'Abd al-Ilah

'Abd al-Ilah of Hejaz, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (Arabic: عبد الإله; also written Abdul Ilah or Abdullah; 14 November 1913 – 14 July 1958), was a first cousin and brother-in-law of King Ghazi of Iraq.[2] 'Abd al-Ilah served as regent for King Faisal II from 4 April 1939 to 23 May 1953, when Faisal came of age. He also held the title of Crown Prince of Iraq from 1943.[3]

'Abd al-Ilah was killed along with the rest of the Royal Family in the 14 July Revolution in 1958 that ended the Hashemite monarchy in Iraq. His body was mutilated, dragged across the streets of Baghdad, and eventually burnt.

'Abd al-Ilah of Hejaz
Crown Prince of Iraq
'Abd al-Ilah of Hejaz
Regent of Iraq
Tenure4 April 1939 – 2 May 1953
MonarchFaisal II
Born14 November 1913
Ta'if, Hejaz
Died14 July 1958 (aged 44)
Baghdad, Iraq
SpouseMelek Khanum
Faiza Khanum
Hiyam Abdullah
HouseHouse of Hashem
FatherAli ibn Hussein
MotherNafissa Khanum
ReligionSunni Islam[1]

Biography

Prince Abdul Ilah of Iraq and others in front of George Washington's home at Mt. Vernon, Virginia. A good portrait of... - NARA - 199093
'Abd al-Ilah (holding hat) at Mount Vernon in 1945

Son and heir of King Ali ibn Hussein of Hejaz, who was the elder brother of King Faisal I of Iraq, and brother of Aliya bint Ali. His family fled Hejaz, when Ibn Saud of Nejd usurped his father's authority.[3] 'Abd al-Ilah assumed power, in the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq, upon King Ghazi's death in an automobile accident. He served as Regent for the underage King Faisal II.[3]

1941 Iraqi coup d'état

During World War II, Abdul Ilah was deposed briefly by former Prime Minister Rashid Ali al-Kaylani. Rashid Ali led a pro-German coup d'état during World War II against 'Abd al-Ilah's pro-British government. After he fled the country, 'Abd al-Ilah was replaced as Regent by Sherif Sharaf. Sherif Sharaf was an aging, holy-minded relative of Faisal II. The deposed Regent spent his time with former Prime Minister Nuri al-Said as a refugee in Amman. 'Abd al-Ilah was a guest of Abdullah, the Emir of Transjordan.[4]

On 2 May, the United Kingdom launched offensive actions against the Iraqi rebels. On 26 May, The New York Times newspaper reported that 'Abd al-Ilah had called for an uprising of tribal and religious leaders to help him overthrow the insurgent government. He appealed specifically to the Iraqi people, the army and the police to accomplish "this heavy task".

By 2 June, Rashid Ali's "National Defence Government" had collapsed and Rashid Ali had fled to Iran. 'Abd al-Ilah returned to Baghdad and was restored as Regent.[5]

Working in tandem with Nuri al-Said, 'Abd al-Ilah pursued a moderate nationalistic approach while maintaining close ties to the Allies.[3]

In 1942, Wendell Willkie traveled to Britain and the Middle East as President Franklin D. Roosevelt's personal representative. In Iraq, Abdul Ilah held a lavish state dinner attended by Willkie.[6]

In 1945, 'Abd al-Ilah visited the United States. He was the honoree at the first state dinner hosted by the new American First Lady, Bess Truman.[7] The Regent of "friendly Iraq" was awarded a Legion of Merit military decoration by President Harry S. Truman.[8]

In 1953, Crown Prince 'Abd al-Ilah stepped down when Faisal II came of age. But he continued to be a close adviser of the young King, and an advocate of a pro-Western foreign policy.

In 1955, Iraq adopted the Baghdad Pact (also known as the Central Treaty Organization, or CENTO). The other members of the organization were Iran, Pakistan, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. The organization's headquarters were initially located in Baghdad.

