Álvaro de Bazán the Elder

Don Álvaro de Bazán, called the Elder (1506–1558) was a Spanish naval commander from an old navarrese noble family who received several nobilary titles such as the rank of Admiral of Castile, Marquis del Viso, and General-Captain of the Galleys of Spain. He was the father of Álvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz, who surpassed him in fame. At the age of eight his son was appointed "Military Governor and captain of the fortress and city of Gibraltar". His command however was via his father. It has been speculated that this unusual appointment was intended to show Charles V's confidence but Bazán the Elder did not share that confidence and he suggested to no effect that Gibraltar's Line Wall Curtain be extended to the southern tip of the rock.[1]

Bazán the Elder was also father of Alonso de Bazán, a military commander who died during the conquest the Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, and Joan Bazán. In 1549 Bazán received from Charles V the villages of Viso del Marqués and Santa Cruz de Mudela.

Álvaro de Bazán the Elder
Allegiance Spain
Battles/warsConquest of Tunis (1535)
Battle of Muros Bay
AwardsGeneral-Captain of the Galleys of Spain
General-Captain of the Ocean Sea

Important feats during his military career

  • 1520–1526: Takes action in the Siege of Fuenterrabía.
  • 1526 After the death of Juan de Velasco, occupies his rank as General-Captain of the Galleys of Spain
  • 1532 Wins the city of Orey, with 10 galleys; using the treasure of this capture, he increased the number of galleys for Spain.
  • 1533 Captures the Turkish corsair Jabanarrez, in Falkavivas.
  • 1535 Leads the Spanish galleys in the campaign of Charles V against Tunis.[1]
  • 1536 Captures the flagship of the Argelian navy, that among French ships, was about to pillage the Spanish coasts.
  • 1539 Charles V sells to Álvaro the villages of Viso del Marqués y Santa Cruz de Mudela, where his son ordered to build a marvelous renacentist palace, that he would convert in the residence of its descendants.
  • 1543: Receives the supreme rank of Capitán-General del mar océano. (General captain of the Ocean Sea)

Leading the ships of Biscay, Guipúzcoa and the Cuatro Villas, defeats the French navy under Admiral Burye in the Battle of Muros Bay.

  • 1550 obtains privileges to build galleons and galleys of his invention in order to protect the route to the Indies from corsair attacks.
  • 1554-1559 Defends the Spanish-American coasts against possible attacks, capturing several ships.


  1. ^ a b Hills, George (1974). Rock of contention : a history of Gibraltar. London: Hale. pp. 105–106. ISBN 0709143524.


  • Hoffman E, Paul. Spanish Crown and the Defense of the Caribbean 1535-1585: Precedent, Patrimonialism, and Royal Parsimony Louisiana State University Press (June 1980) ISBN 0-8071-0583-X
  • Trevor, Reginald. Davies The golden century of Spain, 1501-1621 Ams Pr Inc (1996) ISBN 0-404-20073-7
  • John Francis Guilmartin, Francis John. Gunpowder and Galleys: Changing Technology and Mediterranean Warfare at Sea in the 16th Century Naval Institute Press; Revised edition (2004) ISBN 1-59114-347-0
  • Perez-Mallaina E, Rahn Phillips Rahn, Carla. Spain's men of the sea: daily life on the Indies fleets in the sixteenth century The Johns Hopkins University Press (1998) ISBN 0-8018-5746-5
Alonso de Bazán

Alonso de Bazán, son of Admiral Álvaro de Bazán the Elder, Marquis del Viso, and brother of the better known Admiral Álvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz, was a Spanish naval commander during the Anglo–Spanish War (1585–1604) and the Eighty Years' War.

Battle of Alborán

The battle of Alboran (Spanish: batalla de Alborán) took place on 1 October 1540 off the isle of Alboran during the Ottoman-Habsburg struggle for the control of the Mediterranean when a Spanish fleet under the command of Bernardino de Mendoza destroyed an Ottoman fleet commanded by Ali Hamet, sinking a galley and capturing 10 other ships.

Battle of Muros Bay

The Battle of Muros Bay (Spanish: Batalla de Muros) took place on 25 July 1543, during the Italian War of 1542–1546, between the French fleet under Jean de Clamorgan, Lord of Soane and the Spanish fleet commanded by Don Álvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquis of Viso, father of Don Álvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz, who was also present at the battle being no more than 18 years old. This battle is considered to be the first big Atlantic naval battle.

Cusco School

The Cusco School (Escuela Cuzqueña) or Cuzco School, was a Roman Catholic artistic tradition based in Cusco, Peru (the former capital of the Inca Empire) during the Colonial period, in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. It was not limited to Cuzco only, but spread to other cities in the Andes, as well as to present day Ecuador and Bolivia.There are high amount of Cusco School's paintings preserved, currently most of them are located at Cusco, but also currently there are in the rest of Peru and in museums of Brazil, England and United States.

Fortifications of Gibraltar

The fortifications of Gibraltar have made the Rock of Gibraltar and its environs "probably the most fought over and most densely fortified place in Europe, and probably, therefore, in the world", as Field Marshal Sir John Chapple has put it. The Gibraltar peninsula, located at the far southern end of Iberia, has great strategic importance as a result of its position by the Strait of Gibraltar where the Mediterranean Sea meets the Atlantic Ocean. It has repeatedly been contested between European and North African powers and has endured fourteen sieges since it was first settled in the 11th century. The peninsula's occupants – Moors, Spanish, and British – have built successive layers of fortifications and defences including walls, bastions, casemates, gun batteries, magazines, tunnels and galleries. At their peak in 1865, the fortifications housed around 681 guns mounted in 110 batteries and positions, guarding all land and sea approaches to Gibraltar. The fortifications continued to be in military use until as late as the 1970s and by the time tunnelling ceased in the late 1960s, over 34 miles (55 km) of galleries had been dug in an area of only 2.6 square miles (6.7 km2).

