Last updated on 27 June 2017
Manhattan (, ) is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and the city's historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, founded on November 1, 1683, as one of the original counties of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson, East, and Harlem rivers; several small adjacent islands; and Marble Hill, a small neighborhood on the U.S. mainland physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River.
Manhattan is often described as the cultural, financial, media, and entertainment capital of the world, and hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, and Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, and the borough has been the setting for numerous books, films, and television shows. Manhattan is historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals US$1050 today. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013; median residential property sale prices in Manhattan approximated US$1,500 per square foot ($16,000/m2) as of 2017, and Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan commands the highest retail rents in the world, at US$3,000 per square foot ($32,000/m2) in 2017.
New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area (larger only than Kalawao County, Hawaii), and is also the most densely populated U.S. county. It is also one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2016 population of 1,643,734 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles (59.13 km2), or 71,999 residents per square mile (27,799/km2), higher than the density of any individual U.S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile (65,600/km2). Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, and is the smallest borough in terms of land area.
Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan have become well known, as New York City received a record of nearly 60 million tourists in 2015, and Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, and Grand Central Terminal. The borough hosts many world-renowned bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge; skyscrapers such as the Empire State Building, one of the tallest skyscrapers in the world; and parks, such as Central Park. There are many historically significant places in Manhattan: Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, and the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement. The City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Weill Cornell Medical College, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 35 in the world.
Sources: see individual borough articles
View from Midtown Manhattan, facing south toward Lower Manhattan
Flag of Manhattan
Location of Manhattan, shown in red, in New York City
The name "Manhattan" derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen (Half Moon). A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River (later named the Hudson River). The word "Manhattan" has been translated as "island of many hills" from the Lenape language. The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use "New York, NY" rather than "Manhattan, NY".
The Castello Plan
showing the Dutch colonial city of New Amsterdam
in 1660 – then confined to the southern tip of Manhattan Island.
The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. He entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows aboard his ship La Dauphine and named the land around Upper New York Harbor "New Angoulême", in reference to the family name of King Francis I that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River, which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named the Bay of Santa Margarita – what is now Upper New York Bay – after Marguerite de Navarre, the elder sister of the king.
It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, that the area was mapped. Hudson came across Manhattan Island and the native people living there in 1609, and continued up the river that would later bear his name, the Hudson River, until he arrived at the site of present-day Albany.
A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam), in what is now Lower Manhattan. The 1625 establishment of Fort Amsterdam at the southern tip of Manhattan Island is recognized as the birth of New York City.
According to a letter by Pieter Janszoon Schagen, Peter Minuit and Dutch colonists acquired Manhattan on May 24, 1626, from unnamed Native American people, which are believed to have been Canarsee Indians of the Lenape, in exchange for trade goods worth 60 guilders, often said to be worth US$24, although accounting for inflation, it actually amounts to around US$1,050 in 2014. The figure of 60 guilders comes from a letter by a representative of the Dutch Estates General and member of the board of the Dutch West India Company, Pieter Janszoon Schagen, to the Estates General in November 1626. In 1846, New York historian John Romeyn Brodhead converted the figure of Fl 60 (or 60 guilders) to US$23. "[A] variable-rate myth being a contradiction in terms, the purchase price remains forever frozen at twenty-four dollars," as Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace remarked in their history of New York. Sixty guilders in 1626 was valued at approximately $1,000 in 2006, according to the Institute for Social History of Amsterdam. Based on the price of silver, Straight Dope author Cecil Adams calculated an equivalent of $72 in 1992. Historians James and Michelle Nevius revisited the issue in 2014, suggesting that using the prices of beer and brandy as equivalencies, the price Minuit paid would have the purchasing power of somewhere between $2,600 and $15,600 in current dollars. According to the writer Nathaniel Benchley, Minuit conducted the transaction with Seyseys, chief of the Canarsees, who were willing to accept valuable merchandise in exchange for the island that was actually mostly controlled by the Weckquaesgeeks.
In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony. New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany, the future King James II. The Dutch, under Director General Stuyvesant, successfully negotiated with the English to produce 24 articles of provisional transfer, which sought to retain for the extant citizens of New Netherland their previously attained liberties (including freedom of religion) under new colonial English rulers.
The Dutch Republic regained the city in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming it "New Orange". New Netherland was ceded permanently to the English in November 1674 through the Treaty of Westminster, in exchange for Run Island, which was the long-coveted last link in the Dutch nutmeg trading monopoly in Indonesia.
American Revolution and the early United States
Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of major battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the Battle of Fort Washington on November 16, 1776. The city, greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the campaign, became the British political and military center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war. British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city.
From January 11, 1785, to the fall of 1788, New York City was the fifth of five capitals of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, with the Continental Congress meeting at New York City Hall (then at Fraunces Tavern). New York was the first capital under the newly enacted Constitution of the United States, from March 4, 1789, to August 12, 1790, at Federal Hall. Federal Hall was also the site of where the United States Supreme Court met for the first time, the United States Bill of Rights were drafted and ratified, and where the Northwest Ordinance was adopted, establishing measures for adding new states to the Union.
Manhattan in 1873. The Brooklyn Bridge
was under construction from 1870 until 1883.
New York grew as an economic center, first as a result of Alexander Hamilton's policies and practices as the first Secretary of the Treasury and, later, with the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, which connected the Atlantic port to the vast agricultural markets of the Midwestern United States and Canada. By 1810 New York City, then confined to Manhattan, had surpassed Philadelphia as the largest city in the United States.
Tammany Hall, a Democratic Party political machine, began to grow in influence with the support of many of the immigrant Irish, culminating in the election of the first Tammany mayor, Fernando Wood, in 1854. Tammany Hall dominated local politics for decades. Central Park, which opened to the public in 1858, became the first landscaped public park in an American city.
New York City played a complex role in the American Civil War. The city's strong commercial ties to the southern United States, which existed for many reasons, including the industrial power of the Hudson River harbor, which allowed trade with stops such as the West Point Foundry one of the great manufacturing hubs of the early United States, and the city's Atlantic Ocean ports, rendering New York City the American powerhouse in terms of industrial trade between the northern and southern United States. New York's growing immigrant population, which had originated largely from Germany and Ireland, began in the late 1850s to include waves of Italians and Central and Eastern European Jews flowing in en-masse. Anger arose about conscription, with resentment at those who could afford to pay $300 to avoid service leading to resentment against Lincoln's war policies and fomenting paranoia about free Blacks taking the poor immigrants' jobs, culminating in the three-day-long New York Draft Riots of July 1863. These intense war-time riots are counted among the worst incidents of civil disorder in American history, with an estimated 119 participants and passersby massacred.
The rate of immigration from Europe grew steeply after the Civil War, and New York became the first stop for millions seeking a new life in the United States, a role acknowledged by the dedication of the Statue of Liberty on October 28, 1886, a gift from the people of France. The new European immigration brought further social upheaval. In a city of tenements packed with poorly paid laborers from dozens of nations, the city was a hotbed of revolution (including anarchists and communists among others), syndicalism, racketeering, and unionization.
In 1883 the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge established a road connection to Brooklyn, across the East River. In 1874 the western portion of the present Bronx County was transferred to New York County from Westchester County, and in 1895 the remainder of the present Bronx County was annexed. In 1898, when New York City consolidated with three neighboring counties to form "the City of Greater New York", Manhattan and the Bronx, though still one county, were established as two separate boroughs. On January 1, 1914, the New York state legislature created Bronx County, and New York County was reduced to its present boundaries.
The "Sanitary & Topographical Map of the City and Island of New York", commonly known as the Viele Map, was created by Egbert Ludovicus Viele
The construction of the New York City Subway, which opened in 1904, helped bind the new city together, as did additional bridges to Brooklyn. In the 1920s Manhattan experienced large arrivals of African-Americans as part of the Great Migration from the southern United States, and the Harlem Renaissance, part of a larger boom time in the Prohibition era that included new skyscrapers competing for the skyline. New York City became the most populous city in the world in 1925, overtaking London, which had reigned for a century. Manhattan's majority white ethnic group declined from 98.7% in 1900 to 58.3% by 1990.
On March 25, 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in Greenwich Village killed 146 garment workers. The disaster eventually led to overhauls of the city's fire department, building codes, and workplace regulations.
The period between the World Wars saw the election of reformist mayor Fiorello La Guardia and the fall of Tammany Hall after 80 years of political dominance. As the city's demographics stabilized, labor unionization brought new protections and affluence to the working class, the city's government and infrastructure underwent a dramatic overhaul under La Guardia. Despite the Great Depression, some of the world's tallest skyscrapers were completed in Manhattan during the 1930s, including numerous Art Deco masterpieces that are still part of the city's skyline today, most notably the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, and the GE Building.
Returning World War II veterans created a postwar economic boom, which led to the development of huge housing developments targeted at returning veterans, the largest being Peter Cooper Village-Stuyvesant Town, which opened in 1947. In 1952, the UN relocated from its first headquarters near Queens, to the East Side of Manhattan.
The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States.
In the 1970s job losses due to industrial restructuring caused New York City, including Manhattan, to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates. While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city's economic health in the 1980s, New York's crime rate continued to increase through the decade and into the beginning of the 1990s.
The 1980s saw a rebirth of Wall Street, and Manhattan reclaimed its role at the center of the worldwide financial industry. The 1980s also saw Manhattan at the heart of the AIDS crisis, with Greenwich Village at its epicenter. The organizations Gay Men's Health Crisis (GMHC) and AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) were founded to advocate on behalf of those stricken with the disease.
By the 1990s crime rates started to drop dramatically due to revised police strategies, improving economic opportunities, gentrification, and new residents, both American transplants and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Murder rates that had reached 2,245 in 1990 plummeted to 537 by 2008, and the crack epidemic and its associated drug-related violence came under greater control. The outflow of population turned around, as the city once again became the destination of immigrants from around the world, joining with low interest rates and Wall Street bonuses to fuel the growth of the real estate market. Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in Manhattan's economy.
The newly completed Singer Building towering above the city, 1909
A construction worker on top of the Empire State Building as it was being built in 1930. To the right, is the Chrysler Building.
The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, a designated U.S. National Historic Landmark and National Monument, as the site of the 1969 Stonewall Riots.
United Airlines Flight 175 hits the South Tower of the first World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.