In May 1957, Saud of Saudi Arabia made an eight-day visit to Iraq. He was met on his arrival by Faisel II, 'Abd al-Ilah, and Prime Minister Nuri al-Said. It was the Saudi King's first ever visit to Iraq and it commemorated Iraq's membership in the Arab Federation and its break with the United Arab Republic of Gamal Abdel Nasser.[9]

14 July Revolution

14 July revolution - mutilated corpse
Mutilated corpses of 'Abd al-Ilah (left) and Nuri al-Said (right)

During the 14 July Revolution, Crown Prince 'Abd al-Ilah was killed, along with most of the Royal Family. On 14 July 1958, a coup d'état led by Colonel Abd al-Karim Qasim toppled the government and brought an end to the Iraqi monarchy. The body of Crown Prince 'Abd al-Ilah was trailed on al Rashid street and was cut into pieces. According to the 21 July edition of Time magazine, Gamal Abdel Nasser's Middle East News Agency gleefully described the assassination of Crown Prince 'Abd al-Ilah: 'The people dragged 'Abd al-Ilah's body into the street like that of a dog and tore it limb from limb.' Then the mobs burned the body."[10]

Military ranks and Awards

'Abd al-Ilah held the following ranks:[11]

He was awarded the Legion of Merit (Chief Commander) on 1 June 1945.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "IRAQ – Resurgence In The Shiite World – Part 8 – Jordan & The Hashemite Factors". APS Diplomat Redrawing the Islamic Map. 2005.
  2. ^ The Royal Ark
  3. ^ a b c d "'Abd al-Ilah". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-Ak - Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2010. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
  4. ^ "Trouble in Paradise". Time magazine. 21 April 1941. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
  5. ^ Lyman, Robert (2006). Iraq 1941: The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad. Campaign. Oxford and New York: Osprey Publishing. p. 86. ISBN 1-84176-991-6.
  6. ^ "Points East". Time magazine. 28 September 1942. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
  7. ^ "Family at Home". Time magazine. 4 June 1945. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
  8. ^ "Talk & Ceremony". Time magazine. 11 June 1945. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
  9. ^ "Gathering of Kings". Time magazine. 25 May 1957. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
  10. ^ "Revolt in Baghdad". Time magazine. 21 July 1958. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
  11. ^ Al-Hashimi Dynasty. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
  12. ^ Kamal Salibi (15 December 1998). The Modern History of Jordan. I.B.Tauris. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  13. ^ "Family tree". alhussein.gov. 1 January 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2018.

Further reading

  • Churchill, Winston (1985) [1950]. "Chapter 14: The Revolt in Iraq". The Second World War, Volume III, The Grand Alliance. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-395-41057-6.
  • O'Sullivan, Christopher (2012). FDR and the End of Empire: The Origins of American Power in the Middle East. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-02524-1.
14 July Revolution

The 14 July Revolution, also known as the 1958 Iraqi coup d'état, took place on 14 July 1958 in Iraq, and resulted in the overthrow of the Hashemite monarchy that had been established by King Faisal I in 1921 under the auspices of the British. King Faisal II, Prince 'Abd al-Ilah, and Prime Minister Nuri al-Said were killed during the uprising.

As a result of the overthrow of the Iraqi Hashemite dynasty, the coup d'état established the Iraqi Republic. The coup ended the Hashemite Arab Federation between Iraq and Jordan that had been established just 6 months earlier. Abd al-Karim Qasim took power as Prime Minister until 1963, when he was overthrown and killed in the Ramadan Revolution.

1939 Iraqi parliamentary election

Parliamentary elections were held in Iraq on 29 April 1939.

