impulse currents are needed not only for tests on equipment such as lightning arresters and fuses but also for many other technical applications such as lasers, thermonuclear fusion, and plasma devices.List of Hungarians
This is a list of Hungarians notable within Hungary and/or abroad. It includes a list of Hungarians born outside present-day Hungary.List of people on the postage stamps of Hungary
This is a list of people on stamps of Hungary.
The year given is the year of issue of the first stamp depicting that person.
Data has been entered up to the end of 1960.László Verebélÿ
László Verebélÿ (born Budapest, 27 August 1883, died Budapest, 22 November 1959) was a Hungarian university professor and electrical engineer. He worked in Hungary, Italy, Germany, Austria, England and the United States and did important work on the development of Hungary's electricity network after World War I.Moses G. Farmer
Moses Gerrish Farmer (February 9, 1820 – May 25, 1893) was an electrical engineer and inventor. Farmer was a member to the AIEE, later known as the IEEE.Order of the Iron Crown (Austria)
The Austrian Imperial Order of the Iron Crown (German: Kaiserlicher Orden der Eisernen Krone; Italian: Ordine imperiale della Corona ferrea) was one of the highest orders of merit of Austria and Austria-Hungary until 1918. It was re-established in 1815 by Emperor Franz I of Austria. The original Order of the Iron Crown had previously been an order of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy.
The order had three classes and all classes conferred automatic hereditary ennoblement; the third class conferred the rank of Ritter, the second class conferred the rank of Baron and the first class conferred the title of Privy Councillor, the style of Excellency, and the right to attend court. Appointment to the third or second class of the Order of the Iron Crown became one of the main routes to ennoblement for Austrian bourgeois families and for civil servants and military officers. The first class was in practice often awarded to people who were already noble. The order was also awarded to foreigners.Pázmány Péter Catholic University
For other universities with similar names, see Pázmáneum (disambiguation)Pázmány Péter Catholic University is a private university of the Catholic Church in Hungary, recognized by the state. Founded in 1635, the PPCU is one of Hungary's oldest and most prestigious institutions of higher education.
The Faculty of Theology was established by archbishop Péter Pázmány in Nagyszombat, the Kingdom of Hungary (today Trnava, Slovakia) in 1635. The university is located in three cities: the Rectors' Office, the Faculty of Theology, the Faculty of Law, the Faculty of Information Technology, and the Postgraduate Institute of Canon-Law are located in Budapest. The campus of the Vitéz János Faculty of Teaching is in Esztergom, around the Esztergom Basilica. The campus of the Faculty of Humanities is in Piliscsaba, in the vicinity of Budapest.
The university has several research groups and institutes. One of the most important international research programmes of the university is the Syro-Hungarian Archeological Mission, which does the restoration of Margat's crusader fortress.
Nearly 10.000 students attend the university, enrolled in several Bachelor, Master, and PhD programmes.
International cooperations include the Erasmus programme and bilateral agreements. It was named in 2009 as one of the most active members of the Erasmus programme. It is a co-establisher of the International Research Universities Network and has strong connections with Radboud University Nijmegen, Catholic University of Leuven, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Bogota, Saint Louis University and University of Notre Dame.Rotor (electric)
The rotor is a moving component of an electromagnetic system in the electric motor, electric generator, or alternator. Its rotation is due to the interaction between the windings and magnetic fields which produces a torque around the rotor's axis.Timeline of the electric motor
Electric motors have a long history going back to the early nineteenth century.Zemné
Zemné (Hungarian: Szímő) is a village and municipality in the Nové Zámky District in the Nitra Region of south-western Slovakia. The village is known as the birthplace of inventor Ányos Jedlik.Zoltán Agócs
Zoltán Agócs (24 April 1938 Fiľakovo, Czechoslovakia – 14 February 2018, Senec, Slovakia) was an architect and professor from Czechoslovakia with Hungarian ancestry.