On September 11, 2001, two of four hijacked planes were flown into the Twin Towers of the original World Trade Center, and the towers subsequently collapsed. 7 World Trade Center collapsed due to fires and structural damage caused by heavy debris falling from the collapse of the Twin Towers. The other buildings within the World Trade Center complex were damaged beyond repair and soon after demolished. The collapse of the Twin Towers caused extensive damage to other surrounding buildings and skyscrapers in Lower Manhattan, and resulted in the deaths of 2,606 people, in addition to those on the planes. Since 2001, most of Lower Manhattan has been restored, although there has been controversy surrounding the rebuilding. Many rescue workers and residents of the area developed several life-threatening illnesses that have led to some of their subsequent deaths. A memorial at the site was opened to the public on September 11, 2011, and the museum opened in 2014. In 2014, the new One World Trade Center, at 1,776 feet (541 m) and formerly known as the Freedom Tower, became the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, while other skyscrapers were under construction at the site.
The Occupy Wall Street protests in Zuccotti Park in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and spawning the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality worldwide.
On October 29 and 30, 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused extensive destruction in the borough, ravaging portions of Lower Manhattan with record-high storm surge from New York Harbor, severe flooding, and high winds, causing power outages for hundreds of thousands of city residents and leading to gasoline shortages and disruption of mass transit systems. The storm and its profound impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of the borough and the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future.
Modern redrawing of 1807 version of Commissioner's Grid plan for Manhattan, a few years before 1811 adoption. Central Park
is absent. Dark color denotes existing blocks, light gray were planned.
The borough consists of Manhattan Island, Marble Hill, and several small islands, including Randalls Island and Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor.
According to the United States Census Bureau, New York County has a total area of 33.6 square miles (87 km2), of which 22.8 square miles (59 km2) is land and 10.8 square miles (28 km2) (32%) is water. The northern segment of Upper Manhattan represents a geographic panhandle. Manhattan Island is 22.7 square miles (59 km2) in area, 13.4 miles (21.6 km) long and 2.3 miles (3.7 km) wide, at its widest (near 14th Street).
Manhattan Island is loosely divided into Downtown (Lower Manhattan), Midtown (Midtown Manhattan), and Uptown (Upper Manhattan), with Fifth Avenue dividing Manhattan's east and west sides. Manhattan Island is bounded by the Hudson River to the west and the East River to the east. To the north, the Harlem River divides Manhattan Island from the Bronx and the mainland United States.
Early in the 19th century, landfill was used to expand Lower Manhattan from the natural Hudson shoreline at Greenwich Street to West Street. When building the World Trade Center in 1968, 1.2 million cubic yards (917,000 m³) of material was excavated from the site. Rather than dumping the spoil at sea or in landfills, the fill material was used to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street, creating Battery Park City. The result was a 700-foot (210-m) extension into the river, running six blocks or 1,484 feet (452 m), covering 92 acres (37 ha), providing a 1.2-mile (1.9 km) riverfront esplanade and over 30 acres (12 ha) of parks.
One neighborhood of New York County is contiguous with the mainland. Marble Hill at one time was part of Manhattan Island, but the Harlem River Ship Canal, dug in 1895 to improve navigation on the Harlem River, separated it from the remainder of Manhattan as an island between the Bronx and the remainder of Manhattan. Before World War I, the section of the original Harlem River channel separating Marble Hill from The Bronx was filled in, and Marble Hill became part of the mainland.
Marble Hill is one example of how Manhattan's land has been considerably altered by human intervention. The borough has seen substantial land reclamation along its waterfronts since Dutch colonial times, and much of the natural variation in its topography has been evened out.
In New York Harbor, there are three smaller islands:
Other smaller islands, in the East River, include (from north to south):
Manhattan schist outcropping in Central Park
The bedrock underlying much of Manhattan is a mica schist known as Manhattan schist. It is a strong, competent metamorphic rock created when Pangaea formed. It is well suited for the foundations of tall buildings. In Central Park, outcrops of Manhattan Schist occur and Rat Rock is one rather large example.
Geologically, a predominant feature of the substrata of Manhattan is that the underlying bedrock base of the island rises considerably closer to the surface near Midtown Manhattan, dips down lower between 29th Street and Canal Street, then rises toward the surface again in Lower Manhattan. It has been widely believed that the depth to bedrock was the primary underlying reason for the clustering of skyscrapers in the Midtown and Financial District areas, and their absence over the intervening territory between these two areas. However, research has shown that economic factors played a bigger part in the locations of these skyscrapers.
Updated seismic analysis
According to the United States Geological Survey, an updated analysis of seismic hazard in July 2014 revealed a "slightly lower hazard for tall buildings" in Manhattan than previously assessed. Scientists estimated this lessened risk based upon a lower likelihood than previously thought of slow shaking near New York City, which would be more likely to cause damage to taller structures from an earthquake in the vicinity of the city.
is an exclave
of Manhattan, of New York City, and of New York State, surrounded by New Jersey waters.
National protected areas
Manhattan's many neighborhoods are not named according to any particular convention. Some are geographical (the Upper East Side), or ethnically descriptive (Little Italy). Others are acronyms, such as TriBeCa (for "TRIangle BElow CAnal Street") or SoHo ("SOuth of HOuston"), or the far more recent vintages NoLIta ("NOrth of Little ITAly"). and NoMad ("NOrth of MADison Square Park"). Harlem is a name from the Dutch colonial era after Haarlem, a city in the Netherlands. Alphabet City comprises Avenues A, B, C, and D, to which its name refers. Some have simple folkloric names, such as Hell's Kitchen, alongside their more official but lesser used title (in this case, Clinton).
Some neighborhoods, such as SoHo, which is mixed use, are known for upscale shopping as well as residential use. Others, such as Greenwich Village, the Lower East Side, Alphabet City and the East Village, have long been associated with the Bohemian subculture. Chelsea is one of several Manhattan neighborhoods with large gay populations and has become a center of both the international art industry and New York's nightlife. Washington Heights is a primary destination for immigrants from the Dominican Republic. Chinatown has the highest concentration of people of Chinese descent outside of Asia. Koreatown is roughly bounded by 6th and Madison Avenues, between 31st and 33rd Streets, where Hangul (한글) signage is ubiquitous. Rose Hill features a growing number of Indian restaurants and spice shops along a stretch of Lexington Avenue between 25th and 30th Streets which has become known as Curry Hill.
In Manhattan, uptown means north (more precisely north-northeast, which is the direction the island and its street grid system are oriented) and downtown means south (south-southwest). This usage differs from that of most American cities, where downtown refers to the central business district. Manhattan has two central business districts, the Financial District at the southern tip of the island, and Midtown Manhattan. The term uptown also refers to the northern part of Manhattan above 72nd Street and downtown to the southern portion below 14th Street, with Midtown covering the area in between, though definitions can be rather fluid depending on the situation.
Fifth Avenue roughly bisects Manhattan Island and acts as the demarcation line for east/west designations (e.g., East 27th Street, West 42nd Street); street addresses start at Fifth Avenue and increase heading away from Fifth Avenue, at a rate of 100 per block on most streets. South of Waverly Place, Fifth Avenue terminates and Broadway becomes the east/west demarcation line. Though the grid does start with 1st Street, just north of Houston Street (the southernmost street divided in west and east portions; pronounced HOW-stin), the grid does not fully take hold until north of 14th Street, where nearly all east-west streets are numerically identified, which increase from south to north to 220th Street, the highest numbered street on the island. Streets in Midtown are usually one-way, with the few exceptions generally being the busiest cross-town thoroughfares (14th, 23rd, 34th, and 42nd Streets, for example), which are bidirectional across the width of Manhattan Island. The rule of thumb is that odd-numbered streets run west, while even-numbered streets run east.
Public housing in the foreground on the Lower East Side
MacDougal Street in Greenwich Village
"Korea Way" on 32nd Street in Manhattan's Koreatown (맨해튼 코리아타운)
Chinatown, Manhattan (紐約華埠)
The Upper West Side
The Upper East Side Historic District
Under the Köppen climate classification, using the 0 °C (32 °F) isotherm, New York City features a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), and is thus the northernmost major city on the North American continent with this categorization. The suburbs to the immediate north and west lie in the transitional zone between humid subtropical and humid continental climates (Dfa). The city averages 234 days with at least some sunshine annually, and averages 57% of possible sunshine annually, accumulating 2,535 hours of sunshine per annum. The city lies in the USDA 7b plant hardiness zone.
Winters are cold and damp, and prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore minimize the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean; yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding from colder air by the Appalachians keep the city warmer in the winter than inland North American cities at similar or lesser latitudes such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis. The daily mean temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is 32.6 °F (0.3 °C); temperatures usually drop to 10 °F (−12 °C) several times per winter, and reach 60 °F (16 °C) several days in the coldest winter month. Spring and autumn are unpredictable and can range from chilly to warm, although they are usually mild with low humidity. Summers are typically warm to hot and humid, with a daily mean temperature of 76.5 °F (24.7 °C) in July. Nighttime conditions are often exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, while daytime temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on average of 17 days each summer and in some years exceed 100 °F (38 °C). Extreme temperatures have ranged from −15 °F (−26 °C), recorded on February 9, 1934, up to 106 °F (41 °C) on July 9, 1936.
Summer evening temperatures are elevated by the urban heat island effect, which causes heat absorbed during the day to be radiated back at night, raising temperatures by as much as 7 °F (4 °C) when winds are slow.
|Climate data for New York (Belvedere Castle, Central Park), 1981–2010 normals,[b] extremes 1869–present[c]
|Record high °F (°C)
|Mean maximum °F (°C)
|Average high °F (°C)
|Daily mean °F (°C)
|Average low °F (°C)
|Mean minimum °F (°C)
|Record low °F (°C)
|Average precipitation inches (mm)
|Average snowfall inches (cm)
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)
|Average relative humidity (%)
|Mean monthly sunshine hours
|Percent possible sunshine
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)
See Geography of New York City for additional climate information from the outer boroughs.
Ten-mile Manhattan panorama from 120th Street
to Battery Park
, taken June 2017 from Weehawken, New Jersey
: 1.Riverside Church
, 2. Time Warner Buildings, 3. 220 Central Park South
S, 4. One57
, 5. 432 Park Avenue
, 6. Chrysler Building
, 7. Bank of America Tower
, 8. Conde Nast Building
, 9. The New York Times Building
, 10. Empire State Building
, 11. Met Life Tower
, 12-14. Hudson Yards
, 15. 56 Leonard Street
, 16. 8 Spruce Street
, 17. Woolworth Building
, 18. 70 Pine Street
, 19. 30 Park Place
, 20. 40 Wall Street
, 21. Three World Trade Center
, 22. Four World Trade Center
, 23. One World Trade Center
Upper Manhattan and Midtown Manhattan as seen from Weehawken, New Jersey. (January 2010)
View of Lower Manhattan at sunset, from Jersey City
, New Jersey. One World Trade Center
, at center, is the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere. (November 2014)
Landmarks and architecture
A. T. Stewart in 1870, 9th Street, Manhattan
One World Trade Center, the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere as of 2016
The Chrysler Building was the tallest building in the city and the world from 1930–1931.