1941 Iraqi coup d'état

The 1941 Iraqi coup d'état (Arabic: ثورة رشيد عالي الكيلاني), also called the Rashid Ali Al-Gaylani coup or the Golden Square coup, was a nationalist and pro-Nazi Coup d'état in Iraq on 1 April 1941 that overthrew the pro-British regime of Regent 'Abd al-Ilah and his Prime Minister Nuri al-Said and installed Rashid Ali al-Gaylani as Prime Minister.The coup was led by four Iraqi nationalist army generals, known as "the Golden Square", who intended to use the war to press for full Iraqi independence following the limited independence granted in 1932. To that end, they worked with German intelligence and accepted military assistance from Germany and Italy. The change in government led to a British invasion of Iraq and subsequent occupation until 1947.

Abd al-Ilah Pasha

Sharif Abd al-Ilah Pasha ibn Muhammad (Arabic: الشريف عبد الإله باشا بن محمد‎ al-Sharīf ‘Abd al-Ilāh Bāshā ibn Muḥammad; Ottoman Turkish: شريف عبد الإله پاشا بن محمد‎ Şerif Abdülilah Paşa bin Muhammed; 1845 – 27 October 1908) was a sharif of the Awn clan who was briefly proclaimed Sharif and Emir of Mecca in 1882. He was appointed again in 1908 but died before reaching Mecca.

Abdalelah Haroun

Abdalelah Haroun Hassan (Arabic: عبد الإله هارون‎; born 1 January 1997) is a Qatari track and field sprinter. He specialises in the 400 metres. He is the 2015 Asian champion in the event and holds the Asian indoor record.

Haroun was recruited at a young age from Sudan by Qatar. He gained eligibility to represent Qatar in February 2015. His first recorded performance was a time of 45.74 seconds for the 400 m in Doha in April 2014, which placed him among the world's most promising young sprinters for the event. He announced himself on the elite scene in his next performance at the XL Galan in February 2015 by running an Asian indoor record of 45.39 seconds, which was also the third fastest ever by a junior category athlete and the fastest ever indoor debut. His next outing one month later he set an outdoor best of 44.68 seconds. He was a comfortable victor at the 2015 Arab Athletics Championships in April, beating Egypt's Anas Beshr by nearly a second.He ran at the Doha Diamond League meeting and won the non-Diamond-race contest with another sub-45-second run. On his IAAF Diamond League debut proper, he finished fifth at the Prefontaine Classic. He quickly established himself as one of Asia's top senior athletes at the 2015 Asian Athletics Championships by beating two-time defending champion Yousef Masrahi of Saudi Arabia in the 400 m final with his third 44.68-second clocking of the season. Masrahi was indignant about losing to his younger rival, saying "44.68 is nothing for me actually. I will come back. I will break the Asian record again".

Abdulelah Haider Shaye

Abdulelah Haider Shaye, or Abd al-Ilah Haydar Al-Sha’i (born c. 1977), is a prominent Yemeni investigative journalist best known for his reporting of the December 17, 2009 U.S. cruise missile strike on al-Majalah in southern Yemen, his interviews with al-Qaeda leaders, and the controversial nature of his arrest and imprisonment in 2011.

In 2011, Shaye was arrested, beaten, and held in solitary confinement for 34 days in Yemen. He was eventually tried and convicted of terrorism-related charges and sentenced to five years in prison, followed by two years of restricted movement and government surveillance. His conviction and sentencing was deeply unpopular with the Yemeni populace. On February 2, 2011, President Obama called then-Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh to discuss counterterrorism cooperation and al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula. At the end of the call, according to a White House read-out, Obama "expressed concern" over the release of Shaye. Shaye had not been released at the time of the call, but Saleh did have a pardon prepared. Consequently, Shaye was not released until 2013.Shaye is related by marriage to the radical Islamic cleric Abdul Majid al Zindani and he has used this relationship and other connections to gain access to al-Qaeda leaders, including the late Yemeni-American Muslim cleric Anwar al-Awlaki.In 2013, Shaye won a coveted Alkarama Human Rights Defenders award in Geneva for his work in exposing the reality of the US-led drone war in his country.