Gibraltar's fortifications are clustered in three main areas. The densest fortifications are in the area where historically Gibraltar was under the most threat – at the north end of the peninsula, the North Front, facing the isthmus with Spain. Another group of fortifications guards the town and the harbour, referred to as the West Side. The southern end of the town is guarded by the South Land Front. Few fortifications exist on the east side, as the sheer cliff of the Rock of Gibraltar is a virtually impassable obstacle. Further fortifications occupy the plateaus of Windmill Hill and Europa Point at the southern end of the peninsula. Lookout posts and batteries on the summits of the Rock provide a 360° view across the Strait and far into Spain. Although Gibraltar is now largely demilitarised, many of the fortifications are still intact and some, such as the Great Siege Tunnels and the Charles V Wall – where many of Gibraltar's famous "apes" live – have become tourist attractions.

Hernán Venegas Carrillo

Hernán Venegas Carrillo Manosalvas (c.1513 – 2 February 1583) was a Spanish conquistadorfor who participated in the Spanish conquest of the Muisca and Panche people in the New Kingdom of Granada, present-day Colombia. Venegas Carrillo was mayor of Santa Fe de Bogotá for two terms; in 1542 and from 1543 to 1544.

Lacandola Documents

The term "Lacandola Documents" is used by Philippine Historiographers to describe the section of the Spanish Archives in Manila which are dedicated to the genealogical records (cuadernos de linaje) of the "Manila aristocracy" from the period immediately following European colonial contact. As of 2001, only one bundle of twelve folders (containing eleven distinct sets of documents) remains in the archive, the rest having been lost, misplaced, or destroyed by various events such as the Japanese Occupation of Manila during World War II. The surviving bundle is labeled "Decendientes de Don Carlos Lacandola" (Descendants of Don Carlos Lakandula), and scholars use the term "Lacandola Documents" as an informal shortcut.Scholars specializing in the noble houses of Rajah Matanda, Rajah Sulayman, and Lakandula mostly use these documents in conjunction with the Archivo General de Indias (General Archive of the Indies) in Seville, Spain in studying the genealogies of these "noble houses." Other primary sources frequently referred to by historiographers are the Silsila or Tarsilas of Sulu, Maguindanao, and Brunei, and local records (usually Catholic parish registers) of towns where descendants of the three houses may have moved.

Quito School

The Quito School (Escuela Quiteña) is a Latin American artistic tradition that constitutes essentially the whole of the professional artistic output developed in the territory of the Royal Audience of Quito — from Pasto and Popayán in the north to Piura and Cajamarca in the south — during the Spanish colonial period (1542-1824). It is especially associated with the 17th and 18th centuries and was almost exclusively focused on the religious art of the Catholic Church in the country. Characterized by a mastery of the realistic and by the degree to which indigenous beliefs and artistic traditions are evident, these productions were among of the most important activities in the economy of the Royal Audience of Quito. Such was the prestige of the movement even in Europe that it was said that King Carlos III of Spain (1716–1788), referring to one of its sculptors in particular, opined: "I am not concerned that Italy has Michelangelo; in my colonies of America I have the master Caspicara".

Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca

Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈalβaɾ ˈnũɲeθ kaˈβeθa ðe ˈβaka]; Jerez de la Frontera, c. 1488/1490/1492 – Seville, c. 1557/1558/1559/1560) was a Spanish explorer of the New World, and one of four survivors of the 1527 Narváez expedition. During eight years of traveling across the US Southwest, he became a trader and faith healer to various Native American tribes before reconnecting with Spanish civilization in Mexico in 1536. After returning to Spain in 1537, he wrote an account, first published in 1542 as La relación y comentarios ("The Account and Commentaries"), which in later editions was retitled Naufragios ("Shipwrecks"). Cabeza de Vaca is sometimes considered a proto-anthropologist for his detailed accounts of the many tribes of Native Americans that he encountered.

In 1540, Cabeza de Vaca was appointed adelantado of what is now Argentina, where he was governor and captain general of New Andalusia. He worked to build up the population of Buenos Aires, where settlement had declined due to poor administration. Cabeza de Vaca was transported to Spain for trial in 1545. Although his sentence was eventually commuted, he never returned to the Americas. He died in Seville.

Álvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquess of Santa Cruz

Álvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquess of Santa Cruz de Mudela, GE, KOS (12 December 1526 – 9 February 1588), was a Spanish admiral. According to Spanish sources, he was never defeated, a remarkable achievement in a fifty-year long career. His personal galley, La Loba (The She-Wolf), thus called by her golden figurehead, was feared by Spanish enemies and regarded with hope amongst Spanish sailors and allies.

Álvaro de Bazán (disambiguation)

Álvaro de Bazán may refer to:

Álvaro de Bazán the Elder, Spanish admiral father of the 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz

Álvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz, a Spanish admiral of the 16th century

Álvaro de Bazán, 2nd Marquis of Santa Cruz (1571–1646)

Álvaro de Bazán-class gunboat, a class of gunboats operated by the Spanish Navy

Spanish gunboat Álvaro de Bazán, lead ship of the Álvaro de Bazán class gunboats

Álvaro de Bazán-class frigate, a five-ship class of air defence frigates currently operated by the Spanish Navy

Spanish frigate Álvaro de Bazán (F101), lead ship of the Álvaro de Bazán-class frigates

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