The Empire State Building was the world's tallest building from 1931 to 1972, and the city's tallest from 2001 to 2014.
The former Twin Towers of the World Trade Center were the city's tallest from their opening in 1972 to their destruction in 2001.
Manhattan has served as home to the headquarters of the United Nations since 1952.
is the hub of the Broadway theater district
and a major cultural venue in Manhattan. It also has one of the highest annual attendance rates of any tourist attraction in the world, estimated at 50 million.
Culture and contemporary life
Row of townhouses on 17–23 West 16th Street
Loft buildings (now apartments) in TriBeCa
- ^ Area codes 718, 347 and 929 are used in Marble Hill.
- ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
- ^ Official weather observations for Central Park were conducted at the Arsenal at Fifth Avenue and 64th Street from 1869 to 1919, and at Belvedere Castle since 1919.
- ^ a b c "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 Population Estimates - New York County, New York". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
- ^ a b 2010 Census Gazetteer Files: New York County Subdivisions, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 19, 2017.
- ^ a b c "Manhattan, New York – Some of the Most Expensive Real Estate in the World Overlooks Central Park". The Pinnacle List. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
- ^ Barry, Dan. "A Nation challenged: in New York; New York Carries On, but Test of Its Grit Has Just Begun", The New York Times, October 11, 2001. Accessed November 20, 2016. "A roaring void has been created in the financial center of the world."
- ^ Sorrentino, Christopher (September 16, 2007). "When He Was Seventeen". The New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2007. "In 1980 there were still the remains of the various downtown revolutions that had reinvigorated New York's music and art scenes and kept Manhattan in the position it had occupied since the 1940s as the cultural center of the world."
- ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth (October 8, 1995). "The Pope's visit: the cardinal; As Pope's Important Ally, Cardinal Shines High in Hierarchy". The New York Times. Retrieved December 18, 2007. "As the Archbishop of the media and cultural center of the United States, Cardinal O'Connor has extraordinary power among Catholic prelates."
- ^ Michael P. Ventura (April 6, 2010). "Manhattan May Be the Media Capital of the World, But Not For iPad Users". DNAinfo. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
- ^ Dawn Ennis (May 24, 2017). "ABC will broadcast New York's pride parade live for the first time". LGBTQ Nation. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- ^ "United Nations Visitors Centre "Welcome to the United Nations — Tour the international UN Headquarters"". United Nations. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- ^ Richard Florida (March 3, 2015). "Sorry, London: New York Is the World's Most Economically Powerful City". The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
Our new ranking puts the Big Apple firmly on top.
- ^ "Top 8 Cities by GDP: China vs. The U.S.". Business Insider, Inc. July 31, 2011. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
For instance, Shanghai, the largest Chinese city with the highest economic production, and a fast-growing global financial hub, is far from matching or surpassing New York, the largest city in the U.S. and the economic and financial super center of the world.
"PAL sets introductory fares to New York". Philippine Airlines. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
- ^ John Glover (November 23, 2014). "New York Boosts Lead on London as Leading Finance Center". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
- ^ "UBS may move US investment bank to NYC". e-Eighteen.com Ltd. June 10, 2011. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
- ^ "The Global Financial Centres Index 17" (PDF). Long Finance. March 23, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- ^ "NYSE Listings Directory". Archived from the original on June 21, 2013. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
- ^ a b c "2013 WFE Market Highlights" (PDF). World Federation of Exchanges. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 27, 2014. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- ^ Matt Soniak (October 2, 2012). "Was Manhattan Really Bought for $24?". Mental Floss.
- ^ a b "Peter Schaghen Letter with transcription". New Netherland Institute. November 7, 1626. Retrieved February 16, 2015.
- ^ Morgan Brennan (March 22, 2013). "The World's Most Expensive Billionaire Cities". Forbes. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
- ^ Janette Sadik-Khan (January 9, 2017). "A plea for Fifth Avenue". The New York Times. Retrieved January 9, 2017.
- ^ Camille Mann & Stephanie Valera. "World's Most Crowded Islands". The Weather Channel. Retrieved June 27, 2013.
- ^ "USA Counties Land Area – New York, NY (2010)". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
- ^ Mann, Camille; Valera, Stephanie. "World's Most Crowded Islands". The Weather Channel. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- ^ "How Many People Can Manhattan Hold?". The New York Times. March 4, 2012.
- ^ "Manhattan". NYBits.com. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- ^ a b Joseph Ax (January 24, 2016). "New York City tourism climbs to record high in 2015 for sixth year". Thomson Reuters. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- ^ a b Ann Shields (November 10, 2014). "The World's 50 Most Visited Tourist Attractions – No. 3: Times Square, New York City – Annual Visitors: 50,000,000". Travel+Lesiure. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
No. 3 Times Square, ... No. 4 (tie) Central Park, ... No. 10 Grand Central Terminal, New York City
- ^ "Buildings in New York City". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved June 8, 2011.
- ^ Sarah Waxman. "The History of New York's Chinatown". Mediabridge Infosystems, Inc. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
- ^ a b "Workforce Diversity The Stonewall Inn, National Historic Landmark National Register Number: 99000562". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- ^ "Obama inaugural speech references Stonewall gay-rights riots". North Jersey Media Group Inc. January 21, 2013. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- ^ Michael M. Grynbaum (May 24, 2012). "The Reporters of City Hall Return to Their Old Perch". The New York Times. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
- ^ "NYC Colleges and Universities". Mediabridge Infosystems, Inc. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2015". ShanghaiRanking Consultancy. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- ^ "CWUR 2015 – World University Rankings". Center for World University Rankings. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
- ^ "Current Population Estimates: NYC". NYC.gov. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- ^ Juet, Robert (2006) . Juet's Journal of Hudson's 1609 Voyage, from the 1625 Edition of Purchas His Pilgrimes. The New York Times. Translated by Brea Barthel. The New Netherland Museum. p. 16.
- ^ a b Holloway, Marguerite (May 16, 2004). "Urban tactics; I'll Take Mannahatta". The New York Times. Retrieved June 30, 2009. "He could envision what Henry Hudson saw in 1609 as he sailed along Mannahatta, which in the Lenape dialect most likely meant island of many hills."
- ^ "Zip Code lookup for 10111".
- ^ R. J. Knecht: Renaissance Warrior and Patron: The Reign of Francis I; p. 372. Cambridge University Press (1996) ISBN 0-521-57885-X
- ^ Seymour I. Schwartz: The Mismapping of America. p.42; The University of Rochester Press (2008) ISBN 978-1-58046-302-7
- ^ Rankin, Rebecca B., Cleveland Rodgers (1948). New York: the World's Capital City, Its Development and Contributions to Progress. Harper.
- ^ "Henry Hudson and His Exploration" Archived January 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Scientific American, September 25, 1909. Accessed May 1, 2007. "This was a vain hope however, and the conviction must finally have come to the heart of the intrepid adventurer that once again he was foiled in his repeated quest for the northwest passage ... On the following day the "Half Moon" let go her anchor inside of Sandy Hook. The week was spent in exploring the bay with a shallop, or small boat, and "they found a good entrance between two headlands" (the Narrows) "and thus entered on the September 11 into as fine a river as can be found.""
- ^ "The Inauguration of George Washington, 1789". Eyewitness to History. Ibis Communications, Inc. 2005. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- ^ Dutch Colonies, National Park Service. Accessed May 19, 2007. "Sponsored by the West India Company, 30 families arrived in North America in 1624, establishing a settlement on present-day Manhattan."
- ^ a b GovIsland Park-to-Tolerance: through Broad Awareness and Conscious Vigilance, Tolerance Park. Accessed November 20, 2016. See Legislative Resolutions Senate No. 5476 and Assembly No. 2708.
- ^ City Seal and Flag, New York City. Accessed November 20, 2016. "Date: Beneath the horizontal laurel branch the date 1625, being the year of the establishment of New Amsterdam."
- ^ New York: History - Islands Draw Native American, Dutch, and English Settlement, City-data. Accessed November 20, 2016.
- ^ "Value of the guilder / euro". Iisg.nl. May 14, 2014. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- ^ Peter Schaghen Letter with transcription. New Netherland Institute (1626-11-07). Retrieved on 2015-02-16.
- ^ Nevius, Michelle; Nevius, James (2009). Inside the Apple: A Streetwise History of New York City. Simon and Schuster. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-4165-8997-6.
- ^ Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace, Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898, (1999: xivff)
- ^ The International Institute for Social History, Amsterdam calculates its value as 60 guilders (1626) = €678.91 (2006), equal to about $1,000 in 2006.
- ^ How much would the $24 paid for Manhattan be worth in today's money?. The Straight Dope (July 31, 1992). Retrieved on July 23, 2013.
- ^ Nevius, James; Nevius, Michelle (2014). Footprints in New York: Tracing the Lives of Four Centuries of New Yorkers. Guilford, Conn.: Lyons Press. ISBN 9780762796366.
- ^ Benchley, Nathaniel. "The $24 Swindle: The Indians who sold Manhattan were bilked, all right, but they didn’t mind — the land wasn't theirs anyway." American Heritage, Vol. 11, no. 1 (December 1959).
- ^ Williams, Jasmin K. "Classroom Extra: New York – The Empire State", The New York Post, November 22, 2006. Accessed November 20, 2016. "In 1647, Dutch leader Peter Stuyvesant arrived with an iron fist to put an end to the colony's rampant crime and restore order."
- ^ About the Council, New York City Council. Accessed May 18, 2007.
- ^ New York State History Archived April 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine., New York Department of State. Accessed June 29, 2009. "...named New York in honor of the Duke of York."
- ^ Griffis, William Elliot. "The Story of New Netherland" Chapter XV: The Fall of New Netherland, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1909. "In religious matters, Article VIII of the capitulation read, "The Dutch shall enjoy the liberty of their consciences in Divine worship and in Church government.""
- ^ Scheltema, Gajus and Westerhuijs, Heleen (eds.),Exploring Historic Dutch New York. Museum of the City of New York/Dover Publications, New York (2011). ISBN 978-0-486-48637-6
- ^ Thalassa, FR3 Television, broadcast of Monday August 27, 2012
- ^ Fort Washington Park, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Accessed May 18, 2007.
- ^ "Happy Evacuation Day", New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, November 23, 2005. Accessed May 18, 2007.
- ^ The Nice Capitals of the United States. United States Senate Historical Office. Accessed June 9, 2005. Based on Fortenbaugh, Robert, The Nine Capitals of the United States, York, Pennsylvania: Maple Press, 1948...