Ali Pasha ibn Abd Allah

‘Alī Pāshā ibn ‘Abd Allāh ibn Muḥammad (Ottoman Turkish: علی پاشا بن عبد الله بن محمد‎; Arabic: علي باشا‎, ‘Alī Bāshā; 1859–1941) was a sharif of the Awn clan who served as Emir and Grand Sharif of Mecca from 1905 until he was deposed in the Young Turk Revolution of 1908.

He and his cousin Sharif Husayn ibn Ali were given the rank of pasha after the death of his father Sharif Abd Allah Pasha in 1877.He assisted his uncle Sharif Awn ar-Rafiq who served as Emir from 1882 to 1905. When Awn ar-Rafiq died in July 1905, Ahmed Ratib Pasha, the Vali of Hejaz, appointed Sharif Ali as acting Emir until a decision could be reached in Istanbul. Three sharifs residing in Istanbul submitted their names to the Sultan as candidates: Sharif Husayn, Sharif Abd al-Ilah, and Sharif Ali Haydar of the rival House of Zayd. Abd al-Ilah, the younger brother of Awn ar-Rafiq, was the eldest of the House of Awn, but Sultan Abdul Hamid instead confirmed Sharif Ali as Emir and raised him to the rank of vizier and mushir. The telegraph confirming Ali's appointment arrived in mid-October, while the written irade (decree) is dated 2 Ramadan 1323 AH (c. 31 October 1905). However his formal investiture as Emir did not occur until April 1908.In July 1908 the Young Turk Revolution reinstated the Ottoman constitution of 1876. In the Hejaz Sharif Ali and Ahmed Ratib Pasha opposed the new regime and delayed declaration of the constitution. Ali ordered the flogging of some men in Ta'if who were found discussing the subject. Ahmed Ratib was dismissed from his post on 7 August and ordered to Jeddah, where he was arrested by military officers of the Committee of Union and Progress and had his property was confiscated. Ali was left as acting Vali, and was forced to announce his support for the constitution when he was taken by the local CUP officers to the barracks in Ta'if. In addition to making him swear on the Qur'an to follow the constitutional laws, the committee humiliated him by making him publicly declare his legal equality with a slave, a soldier, and a bedouin. He served as acting Vali until late September when the new appointee, Kazim Pasha, arrived.After the arrival of Kazim, Sharif Ali remained in Ta'if, refusing the Vali's request to come to Mecca. Due to his stubbornness and his questionable acceptance of the constitutional order, Kazim recommended that Ali be removed from office. He was dismissed in October 1908, and was instructed to leave the Hejaz soon so as to avoid attacks on his person similar to those received by Ahmed Ratib. However he repeatedly delayed his departure, and in April 1909 Sharif Husayn insisted on the removal of the former Emir. Ali left Mecca and settled under British rule in Cairo, where he lived until his death in 1941.

Ali of Hejaz

Ali bin Hussein, GBE (Arabic: علي بن الحسين بن علي الهاشمي‎, ‘Alī ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī al-Hāshimī; 1879–1935) was King of Hejaz and Grand Sharif of Mecca from October 1924 until he was deposed by Ibn Saud in December 1925. He was the eldest son of Sharif Hussein bin Ali, the first modern King of Hejaz, and a scion of the Hashemite family. With the passing of the kingship from his father he also became the heir to the title of Caliph, but he did not adopt the khalifal office and style.

Aliya bint Ali

Queen Aliya bint Ali of Hejaz (1911 – December 21, 1950), was an Arabian princess and a queen consort of Iraq. She was the spouse and first cousin of King Ghazi of Iraq and the queen mother of King Faisal II of Iraq. She was the last Queen of Iraq.

Awn ar-Rafiq

‘Awn al-Rafīq Pāshā ibn Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd al-Mu‘īn ibn Awn (Ottoman Turkish: عون الرفيق پاشا بن محمد بن عبد المعين بن عون‎; Arabic: عون الرفيق باشا‎, ‘Awn al-Rafīq Bāshā; February 1841 – 17 July 1905), also known as Awn al-Rafiq ibn Muhammad ibn Awn, was a member of the Awn clan of sharifs who served as Emir and Sharif of Mecca from 1882 to 1905.

Constitutional Union Party (Iraq)

The Constitutional Union Party is an Iraqi political party that was founded by Nuri Al-Said in 1949. The party included politicians from different ethnicities and religions, it was based in Baghdad with its headquarter located at Al-Rasheed street. The party held it first conference in 23 December 1949, the conference elected members for the party's Higher Commission, and Al-Said as a Chairman.The Higher Commission elected members of the Central Committee, 15 members were elected including: Nuri al-Said, Abdul Wahab Morgan, Shaker al-Wadi, Muhammad Ali Mahmoud, Mohammed Hassan Kubba, Jamil Abdul Wahab, Abdul Qader Bash Aayan, Jamil Al Urfali, Abdul Majeed Abbas, Azzedine Mulla, Saad Omar, Ahmed Al-Amir, Rasheed Al-Chalabi, Diaa Jafar and Khalil Kenah. The Central Committee elected Abdulwahab Morjan as Vice President, Khalil Kenna as First Secretary, Ahmad Al Amer as Second Secretary, Jamil Al Urfa as Accountant and Mohammed Hassan Kabbah as Treasurer.The party aimed to restrict crown prince Abd al-Ilah interventions in Iraqi politics, support Al-Said in government formation, and resist left-wing parties.

Faisal II of Iraq

Faisal II (Arabic: الملك فيصل الثاني Al-Malik Fayṣal Ath-thānī) (2 May 1935 – 14 July 1958) was the last King of Iraq. He reigned from 4 April 1939 until July 1958, when he was executed during the 14 July Revolution together with numerous members of his family. This regicide marked the end of the thirty-seven-year-old Hashemite monarchy in Iraq, which then became a republic.

Hamdi al-Pachachi

Hamdi al-Pachachi (Arabic: حمدي الباجه جي; l886 – March 28, 1948), Iraqi politician born to a prominent family in Baghdad. He studied law at the Royal School in Istanbul, graduating in 1909. He taught at the Baghdad Law School from 1913 to 1916. While in Istanbul, he joined the Covenant Society and became active in the Arab nationalist movement. Upon his return to Baghdad, he joined with the nationalists, who were demanding the decentralization of the Ottoman Empire. As a result of his political activities in support of the Iraqi revolt against the British in 1920, al-Pachachi was arrested and exiled to Hanja, an island in the Persian Gulf. After his release, he continued to take part in anti-British activities.

In 1925, he began cooperating with Abd al-Muhsin as-Sa'dun. Al-Pachachi served as minister of waqf in one of as-Sa'dun's cabinets (1925–26). He then retired from politics for many years. A large landowner, he concentrated on business matters and agriculture.

In 1935, he was elected deputy to Parliament, but did not play a major role. He was minister of social welfare in 1941 and was elected president of the Chamber of Commerce in 1943.

Al-Pachachi served as Prime Minister of Iraq between 1944 and 1946. He was brought in to succeed Nuri as-Said after increasing tensions between himself and the regent. The difference in policy was not dramatic, as al-Pachachi included members of Nuri’s inner circle and advisors close to the regent in his cabinet. Small changes to government policy included a relaxation of the censorship on the press and the introduction of the 1945 Miri Sirf Law. This law was intended to be the beginning of a land reform on a larger scale, and distributed state land to a number of landless peasants.

Contrary to Nuri as-Said, his primary foreign focus was on the strengthening of the Arab League and the integration of Iraq into that organization. Hamdi emphasized co-operation among the Arab countries in the spirit of Arab nationalism, unlike Nuri, who focused on increasing the political power of Iraq within the League. He succeeded in maintaining excellent ties with the Egyptian and Syrian politicians, despite significant protest against their dominance in the League and region. As Prime Minister, Hamdi al-Pachachi released many of the nationalists who had been detained after the 1941 Iraqi coup d'état, having been a supporter of it himself, but he had to face the growing Kurdish rebellion led by Mulla Mustafa. Al-Pachachi rejected their terms, and they revolted in mid-1945 but had to flee to Iran in October. Al-Pachachi’s victory over the Kurds made him more popular with others, and in December he called for greater political freedom for political parties with free elections. On May 29, 1945, France bombed Damascus and tried to arrest its democratically elected leaders who were demanding their full independence from French occupation. When Hamdi al-Pachachi returned to Baghdad from the Arab League conference in Cairo on June 15, he stated "We will soon be rid of the nightmare of French imperialism in the Levant. The Arab states will enjoy their legitimate rights and international status thanks to united Arab effort."