- ^ "Birthplace of American Government". National Park Service. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- ^ Lynch, Jack. "Debating the Bill of Rights". Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- ^ "History & Culture – Federal Hall National Memorial". National Park Service. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- ^ Bridges, William (1811). Map of the City of New York and Island of Manhattan with Explanatory Remarks and References.
- ^ Lankevich (1998), pp. 67–68.
- ^ Dunlap, David W. "Last Time New York Had Just 27 House Seats? The City Was on the Rise". The New York Times. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- ^ Blair, Cynthia. "1858: Central Park Opens", Newsday. Accessed May 29, 2007. "Between 1853 and 1856, city commissioners purchased more than 700 acres (280 ha) from 59th Street to 106th Street between Fifth and Eighth Avenues to create Central Park, the nation's first public park [sic] as well as its first landscaped park." In actuality, Boston Common is the nation's first public park. Boston Common, Thefreedomtrail.org.
- ^ Rybczynski, Witold. "Olmsted's Triumph", Smithsonian (magazine), July 2003. Accessed November 20, 2016. "By 1876, landscape designer Frederick Law Olmsted and architect Calvert Vaux had transformed the swampy, treeless 50 blocks between Harlem and midtown Manhattan into the first landscaped park in the United States."
- ^ Harris, Leslie M. "The New York City Draft Riots of 1863" excerpted from In the Shadow of Slavery:African Americans in New York City, 1626-1863, University of Chicago Press. Accessed November 20, 2016.
- ^ Ward, Geoffrey C. "Gangs of New York", a review of Paradise Alley by Kevin Baker, The New York Times, October 6, 2002. Accessed June 30, 2009. "The New York draft riots remain the worst civil disturbance in American history: according to the historian Adrian Cook, 119 people are known to have been killed, mostly rioters or onlookers who got too close when federal troops, brought back from the battlefield to restore order, started shooting."
- ^ Statue of Liberty, National Park Service. Accessed May 17, 2007.
- ^ "New Jerseyans' Claim To Liberty I. Rejected", The New York Times, October 6, 1987. Accessed June 30, 2009. "The Supreme Court today refused to strip the Statue of Liberty of its status as a New Yorker. The Court, without comment, turned away a move by a two New Jerseyans to claim jurisdiction over the landmark for their state."
- ^ Macy Jr., Harry. Before the Five-Borough City: The Old Cities, Towns and Villages That Came Together to Form "Greater New York", New York Genealogical and Biographical Society from The NYG&B Newsletter, Winter 1998. Accessed April 29, 2007. "In 1683, when the Province of New York was first divided into counties, the City of New York also became New York County... In 1874, to accommodate this growth, New York City and County annexed from Westchester County what is now the western Bronx... In 1895 New York City annexed the eastern Bronx." "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
- ^ Gary Hermalyn and Ultan, Lloyd. Bronx History: A General Survey, New York Public Library. Accessed April 26, 2007.
- ^ Chase-Dunn, Christopher and Manning, Susan. "City systems and world-systems: Four millennia of city growth and decline", University of California, Riverside Institute for Research on World-Systems. Accessed May 17, 2007. "New York, which became the largest city in the world by 1925, beating out London..."
- ^ "New York – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved May 6, 2012.
- ^ Rosenberg, Jennifer. Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire, About.com. Accessed May 17, 2007.
- ^ Allen, Oliver E. (1993). "Chapter 9: The Decline". The Tiger – The Rise and Fall of Tammany Hall. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. ISBN 0-201-62463-X. Retrieved May 25, 2007.
- ^ "Stuyvesant Town to Get Its First Tenants Today", The New York Times, August 1, 1947. p. 19
- ^ Ambrose Akenuwa (July 1, 2015). Is the United States Still the Land of the Free and Home to the Brave?. Lulu.com. p. 79. ISBN 978-1-329-26112-9. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
The United Nations Headquarters has been situated in Midtown Manhattan since 1952.
- ^ National Park Service (2008). "Workforce Diversity: The Stonewall Inn, National Historic Landmark National Register Number: 99000562". US Department of Interior. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- ^ "Obama inaugural speech references Stonewall gay-rights riots". North Jersey Media Group. January 21, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- ^ Allan Tannenbaum. "New York in the 70s: A Remembrance". The Digital Journalist. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- ^ Christopher Effgen (September 11, 2001). "New York Crime Rates 1960–2009". Disastercenter.com. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- ^ Harris, Paul. "How the mean streets of New York were tamed", The Guardian, January 15, 2006. Accessed June 29, 2009. "Alongside the changed tactics came a fall in the crack epidemic that had swept the city in the Eighties. By the Nineties police had driven dealers off the streets, thus reducing drug-related violence.... The figures speak for themselves. In 1990, 2,245 New Yorkers were murdered. Last year the number was 537, the lowest for 40 years."
- ^ Hevesi, Dennis. "In Much of the City, A Robust Market", The New York Times, March 16, 1997. Accessed June 29, 2009.
- ^ Eli Rosenberg (June 24, 2016). "Stonewall Inn Named National Monument, a First for the Gay Rights Movement". The New York Times. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
- ^ Mary Johnson (October 29, 2012). "VIDEO: Dramatic Explosion at East Village Con Ed Plant". DNA Info. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
- ^ Edelman, Susan (January 6, 2008). "Charting post-9/11 deaths". Retrieved January 22, 2012.
- ^ Katia Hetter (November 12, 2013). "It's official: One World Trade Center to be tallest U.S. skyscraper". CNN. Retrieved November 12, 2013.
- ^ "OccupyWallStreet — About". The Occupy Solidarity Network, Inc. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- ^ Long, Colleen & Peltz, Jennifer (October 30, 2012). "Water, fire and darkness: NYC after the superstorm". Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 27, 2012. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- ^ "Gas Lines Pop Up Citywide As Relief Efforts Continue". NY1. November 3, 2012. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- ^ "Free Gas Draws Crowds In New York City; Gas Rationing Starts In New Jersey". NPR. November 3, 2012. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
- ^ "Tracking Storm Sandy Recovery". Reuters. October 30, 2012. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
- ^ Bhasin, Kim (October 30, 2012). "MTA: In 108 Years, The NYC Subway System Has Never Faced A Disaster As Devastating As This". Business Insider. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- ^ "Hurricane Sandy forces mass transit closure, evacuations". MyFoxNY. November 12, 2012. Archived from the original on October 29, 2012. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- ^ Raw: Sandy Leaves NYC Subways Flooded on YouTube
- ^ Robert S. Eshelman (November 15, 2012). "Adaptation: Political support for a sea wall in New York Harbor begins to form". E&E Publishing. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
- ^ New York City Administrative Code Section 2-202 Division into boroughs and boundaries thereof – Division Into Boroughs And Boundaries Thereof., Justia. Accessed November 20, 2016. "The borough of Manhattan shall consist of the territory known as New York county, which shall contain all that part of the city and state, including that portion of land commonly known as Marble Hill and included within the county of New York and borough of Manhattan for all purposes pursuant to chapter nine hundred thirty-nine of the laws of nineteen hundred eighty-four and further including the islands called Manhattan Island, Governor's Island, Bedloe's Island, Ellis Island, Franklin D. Roosevelt Island, Randall's Island and Oyster Island..."
- ^ a b How New York Works, How Stuff Works. Accessed June 30, 2009. "The island is 22.7 square miles (59 km2), 13.4 miles (21.6 km) long and 2.3 miles (3.7 km) wide (at its widest point)."
- ^ Cudahy, Brian J. Cudahy (1990). Over and Back: The History of Ferryboats in New York Harbor. Fordham University Press. p. 25. ISBN 0-8232-1245-9.
- ^ Gillespie, Angus K. (1999). Twin Towers: The Life of New York City's World Trade Center. Rutgers University Press. p. 71. ISBN 0-7838-9785-5.
- ^ Iglauer, Edith (November 4, 1972). "The Biggest Foundation". The New Yorker.
- ^ ASLA 2003 The Landmark Award, American Society of Landscape Architects. Accessed May 17, 2007.
- ^ Gray, Christopher. "Streetscapes: Spuyten Duyvil Swing Bridge; Restoring a Link In the City's Lifeline". The New York Times, March 6, 1988. Accessed June 30, 2009.
- ^ Jackson, Nancy Beth. "If You're Thinking of Living In/Marble Hill; Tiny Slice of Manhattan on the Mainland". The New York Times, January 26, 2003. Accessed June 30, 2009. "The building of the Harlem River Ship Canal turned the hill into an island in 1895, but when Spuyten Duyvel Creek on the west was filled in before World War I, the 51 acres (21 ha) became firmly attached to the mainland and the Bronx."
- ^ The fact that the immediate layer of bedrock in the Bronx is Fordham gneiss, while that of Manhattan is schist has led to the expression: "The Bronx is gneiss (nice) but Manhattan is schist." Eldredge, Niles & Horenstein, Sidney (2014). Concrete Jungle: New York City and Our Last Best Hope for a Sustainable Future. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 42,n1. ISBN 978-0-520-27015-2.
- ^ Manhattan Schist in Bennett Park Archived February 12, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ John H. Betts The Minerals of New York City originally published in Rocks & Minerals magazine, Volume 84, No. 3 pages 204–252 (2009).
- ^ Samuels, Andrea. "An Examination of Mica Schist by Andrea Samuels, Micscape magazine. Photographs of Manhattan schist". Microscopy-uk.org.uk. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- ^ "Manhattan Schist in New York City Parks – J. Hood Wright Park". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- ^ Quinn, Helen (June 6, 2013). "How ancient collision shaped New York skyline". BBC Science. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
These rocks are Manhattan schist, part of that ancient supercontinent, fragments of Pangaea left behind when the continent split. They are just glimpses of what is below the surface in abundance in Downtown and Midtown. And it is these fragments of very hard rock that provide the perfect foundations for New York's highest buildings. Where Manhattan schist can be found very close to the surface you can build high, and so Downtown and Midtown have become home to Manhattan's tallest buildings.
- ^ Barr, Jason; Tassier, Troy; and Trendafilov, Rossen. "Depth to Bedrock and the Formation of the Manhattan Skyline, 1890–1915", The Journal of Economic History, December 2011 – Volume 71, Issue 04. Accessed August 3, 2016.