On October 4th 1945 Al-Pachachi in his capacity as Prime Minister of Iraq addressed a letter to the United States government, stating in reaction to President Truman's calls to open Palestine for Jewish immigration "The Iraq government regards it as its duty to inform the American Government that it deems any support of Zionism as contrary to the interests of the Iraqi State and the Arab peoples generally. In view of the friendship that Iraq feels towards the Americans it is hoped that America will avoid causing injury to the Arabs in their homelands by such intervention. Zionism is an aggressive move towards the heart of the Arab nation. The Arabs intend to use all means at their disposal to defend existence and the safety and security of their home."

Ties between the British-backed regent 'Abd al-Ilah and al-Pachachi were gradually weakened as the Regent argued for more involvement in the political party system. Under intense pressure from 'Abd al-Ilah, al-Pachachi was forced to resign from his post as Prime Minister in February 1946. On May 2, 1946, he said the Arabs must "take decisive action, which is now the only available course" regarding the issue of Palestine.

In 1948, the year of the Arab-Israeli war, Pachachi was appointed Foreign Minister under Prime Minister Sayyid Muhammad as-Sadr. On February 18, 1948, he announced that the Arab-Israeli war was the fault of then US President Harry Truman stating "Mr. Truman set fire to Palestine." On March 9, 1948, Pachachi announced that "the Arabs will take action to prevent the continued bloodshed in Palestine" and that the Arab and Muslim world must reject the establishment of Israel "at any price." He died of a heart attack while in that office at the age of 65, on March 28, 1948.

Iraqi Intifada

The Iraqi Intifada (Arabic: انتفاضة العراق) was a series of national strikes and violent protests against the ruling Hashemite monarchy and the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty. Inspired by the Egyptian Revolution and Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh's nationalization of oil, the revolutionaries wanted to force Faisal II's abdication, transform the state into a republic, and assert Iraq's full independence from Britain by assuming control over its own foreign affairs.Port workers in Basra went on strike on 23 August 1952. Students at Iraq's College of Pharmacy followed suit on 26 October. The Iraqi Communist Party, which had been behind the 1948 riots, played a leading role in the disturbances. Though the protesters were emphatically anti-monarchical, they were positively disposed to the military, a symbol of national unity and Iraqi independence. Faisal II's uncle, ruling Regent 'Abd al-Ilah, replaced Mustafa Mahmud al-Umari with General Nureddin Mahmud on 23 November but he made no concessions to the protesters. Protesters denounced Mahmud and demanded his resignation in favor of the National Democratic Party's Kamil al-Chadirchi, who had briefly served as Bakr Sidqi's Economic Minister after the 1936 revolution. Mahmud cracked down, instituting martial law and a curfew, shutting down political parties and newspapers, and detaining leading protesters. In 1953, Jamil al-Midfai, a weak civilian politician, was elected to succeed Mahmud. In May, Faisal II became an adult and assumed the role and responsibilities of the king. In 1958, Army officers overthrew the monarchy in a coup d'état, murdering the royal family.

Kingdom of Iraq

The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq (Arabic: المملكة العراقية الهاشمية‎ al-Mamlakah al-‘Irāqiyyah Al-Hāshimīyah) was founded on 23 August 1921 under British administration following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the Mesopotamian campaign of World War I. Although a League of Nations mandate was awarded to the UK in 1920, the 1920 Iraqi revolt resulted in the scrapping of the original mandate plan in favour of a British administered semi-independent kingdom, under the Hashemite allies of Britain, via the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty. The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq was granted full independence in 1932, following the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty (1930). The independent Iraqi Kingdom under the Hashemite rulers underwent a period of turbulence through its entire existence. Establishment of Sunni religious domination in Iraq was followed by Assyrian, Yazidi and Shi'a unrests, which were all brutally suppressed. In 1936, the first military coup took place in the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq, as Bakr Sidqi succeeded in replacing the acting Prime Minister with his associate. Multiple coups followed in a period of political instability, peaking in 1941.

During World War II, the Iraqi regime of Regent 'Abd al-Ilah was overthrown in 1941 by the Golden Square officers, headed by Rashid Ali. The short-lived pro-Nazi government of Iraq was defeated in May 1941 by the allied forces in the Anglo-Iraqi War. Iraq was later used as a base for allied attacks on the Vichy-French-held Mandate of Syria and support for the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. At the same time, the Kurdish leader Mustafa Barzani led a rebellion against the central government in Baghdad. After the failure of the uprising Barzani and his followers fled to the Soviet Union.

In 1945, during the final stages of World War II, Iraq joined the United Nations and became a founding member of the Arab League. In 1948, massive violent protests, known as the Al-Wathbah uprising, broke out across Baghdad as a popular demand against the government treaty with the British, and with communist party support. More protests continued in spring, but were interrupted in May, with the martial law, when Iraq entered the 1948 Arab–Israeli War along with other members of the Arab League.

In February 1958, King Hussein of Jordan and `Abd al-Ilāh proposed a union of Hāshimite monarchies to counter the recently formed Egyptian–Syrian union. The resulting Arab Federation, formed on 14 February 1958, was short-lived. It ended in 1958, when the monarchy was overthrown in a military coup, led by Abd al-Karim Qasim.

Mustafa Mahmud al-Umari

Mustafa Mahmood Al-Umari (also Mustafa Mahmood Al-Omari) (Arabic: مصطفى محمود العمري, born 1894 – 1962) from Mosul, Iraq (Sunni-Arab) who became an Iraqi statesman. He served as prime minister from 9 July 1952 until 22 November 1952. He was appointed by King Faisal II's cousin and regent 'Abd al-Ilāh after nationwide protests against the government. Starting out as an attorney and civil servant, he served many posts including Minister of Interior and Minister of Justice. In 1952, his failure to maintain control during the Intifada cost him his position. He was also a provincial Governor and Senator in Parliament. After the 1958 revolution against the Monarchy, he left the political scene. Being an independent, he was not associated with many of the royalists or partisans who were jailed or executed in the aftermath of the revolution. He later left to the UK for medical treatment and died there. He was later buried in the Al-Omari waqf cemetery in Mosul, Iraq.

Nuri al-Said

Nuri Pasha al-Said (December 1888 – 15 July 1958) (Arabic: نوري السعيد‎) was an Iraqi politician during the British Mandate of Iraq and the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq. He held various key cabinet positions and served fourteen terms as Prime Minister of Iraq.

From his first appointment as prime minister under the British mandate in 1930, Nuri was a major political figure in Iraq under the monarchy. During his many terms in office, he was involved in some of the key policy decisions that shaped the modern Iraqi state. In 1930, during his first term, he signed the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty, which, as a step toward greater independence, granted Britain the unlimited right to station its armed forces in and transit military units through Iraq and also gave legitimacy to British control of the country's oil industry.

The treaty nominally reduced British involvement in Iraq's internal affairs but only to the extent that Iraq did not conflict with British economic or military interests. The agreement led the way to nominal independence, as the Mandate ended in 1932. Throughout most of his career, Nuri was a supporter of a continued and extensive British role within Iraq, which was against the popular mood.

Nuri was a controversial figure with many enemies and had to flee Iraq twice after coups. At the overthrow of the monarchy in 1958, he was very unpopular. His policies, regarded as pro-British, were believed to have failed in adapting to the country's changed social circumstances. Poverty and social injustice were widespread, and Nuri had become a symbol of a regime that failed to address the issues, choosing a course of repression instead, to protect the interests of the well off.