- ^ Chaban, Matt (January 17, 2012). "Uncanny Valley: The Real Reason There Are No Skyscrapers in the Middle of Manhattan". The New York Observer. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
- ^ Chaban, Matt (January 25, 2012). "Paul Goldberger and Skyscraper Economist Jason Barr Debate the Manhattan Skyline" (PDF). The New York Observer. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
- ^ Jessica Robertson & Mark Petersen (July 17, 2014). "New Insight on the Nation's Earthquake Hazards". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- ^ Senft, Bret. "If You're Thinking of Living In/TriBeCa; Families Are the Catalyst for Change", The New York Times, September 26, 1993. Accessed June 30, 2009. "Families have overtaken commerce as the catalyst for change in this TRIangle BElow CAnal Street (although the only triangle here is its heart: Hudson Street meeting West Broadway at Chambers Street, with Canal its north side) ... Artists began seeking refuge from fashionable SoHo (SOuth of HOuston) as early as the mid-70s."
- ^ Cohen, Joyce. "If You're Thinking of Living In/Nolita; A Slice of Little Italy Moving Upscale", The New York Times, May 17, 1998. Accessed June 30, 2009. "NO ONE is quite certain what to call this part of town. Nolita—north of Little Italy, that is—certainly pinpoints it geographically. The not-quite-acronym was apparently coined several years ago by real-estate brokers seeking to give the area at least a little cachet."
- ^ Louie, Elaine. "The Trendy Discover NoMad Land, and Move In", The New York Times, August 5, 1999. Accessed November 20, 2016.
- ^ Feirstein, Sanna (2001), Naming New York: Manhattan Places & How They Got Their Names, New York: New York University, p. 103, ISBN 978-0-8147-2712-6
- ^ Sternbergh, Adam. "Soho. Nolita. Dumbo. NoMad? Branding the last unnamed neighborhood in Manhattan.", New York (magazine), April 11, 2010. Accessed November 20, 2016.
- ^ Pitts, David. "U.S. Postage Stamp Honors Harlem's Langston Hughes", United States Department of State. Accessed November 20, 2016. "Harlem, or Nieuw Haarlem, as it was originally named, was established by the Dutch in 1658 after they took control from Native Americans. They named it after Haarlem, a city in the Netherlands."
- ^ Bruni, Frank. "The Grounds He Stamped: The New York Of Ginsberg", The New York Times, April 7, 1997. Accessed June 30, 2009. "Indeed, for all the worldwide attention that Mr. Ginsberg received, he was always a creature and icon principally of downtown Manhattan, his world view forged in its crucible of political and sexual passions, his eccentricities nurtured by those of its peculiar demimonde, his individual myth entwined with that of the bohemian East Village in which he made his home. He embodied the East Village and the Lower East Side, Bill Morgan, a friend and Mr. Ginsberg's archivist, said yesterday."
- ^ Dunlap, David W. "The New Chelsea's Many Faces", The New York Times, November 13, 1994. Accessed June 30, 2009. "Gay Chelsea's role has solidified with the arrival of A Different Light bookstore, a cultural cornerstone that had been housed for a decade in an 800-square-foot (74 m2) nook at 548 Hudson Street, near Perry Street. It now takes up more than 5,000 square feet (500 m2) at 151 West 19th Street and its migration seems to embody a northward shift of gay life from Greenwich Village... Because of Chelsea's reputation, Mr. Garmendia said, single women were not likely to move in. But single men did. "The whole neighborhood became gay during the 70's", he said."
- ^ Grimes, Christopher. "WORLD NEWS: New York's Chinatown starts to feel the pinch over 'the bug'", Financial Times, April 14, 2003. Accessed May 19, 2007. "New York's Chinatown is the site of the largest concentration of Chinese people in the western hemisphere."
- ^ "Chinatown: A World of Dining, Shopping, and History". Archived from the original on July 9, 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-27., NYC & Company. Accessed June 30, 2009. "No visit to New York City is complete without exploring the sights, cuisines, history, and shops of the biggest Chinatown in the United States. The largest concentration of Chinese people—150,000—in the Western Hemisphere are in a two-square-mile area in downtown Manhattan that's loosely bounded by Lafayette, Worth, and Grand streets and East Broadway."
- ^ Gina Pace (April 26, 2015). "Koreatown in NYC is now being taken more seriously as a dining destination". New York Daily News. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
Koreatown — long centered on 32nd St. between Fifth and Sixth Aves., nicknamed Korea Way — has expanded in recent months. The new Baekjeong spot, for example, is located just east of Fifth Ave...Kihyun Lee took an even bigger gamble by opening a dual-concept spot midblock on 31st St. between Fifth and Madison Aves...
- ^  Shinhan Bank America. Accessed December 10, 2016.
- ^  Don's Bogam Korean restaurant. December 10, 2016.
- ^ Ensminger, Kris. "More Than Tandoori", The New York Times, November 20, 2016. "Curry Hill, centered on Lexington Avenue and 28th Street, is named for its many Indian restaurants and spice shops."
- ^ Petzold, Charles. "How Far from True North are the Avenues of Manhattan?", charlespetzold.com. Accessed April 30, 2007. "However, the orientation of the city's avenues was fixed to be parallel with the axis of Manhattan Island and has only a casual relationship to true north and south. Maps that are oriented to true north (like the one at the right) show the island at a significant tilt. In truth, avenues run closer to northeast and southwest than north and south."
- ^ a b "NYC Basics". Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-11., NYC & Company. Accessed June 30, 2009. "Downtown (below 14th Street) contains Greenwich Village, SoHo, TriBeCa, and the Wall Street financial district."
- ^ a b Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. "World Map of Köppen-Geiger climate classification". The University of Melbourne. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- ^ a b "New York Polonia Polish Portal in New York". NewYorkPolonia.com. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- ^ a b c "New York Central Park, NY Climate Normals 1961−1990". NOAA.
- ^ "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". Agricultural Research Center, PRISM Climate Group Oregon State University. Archived from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- ^ a b c d e "Station Name: NY NEW YORK CNTRL PK TWR". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-13.
- ^ "The Climate of New York". New York State Climate Office. Archived from the original on April 12, 2008. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
- ^ a b c "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2016-04-18.
- ^ "Keeping New York City 'Cool' Is The Job Of NASA's 'Heat Seekers'", NASA, January 30, 2006. Accessed November 20, 2016. "The urban heat island occurrence is particularly pronounced during summer heat waves and at night when wind speeds are low and sea breezes are light. During these times, New York City's air temperatures can rise 7.2 °F (4.0 °C) higher than in surrounding areas."
- ^  Belvedere Castle at NYC Parks
- ^ a b c d e "New York County (Manhattan Borough), New York State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
- ^ Campbell Gibson. "Population of the 100 largest cities and other urban places in the United States: 1790 to 1990". United States Bureau of the Census.
- ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
- ^ a b c "New York — Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012.
- ^ "State and County QuickFacts: New York (city), New York". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 20, 2014. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- ^ "Population Density", Geographic Information Systems – GIS of Interest. Accessed June 30, 2009. "What I discovered is that out of the 3140 counties listed in the Census population data only 178 counties were calculated to have a population density over one person per acre. Not surprisingly, New York County (which contains Manhattan) had the highest population density with a calculated 104.218 persons per acre."
- ^ New York City Population Projections by Age/Sex & Borough 2000–2030 Archived January 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., New York City Department of City Planning, December 2006. Accessed May 18, 2007.
- ^ Julie Shapiro (January 11, 2012). "Downtown Baby Boom Sees 12 Percent Increase in Births". DNAinfo New York. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
- ^ C. J. Hughes (August 8, 2014). "The Financial District Gains Momentum". The New York Times. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
- ^ Winnie Hu (December 2, 2016). "Downside of Lower Manhattan’s Boom: It’s Just Too Crowded". The New York Times. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- ^ American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "New York County, New York – ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2009". Factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on January 20, 2012. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- ^ "New York County, New York – Selected Social Characteristics in the United States: 2009". Factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on January 3, 2011. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
- ^ Danielle Kurtzleben (May 24, 2012). "The Most Expensive Places in America". USA Today. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- ^ "Where Inequality Is Worst In The United States". Forbes. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- ^ "Interactive Data". U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- ^ "Per capita income in past 12 months (in 2015 dollars), 2011-2015". www.census.gov. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
- ^ Tim Phillips, "The Occupy Movement is a Response to Social Stratification; it's not 'Economic Terrorism'", Activist Defense, September 25, 2012.
- ^ New York County, New York, Association of Religion Data Archives. Accessed September 10, 2006.
- ^ "MLA Language Map Data Center". Modern Language Association. Retrieved December 20, 2013. Enter New York County, New York, 2010 in data entry.
- ^ Pogrebin, Robin. "7 World Trade Center and Hearst Building: New York's Test Cases for Environmentally Aware Office Towers", The New York Times, April 16, 2006. Accessed July 19, 2006.
- ^ "Bank of America and The Durst Organization Break Ground On the Bank of America Tower at One Bryant Park in New York City" (Press release). Bank of America Corporation. August 2, 2004. Archived from the original on October 23, 2007. Retrieved October 19, 2007.
- ^ Cook, Richard A.; Hartley, Alice (June 6, 2005). ""What is Free?": How Sustainable Architecture Act and Interacts Differently" (PDF). United Nations. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 28, 2007. Retrieved October 19, 2007.
- ^ McKinley, Jesse. "F.Y.I.: Tall, Taller. Tallest", The New York Times, November 5, 1995. p. CY2. Accessed June 30, 2009.
- ^ "Big Span Project Initiated by City; Manhattan Plaza of Brooklyn Bridge Would Be Rebuilt to Cope With Traffic Increase COST IS PUT AT $6,910,000 Demolition Program is Set – Street System in the Area Also Faces Rearranging", The New York Times, July 24, 1954. p. 15.
- ^ Gray, Christopher. "Streetscapes/The Park Row Building, 15 Park Row; An 1899 'Monster' That Reigned High Over the City", The New York Times, March 12, 2000. Accessed June 30, 2009.
- ^ Gray, Christopher. " Streetscapes/Singer Building; Once the Tallest Building, But Since 1967 a Ghost", The New York Times, January 2, 2005. Accessed May 15, 2007. "The 41-story Singer Building, the tallest in the world in 1908 when it was completed at Broadway and Liberty Street, was, until September 11, 2001, the tallest structure ever to be demolished. The building, an elegant Beaux-Arts tower, was one of the most painful losses of the early preservation movement when it was razed in 1967.... Begun in 1906, the Singer Building incorporated Flagg's model for a city of towers, with the 1896 structure reconstructed as the base, and a 65-foot-square shaft rising 612 feet (187 m) high, culminating in a bulbous mansard and giant lantern at the peak."
- ^ Gray, Christopher. "Streetscapes/Metropolitan Life at 1 Madison Avenue; For a Brief Moment, the Tallest Building in the World", The New York Times, May 26, 1996. Accessed June 30, 2009.