On 15 July 1958, the day after the revolution, he attempted to flee the country disguised as a woman but was captured and killed.

Regent of Iraq

The Regent of Iraq was a position established in 1939 and held by 'Abd al-Ilah until 1953. a regent, from the Latin regens "one who reigns", is a person selected to act as head of state (ruling or not) because the ruler is a minor, not present, or debilitated.

Tahir Yahya

Tahir Yahya (1916−1986) (Arabic: طاهر يحيى‎) was Prime Minister of Iraq twice, from 1963 to 1965 and a short term in 1967-1968. He was educated at the Baghdad Military College and the Staff College. Born in Tikrit 1916. He was the 4th child to Mulla Yahya el-ogaily, a prominent tobacco merchant between North and Central Iraq. At the age of sixteen, he joined the Baghdad Teachers College, then became a teacher in Baghdad for one year after graduation. He then pursued further education in military sciences. He was a cavalry officer and played polo for the Iraqi army. He led the Iraqi armored company where he was wounded in the battle at the Kfar Masaryk , earning two medals bestowed by Crown Prince Abd al-Ilāh.

In November 1963 he was appointed as Prime Minister by President Abdul Salam Arif.At the end of his term, Yahya warned president Arif of the upcoming Ba'ath coup d'état and their plans to overthrow his government, but Arif did not take any action. This led to Yahya submitting his resignation on 8 July 1968, one week before the coup d'état took place. That same morning Yahya was arrested and Arif was deported to London.

Yahya spent three years in prison, torture, and health neglect. In 1971 he was released, only to be put under house arrest until dying in his house in Mansur, Baghdad, in 1986.

Head officer Khalid Battalion 1952

Commander of 20th Brigade 1955

General Director of Police and security Directorate July 14, 1958

Chief of staff February 8, 1963

Minister of Defense, Interim 1964

Hashemites[12][13]
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Hashim
(eponymous ancestor)
Abd al-Muttalib
Abu TalibAbdallah
Muhammad
(Islamic prophet)
Ali
(fourth caliph)
Fatimah
Hasan
(fifth caliph)
Hasan Al-Mu'thanna
Abdullah
Musa Al-Djawn
Abdullah
Musa
Muhammad
Abdullah
Ali
Suleiman
Hussein
Issa
Abd Al-Karim
Muta'in
Idris
Qatada
(Sharif of Mecca)
Ali
Hassan
(Sharif of Mecca)
Abu Numayy I
(Sharif of Mecca)
Rumaythah
(Sharif of Mecca)
'Ajlan
(Sharif of Mecca)
Hassan
(Sharif of Mecca)
Barakat I
(Sharif of Mecca)
Muhammad
(Sharif of Mecca)
Barakat II
(Sharif of Mecca)
Abu Numayy II
(Sharif of Mecca)
Hassan
(Sharif of Mecca)
Abdullah
(Sharif of Mecca)
Hussein
Abdullah
Muhsin
Auon, Ra'i Al-Hadala
Abdul Mu'een
Muhammad
(Sharif of Mecca)
Ali
Monarch Hussein
(Sharif of Mecca King of Hejaz)
Monarch Ali
(King of Hejaz)
Monarch Abdullah I
(King of Jordan)
Monarch Faisal I
(King of Syria King of Iraq)
Zeid
(pretender to Iraq)
'Abd Al-Ilah
(Regent of Iraq)
Monarch Talal
(King of Jordan)
Monarch Ghazi
(King of Iraq)
Ra'ad
(pretender to Iraq)
Monarch Hussein
(King of Jordan)
Monarch Faisal II
(King of Iraq)
Zeid
Monarch Abdullah II
(King of Jordan)
Hussein
(Crown Prince of Jordan)
Iraqi princes
1st generation
2nd generation
3rd generation
4th generation

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