- ^ Dunlap, David W. "Condos to Top Vaunted Tower Of Woolworth", The New York Times, November 2, 2000. Accessed June 30, 2009.
- ^ "Denies Altering Plans for Tallest Building; Starrett Says Height of Bank of Manhattan Structure Was Not Increased to Beat Chrysler.", The New York Times, October 20, 1929. p. 14.
- ^ "Bank of Manhattan Built in Record Time; Structure 927 feet (283 m) High, Second Tallest in World, Is Erected in Year of Work.", The New York Times, May 6, 1930. p. 53.
- ^ Gray, Christopher. "Streetscapes: The Chrysler Building; Skyscraper's Place in the Sun", The New York Times, December 17, 1995. Accessed June 30, 2009. "Then Chrysler and Van Alen again revised the design, this time in order to win a height competition with the 921-foot (281 m) tower then rising at 40 Wall Street. This was done in secret, using as a staging area the huge square fire-tower shaft, intended to vent smoke from the stairways. Inside the shaft, Van Alen had teams of workers assemble the framework for a 185-foot spire that, when lifted into place in the fall of 1929, made the Chrysler building, at 1046 feet, 4.75 inches high, the tallest in the world."
- ^ "Rivalry for Height is Seen as Ended; Empire State's Record to Stand for Many Years, Builders and Realty Men Say. Practical Limit Reached; Its Top Rises 1,250 feet (380 m), but Staff Carrying Instruments Extends Pinnacle to 1265.5 Feet.", The New York Times, May 2, 1931. p. 7.
- ^ Gray, Christopher. "Streetscapes: The Empire State Building; A Red Reprise for a '31 Wonder", The New York Times, June 14, 1992. Accessed June 30, 2009.
- ^ Barss, Karen. "The History of Skyscrapers: A race to the top", Information Please. Accessed May 17, 2007. "The Empire State Building would reign supreme among skyscrapers for 41 years until 1972, when it was surpassed by the World Trade Center (1,368 feet, 110 stories). Two years later, New York City lost the distinction of housing the tallest building when the Willis Tower was constructed in Chicago (1450 feet, 110 stories)."
- ^ DeGregory, Priscilla (November 3, 2014). "1 World Trade Center is open for business". New York Post. Retrieved November 18, 2014.
- ^ Gray, Christopher. "Streetscapes/'The Destruction of Penn Station'; A 1960s Protest That Tried to Save a Piece of the Past", The New York Times, May 20, 2001. Accessed June 30, 2009.
- ^ About the Landmarks Preservation Commission, New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Accessed November 20, 2016.
- ^ "Requiem For Penn Station", CBS News, October 13, 2002. Accessed May 17, 2007.
- ^ "Manhattan Borough President Scott Stringer". Archived from the original on 2007-04-11. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Central Park General Information, Central Park Conservancy. Accessed September 21, 2006.
- ^ Central Park History, Central Park Conservancy. Accessed September 21, 2006.
- ^ "Manhattan Average Weekly Wage in Manhattan at $2,821 in First Quarter 2007" (PDF). Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Department of Labor. November 19, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 28, 2010. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
- ^ "County Employment and Wages Summary". Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. September 18, 2014. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- ^ "The Dynamic Population of Manhattan" (PDF). Retrieved March 2, 2012.
- ^ "Commuting shifts in top 10 metro areas", USA Today, May 20, 2005. Accessed June 25, 2007.
- ^ Thomas P. DiNapoli (New York State Comptroller) and Kenneth B. Bleiwas (New York State Deputy Comptroller) (October 2013). "The Securities Industry in New York City" (PDF). Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- ^ Ambereen Choudhury, Elisa Martinuzzi & Ben Moshinsky (November 26, 2012). "London Bankers Bracing for Leaner Bonuses Than New York". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- ^ Sanat Vallikappen (November 10, 2013). "Pay Raises for Bank Risk Officers in Asia Trump New York". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- ^ David Enrich; Jacob Bunge & Cassell Bryan-Low (July 9, 2013). "NYSE Euronext to Take Over Libor". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
- ^ Fortune Magazine: New York State and City Home to Most Fortune 500 Companies, Empire State Development Corporation, press release dated April 8, 2005. Accessed April 26, 2007. "New York City is also still home to more Fortune 500 headquarters than any other city in the country."
- ^ a b Andrew Nelson. "Top CBDs See Solid Growth in 2nd Quarter, US – Canada Performance Diverges" (PDF). Colliers International. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- ^ "Understanding The Manhattan Office Space Market". Officespaceseeker.com. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- ^ "Marketbeat United States CBD Office Report 2Q11" (PDF). Cushman & Wakefield, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 8, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- ^ Megan Rose Dickey & Jillian D'Onfro (October 24, 2013). "SA 100 2013: The Coolest People In New York Tech". Business Insider. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- ^ S3 Partners (January 8, 2015). "5 signs NYC's tech scene is growing up – NYC tech sector hits 300,000". New York Daily News. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
- ^ a b Jillian Eugenios, Steve Hargreaves & Aimee Rawlins (October 7, 2014). "The most innovative cities in America". CNNMoney. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- ^ a b "Venture Investment – Regional Aggregate Data". National Venture Capital Association and PricewaterhouseCoopers. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
- ^ Matt Flegenheimer (March 23, 2016). "Ted Cruz Deplores ‘Liberal, Left-Wing Values’ While Lobbying for New York Votes". The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
- ^ The Associated Press (April 22, 2016). "The Latest: China Hopes US Joins Climate Deal Quickly". The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
- ^ Lisa Foderaro (September 21, 2014). "Taking a Call for Climate Change to the Streets". The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
- ^ Ivan Pereira (December 10, 2013). "City opens nation's largest continuous Wi-Fi zone in Harlem". amNewYork/Newsday. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- ^ Jon Brodkin (June 9, 2014). "Verizon will miss deadline to wire all of New York City with FiOS". Condé Nast. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- ^ Morris, Keiko (July 28, 2014). "Wanted: Biotech Startups in New York City: The Alexandria Center for Life Science Looks to Expand". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 31, 2014.
- ^ RICHARD PÉREZ-PEÑA (December 19, 2011). "Cornell Alumnus Is Behind $350 Million Gift to Build Science School in City". The New York Times. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- ^ Ju, Anne (December 19, 2011). "'Game-changing' Tech Campus Goes to Cornell, Technion". Cornell University. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- ^ "Broadway Calendar-Year Statistics". The Broadway League. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- ^ Rich Bockmann (June 1, 2016). "Manhattan’s hotel wars". The Real Deal, Inc. Retrieved December 11, 2016.
- ^ "DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE PUBLISHES FISCAL YEAR 2015 TENTATIVE ASSESSMENT ROLL" (PDF). New York City Department of Finance. January 15, 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 2, 2014. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
- ^ McTiernan, Andy (2008). "A quantum leap for capital assets". The Free Library By Farlex. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
- ^ Robert Frank (October 6, 2014). "Waldorf becomes most expensive hotel ever sold: $1.95 billion". CNBC. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- ^ Quirk, James. "Bergen offices have plenty of space". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007., The Record (Bergen County), July 5, 2007. Accessed July 5, 2007.
- ^ Erin Carlyle (October 8, 2014). "New York Dominates 2014 List of America's Most Expensive ZIP Codes". Forbes. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- ^ "What is an office condominium?". Rudder Property Group. Retrieved October 18, 2013.
- ^ "Understanding The Manhattan Office Space Market". Officespaceseeker.com. Retrieved October 18, 2013.
- ^ "Marketbeat Office Snapshot: United States – 2Q11" (PDF). Cushman & Wakefield, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 20, 2014. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
- ^ Lower Manhattan Recovery Office Archived June 18, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., Federal Transit Administration. Accessed June 23, 2014. "Lower Manhattan is the third largest business district in the nation. Prior to September 11th more than 385,000 people were employed there and 85% of those employees used public transportation to commute to work."
- ^ "Illinois Chicago West Randolph Ogilvie Business Center". Regus. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
- ^ New York City Newspapers and News Media, ABYZ News Links. Accessed May 1, 2007.
- ^ President's Bio Archived June 18, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., WNYC. Accessed May 1, 2007. "Heard by over 1.2 million listeners each week, WNYC radio is the largest public radio station in the country and is dedicated to producing broadcasting that extends New York City's cultural riches to public radio stations nationwide." "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 26, 2003. Retrieved 2010-12-13.
- ^ Community Celebrates Public Access TV's 35th Anniversary Archived August 25, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., Manhattan Neighborhood Network press release dated August 6, 2006. Accessed April 28, 2007. "Public access TV was created in the 1970s to allow ordinary members of the public to make and air their own TV shows—and thereby exercise their free speech. It was first launched in the U.S. in Manhattan July 1, 1971, on the Teleprompter and Sterling Cable systems, now Time Warner Cable." "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 28, 2011. Retrieved 2010-10-28.
- ^ Wienerbronner, Danielle (November 9, 2010). "Most Beautiful College Libraries". TheHuffingtonPost.com. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- ^ Melago, Carrie (November 30, 2007). "U.S. News & World Report gives city schools high marks in new list". Daily News. Archived from the original on January 2, 2008. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
- ^ New York: Education and Research, City-Data. Accessed September 10, 2006.
- ^ About Us, La Scoula d'Italia. Accessed November 20, 2016.
- ^ S1501: EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT from the 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Manhattan borough, New York County, New York, United States Census Bureau. Accessed January 22, 2017.
- ^ McGeehan, Patrick. "New York Area Is a Magnet For Graduates", The New York Times, August 16, 2006. Accessed March 27, 2008. "In Manhattan, nearly three out of five residents were college graduates and one out of four had advanced degrees, forming one of the highest concentrations of highly educated people in any American city."
- ^ The City University of New York is the nation's largest urban public university, City University of New York. Accessed June 30, 2009. "The City University of New York is the nation's largest urban public university..."
- ^ New York City Economic Development Corporation (November 18, 2004). "Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg and Economic Development Corporation President Andrew M. Alper Unveil Plans to Develop Commercial Bioscience Center in Manhattan". Retrieved July 19, 2006.
- ^ National Institutes of Health (2003). "NIH Domestic Institutions Awards Ranked by City, Fiscal Year 2003". Archived from the original on June 26, 2009. Retrieved June 30, 2009.
- ^ "Nation's Largest Libraries". LibrarySpot. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
- ^ The Central Libraries, New York Public Library. Accessed June 6, 2007. Archived December 28, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ Manhattan Map, New York Public Library. Accessed June 6, 2006.
- ^ Purdum, Todd S. "Political memo; An Embattled City Hall Moves to Brooklyn", The New York Times, February 22, 1992. Accessed June 30, 2009. ""Leaders in all of them fear that recent changes in the City Charter that shifted power from the borough presidents to the City Council have diminished government's recognition of the sense of identity that leads people to say they live in the Bronx, and to describe visiting Manhattan as 'going to the city.'"
- ^ The Triangle Factory Fire, Cornell University School of Industrial and Labor Relations. Accessed April 25, 2007.
- ^ Weber, Bruce. "Critic's Notebook: Theater's Promise? Look Off Broadway", The New York Times, July 2, 2003. Accessed May 29, 2007. "It's also true that what constitutes Broadway is easy to delineate; it's a universe of 39 specified theaters, which all have at least 500 seats. Off Broadway is generally considered to comprise theaters from 99 to 499 seats (anything less is thought of as Off Off), which ostensibly determines the union contracts for actors, directors and press agents."
- ^ Theatre 101, Theatre Development Fund. Accessed May 29, 2007.
- ^ "Upper East Side Art Galleries". uppereast.com.
- ^ "Best Uptown art galleries". Time Out New York.
- ^ "Stylish Traveler: Chelsea Girls", Travel + Leisure, September 2005. Accessed May 14, 2007. "With more than 200 galleries, Chelsea has plenty of variety."
- ^ "City Planning Begins Public Review for West Chelsea Rezoning to Permit Housing Development and Create Mechanism for Preserving and Creating Access to the High Line" Archived June 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., New York City Department of City Planning press release dated December 20, 2004. Accessed May 29, 2007. "Some 200 galleries have opened their doors in recent years, making West Chelsea a destination for art lovers from around the City and the world."
- ^ Eli Rosenberg (June 24, 2016). "Stonewall Inn Named National Monument, a First for the Gay Rights Movement". The New York Times. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
- ^ "Workforce Diversity The Stonewall Inn, National Historic Landmark National Register Number: 99000562". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
- ^ "Revelers Take To The Streets For 48th Annual NYC Pride March". CBS New York. June 25, 2017. Retrieved June 26, 2017.
A sea of rainbows took over the Big Apple for the biggest pride parade in the world Sunday.
- ^ "Dictionary - Full Definition of NEW YORK MINUTE". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
- ^ "New York Minute". Dictionary of American Regional English. January 1, 1984. Retrieved September 5, 2006.
- ^ Stephen Miller. "Walking New York: Reflections of American Writers from Walt Whitman to Teju Cole pp.46, 50, 131". Oxford University Press - Google Books. Retrieved May 13, 2017.
- ^ "The Melting Pot", The First Measured Century, Public Broadcasting Service. Accessed April 25, 2007.
- ^ Dolkart, Andrew S. "The Architecture and Development of New York City: The Birth of the Skyscraper – Romantic Symbols", Columbia University. Accessed May 15, 2007. "It is at a triangular site where Broadway and Fifth Avenue—the two most important streets of New York—meet at Madison Square, and because of the juxtaposition of the streets and the park across the street, there was a wind-tunnel effect here. In the early twentieth century, men would hang out on the corner here on Twenty-third Street and watch the wind blowing women's dresses up so that they could catch a little bit of ankle. This entered into popular culture and there are hundreds of postcards and illustrations of women with their dresses blowing up in front of the Flatiron Building. And it supposedly is where the slang expression "23 skidoo" comes from because the police would come and give the voyeurs the 23 skidoo to tell them to get out of the area."
- ^ "Mayor Giuliani signs legislation creating "Big Apple Corner" in Manhattan" Archived April 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., New York City press release dated February 12, 1997.
- ^ a b c "Millions Of Revelers Marvel Over Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade". CBS Broadcasting Inc. November 24, 2016. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
- ^ Hilarey Wojtowicz. "Guide to the 2016 Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade". The Independent Traveler, Inc. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
- ^ Giants Ballparks: 1883 – present, MLB.com. Accessed May 8, 2007.
- ^ Yankee Ballparks: 1903 – present, MLB.com. Accessed May 8, 2007.
- ^ Mets Ballparks: 1962 – present, MLB.com. Accessed May 8, 2007.
- ^ Drebinger, John. "The Polo Grounds, 1889–1964: A Lifetime of Memories; Ball Park in Harlem Was Scene of Many Sports Thrills", The New York Times, January 5, 1964. p. S3.
- ^ Arnold, Martin. "Ah, Polo Grounds, The Game is Over; Wreckers Begin Demolition for Housing Project", The New York Times, April 11, 1964. p. 27.
- ^ History of the National Invitation Tournament, National Invitation Tournament. Accessed May 8, 2007. "Tradition. The NIT is steeped in it. The nation's oldest postseason collegiate basketball tournament was founded in 1938."
- ^ The Knickerbocker Story, NBA.com. Accessed November 20, 2016.
- ^ The New York Liberty Story, Women's National Basketball Association. Accessed May 8, 2007.
- ^ Rucker Park, ThinkQuest New York City. Accessed June 30, 2009.
- ^ "Home Sweet Home", Pro Football Hall of Fame, September 10, 2010. Accessed November 20, 2016. "The Giants shared the Polo Grounds with the New York Baseball Giants from the time they entered the league in 1925 until 1955."
- ^ Stadiums of The NFL: Shea Stadium Archived May 16, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., Stadiums of the NFL. Accessed May 8, 2007.
- ^ New York Americans, Sports Encyclopedia. Accessed May 8, 2007.
- ^ "A ,.5 Million Gamble", Time (magazine), June 30, 1975. Accessed September 24, 2007.
- ^ Collins, Glenn. "Built for Speed, And Local Pride; Track Stadium Emerges On Randalls Island", The New York Times, August 20, 2004. Accessed June 30, 2009.
- ^ "Mayor Michael Bloomberk, Parks & Recreation Commissioner Adrian Benepe and the Randall's Island Sports Foundation Name New York City's Newest Athletic Facility Icahn Stadium", Mayor of New York City press release, dated January 28, 2004. Accessed September 24, 2007.
- ^ "Report on Ballot Proposals of the 2003 New York City Charter Revision Commission" (PDF), Association of the Bar of the City of New York. Accessed May 11, 2007. "Unlike most cities that employ nonpartisan election systems, New York City has a very strong mayor system and, following the 1989 Charter Amendments, an increasingly powerful City Council."
- ^ Cornell Law School Supreme Court Collection: Board of Estimate of City of New York v. Morris, Cornell Law School. Accessed June 12, 2006.
- ^ "New York 2013 Election Results.", The New York Times, November 6, 2013. Accessed November 20, 2016.
- ^ Meet Cyrus R. Vance, New York County District Attorney's Office. Accessed November 20, 2016. "Cyrus R. Vance, Jr., was first inaugurated as the District Attorney of New York County on January 1, 2010."
- ^ About Us Archived June 19, 2006, at the Wayback Machine., Society of Foreign Consuls. Accessed July 19, 2006.
- ^ The David N. Dinkins Manhattan Municipal Building, New York City. Accessed November 20, 2016. "The Municipal Building was completed in 1914, but the first offices were occupied as early as January 1913. By 1916, the majority of the offices were full and open to the public."
- ^ http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/
- ^ Grogan, Jennifer. Election 2004—Rise in Registration Promises Record Turnout, Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism. Accessed April 25, 2007. "According to the board's statistics for the total number of registered voters as of the October 22 deadline, there were 1.1 million registered voters in Manhattan, of which 727,071 were Democrats and 132,294 were Republicans, which is a 26.7 percent increase from the 2000 election, when there were 876,120 registered voters."
- ^ "NYSVoter Enrollment by County, Party Affiliation and Status" (PDF). New York State Board of Elections. April 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 30, 2016. Retrieved July 30, 2016.
- ^ New York City Congressional Districts, New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Accessed March 7, 2017.
- ^ Our District, Nydia Velázquez. Accessed March 7, 2017.
- ^ Congressional District 7, New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Accessed March 7, 2017.
- ^ Our District, Jerrold Nadler. Accessed March 7, 2017. "New York's 10th Congressional District includes parts of Manhattan's Upper West Side, Hell's Kitchen, Chelsea, SoHo, Greenwich Village, TriBeCa, the Financial District and Battery Park City. In Brooklyn, the 10th District includes parts of Borough Park, Kensington, Red Hook, Sunset Park, Bensonhurst, Dyker Heights and Gravesend."
- ^ Congressional District 10, New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Accessed March 7, 2017.
- ^ New York's 12th Congressional District, Carolyn Maloney. Accessed March 7, 2017. "It includes most of the East Side of Manhattan and Roosevelt Island and extends across the East River into the Boroughs of Queens (including Astoria, Long Island City, and parts of Woodside) and Brooklyn (including Greenpoint)."
- ^ Congressional District 12, New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Accessed March 7, 2017.
- ^ Our District, Adriano Espaillat. Accessed March 7, 2017.
- ^ Congressional District 13, New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Accessed March 7, 2017.
- ^ President—History: New York County, Our Campaigns. Accessed May 1, 2007.
- ^ 2004 General Election: Statement and Return of the Votes for the Office of President and Vice President of the United States (PDF), New York City Board of Elections, dated December 1, 2004. Accessed November 20, 2016.
- ^ National Overview: Top Zip Codes 2004 – Top Contributing Zip Codes for All Candidates (Individual Federal Contributions ( 00+)) Archived June 8, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., The Color of Money. Accessed May 29, 2007.
- ^ Big Donors Still Rule The Roost Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., Public Campaign, press release dated October 29, 2004. Accessed July 18, 2006.
- ^ "Post Office Location – James A. Farley." United States Postal Service. Accessed May 5, 2009.
- ^ New York City's main post office stops 24-hour service, Associated Press, Friday, April 17, 2009. Accessed May 5, 2009.
- ^ Christiano, Gregory. "The Five Points", Urbanography. Accessed May 16, 2007.
- ^ Walsh, John, "The Five Points", Irish Cultural Society of the Garden City Area, September 1994. Accessed November 20, 2016. "The Five Points slum was so notorious that it attracted the attention of candidate Abraham Lincoln who visited the area before his Cooper Union Address."
- ^ Al Capone Archived May 12, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., Chicago History Museum. Accessed May 16, 2007. "Capone was born on January 17, 1899, in Brooklyn, New York.... He became part of the notorious Five Points gang in Manhattan and worked in gangster Frankie Yale's Brooklyn dive, the Harvard Inn, as a bouncer and bartender."
- ^ a b Jaffe, Eric. "Talking to the Feds: The chief of the FBI's organized crime unit on the history of La Cosa Nostra", Smithsonian (magazine), April 2007. Accessed November 20, 2016.
- ^ Langan, Patrick A. and Durose, Matthew R. "The Remarkable Drop in Crime in New York City" (PDF). United States Department of Justice, October 21, 2004. Accessed June 4, 2014.
- ^ Patrol Borough Manhattan South – Report Covering the Week of May 5, 2009 through 05/10/2009 Archived April 19, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. (PDF), New York City Police Department CompStat, May 30, 2009. Accessed May 30, 2009 and Patrol Borough Manhattan North – Report Covering the Week of April 30, 2007 Through 05/06/2007 Archived January 17, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. (PDF), New York City Police Department CompStat, May 30, 2009. Accessed May 30, 2009
- ^ Zeranski, Todd. NYC Is Safest City as Crime Rises in U.S., FBI Say". Bloomberg News, June 12, 2006. Accessed May 16, 2007.
- ^ Great Fire of 1776, City University of New York. Accessed April 30, 2007. "Some of Washington's advisors suggested burning New York City so that the British would gain little from its capture. This idea was abandoned and Washington withdrew his forces from the city on September 12, 1776. Three days later the British occupied the city and on September 21, a fire broke out in the Fighting Cocks Tavern. Without the city's firemen present and on duty, the fire quickly spread. A third of the city burnt and 493 houses destroyed."
- ^ Building the Lower East Side Ghetto. Accessed April 30, 2007. Archived July 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ a b Peterson, Iver. "Tenements of 1880s Adapt to 1980s", The New York Times, January 3, 1988. Accessed June 30, 2009. "Usually five stories tall and built on a 25-foot (7.6 m) lot, their exteriors are hung with fire escapes and the interiors are laid out long and narrow—in fact, the apartments were dubbed railroad flats."
- ^ Percent of Occupied Housing Units That are Owner-occupied, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 15, 2015.
- ^ White, Jeremy B. (October 21, 2010). "NYDaily News: Rent too damn high?-news". New York. Retrieved October 26, 2010.
- ^ Morgan Brennan (March 22, 2013). "The World's Most Expensive Cities for Luxury Real Estate". Forbes. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
- ^ Highlights of the 2001 National Household Travel Survey, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, United States Department of Transportation. Accessed May 21, 2006.
- ^ "New York City Pedestrian Level of Service Study – Phase I, 2006" Archived June 15, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., New York City Department of City Planning, April 2006, p. 4. Accessed May 17, 2007. "In the year 2000, 88% of workers over 16 years old in the U.S. used a car, truck or van to commute to work, while approximately 5% used public transportation and 3% walked to work.... In Manhattan, the borough with the highest population density (66,940 people/sq mi. in year 2000; 1,564,798 inhabitants) and concentration of business and tourist destinations, only 18% of the working population drove to work in 2000, while 72% used public transportation and 8% walked."
- ^ "Manhattan" (PDF). TSTC.org. Retrieved September 13, 2010.
- ^ "Congestion plan dies". NY1. Archived from the original on December 17, 2008. Retrieved June 30, 2009.
- ^ "Fares & MetroCard". NYC Subway System. Retrieved September 15, 2015.
- ^ "PATH Fares". Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Retrieved March 6, 2008.
- ^ Metrocard, Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Accessed May 11, 2007.
- ^ PATH Frequently Asked Questions Archived April 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Accessed April 28, 2007. "PATH will phase out QuickCard once the SmartLink Fare Card is introduced."
- ^ Verena Dobnik (February 7, 2013). "NYC Transit Projects: East Side Access, Second Avenue Subway, And 7 Train Extension (PHOTOS)". Huffington Post. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- ^ Yee, Vivian (November 9, 2014). "Out of Dust and Debris, a New Jewel Rises". The New York Times. Retrieved February 16, 2015.
- ^ Fitzsimmons, Emma G. (September 10, 2015). "Subway Station for 7 Line Opens on Far West Side". The New York Times. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
- ^ Lorenzetti, Laura (2016-03-03). "The World's Most Expensive Train Station Opens Today". Fortune. Retrieved 2016-12-20.
- ^ Verrill, Courtney (2016-03-04). "New York City's $4 billion World Trade Center Transportation Hub is finally open to the public". Business Insider. Retrieved 2016-12-20.
- ^ McCowan, Candace (December 31, 2016). "Decades in the making, Second Avenue Subway set to open to the public". ABC7 New York. Retrieved January 1, 2017.
- ^ Fitzsimmons, Emma G.; Wolfe, Jonathan (January 1, 2017). "Second Avenue Subway Opening: What to Know". The New York Times. Retrieved January 1, 2017.
- ^ Bus Facts, Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Accessed July 15, 2016.
- ^ Lee, Jennifer 8. "Midair Rescue Lifts Passengers From Stranded East River Tram", The New York Times, April 19, 2006. Accessed February 28, 2008. "The system, which calls itself the only aerial commuter tram in the country, has been featured in movies including City Slickers, starring Billy Crystal; Nighthawks, with Sylvester Stallone; and Spider-Man in 2002."
- ^ The Roosevelt Island Tram, Roosevelt Island Operating Corporation. Accessed April 30, 2007. Archived September 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ Facts About the Ferry, New York City Department of Transportation. Accessed August 28, 2012. "On a typical weekday, five boats make 109 trips, carrying approximately 65,000 passengers. During rush hours, the ferry runs on a four-boat schedule, with 15 minutes between departures."
- ^ An Assessment of Staten Island Ferry Service and Recommendations for Improvement (PDF), New York City Council, November 2004. Accessed April 28, 2007. "Of the current fleet of seven vessels, five boats make 104 trips on a typical weekday schedule". Archived August 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ Holloway, Lynette. "Mayor to End 50-Cent Fare On S.I. Ferry", The New York Times, April 29, 1997. Accessed June 30, 2009. "Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani said yesterday that he would eliminate the 50-cent fare on the Staten Island Ferry starting July 4, saying people who live outside Manhattan should not have to pay extra to travel."
- ^ The MTA Network, Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Accessed November 20, 2016.
- ^ About the NYC Taxi and Limousine Commission. Accessed September 4, 2006.
- ^ Winnie Hu (March 6, 2017). "The Downside of Ride-Hailing: More New York City Gridlock". The New York Times. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
- ^ Are Manhattan's Right Angles Wrong, by Christopher Gray
- ^ "New York City Map". NYC.gov. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
- ^ Remarks of the Commissioners for laying out streets and roads in the City of New York, under the Act of April 3, 1807, Cornell University. Accessed May 2, 2007. "These streets are all sixty feet wide except fifteen, which are one hundred feet wide, viz.: Numbers fourteen, twenty-three, thirty-four, forty-two, fifty-seven, seventy-two, seventy-nine, eighty-six, ninety-six, one hundred and six, one hundred and sixteen, one hundred and twenty-five, one hundred and thirty-five, one hundred and forty-five, and one hundred and fifty-five—the block or space between them being in general about two hundred feet."
- ^ a b Silverman, Justin Rocket (May 27, 2006). "Sunny delight in city sight". Newsday.
'Manhattanhenge' occurs Sunday, a day when a happy coincidence of urban planning and astrophysics results in the setting sun lining up exactly with every east-west street in the borough north of 14th Street. Similar to Stonehenge, which is directly aligned with the summer-solstice sun, "Manhattanhenge" catches the sun descending in perfect alignment between buildings. The local phenomenon occurs twice a year, on May 28 and July 12...
- ^ Sunset on 34th Street Along the Manhattan Grid, Natural History Special Feature—City of Stars. Accessed September 4, 2006. Archived May 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ Kennicott, Philip. "A Builder Who Went to Town: Robert Moses Shaped Modern New York, for Better and for Worse", The Washington Post, March 11, 2007. Accessed April 30, 2007. "The list of his accomplishments is astonishing: seven bridges, 15 expressways, 16 parkways, the West Side Highway and the Harlem River Drive..."
- ^ "Port Authority of New York and New Jersey – George Washington Bridge". The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- ^ Bod Woodruff; Lana Zak & Stephanie Wash (November 20, 2012). "GW Bridge Painters: Dangerous Job on Top of the World's Busiest Bridge". ABC News. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- ^ "Lincoln Tunnel Historic Overview". Eastern Roads. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- ^ "Holland Tunnel". National Historic Landmark Quicklinks. National Park Service. Archived from the original on June 29, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- ^ "Queens-Midtown Tunnel Historic Overview". Eastern Roads. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- ^ "President the 'First' to Use Midtown Tube; Precedence at Opening Denied Hundreds of Motorists". The New York Times. November 9, 1940. p. 19.
- ^ "New York City Heliports, Helicopter Airport Transportation Services, Downtown Manhattan Heliport". NYCTourist.com. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
- ^ Yu, Roger (December 10, 2006). "Airport Check-in: Speedy service from Newark to Manhattan coming". USA Today. Retrieved April 28, 2007.
- ^ "Bulk Electricity Grid Beginnings", New York Independent System Operator. Accessed November 20, 2016.
- ^ Ray, C. Claiborne. "Q&A", The New York Times, May 12, 1992. Accessed June 30, 2009. "In a steam-powered system, the whole cycle of compression, cooling, expansion and evaporation takes place in a closed system, like that in a refrigerator or electrical air-conditioner. The difference, Mr. Sarno said, is that the mechanical power to run the compressor comes from steam-powered turbines, not electrical motors."
- ^ A brief history of con edison: steam, Consolidated Edison. Accessed May 16, 2007.
- ^ Matthew Philips (November 5, 2013). "Cheap Natural Gas Hits New York City". BloombergBusinessweek. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- ^ About DSNY Archived May 23, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., New York City Department of Sanitation. Accessed May 16, 2007.
- ^ Burger, Michael and Stewart, Christopher. "Garbage After Fresh Kills", Gotham Gazette, January 28, 2001. Accessed May 16, 2007.
- ^ "New York City's Yellow Cabs Go Green" (Press release). Sierra Club. July 1, 2005. Archived from the original on January 7, 2009. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
- ^ Gooch, Kelly. "25 largest hospitals in America", Becker Hospital Review, January 18, 2017. Accessed May 14, 2017.
- ^ "Current Reservoir Levels". New York City Department of Environmental Protection. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- ^ Lustgarten, Abrahm (August 6, 2008). "City's Drinking Water Feared Endangered; $10B Cost Seen". The New York Sun. Retrieved August 9, 2008.
- ^ Dunlap, David W. (July 23, 2014). "Quiet Milestone in Project to Bring Croton Water Back to New York City". The New York Times. Retrieved August 20, 2014.
- ^ David W. Dunlap (July 23, 2014). "Quiet Milestone in Project to Bring Croton Water Back to New York City". The New York Times. Retrieved August 20, 2014.
- ^ Matt Flegenheimer (October 16, 2013). "After Decades, a Water Tunnel Can Now Serve All of Manhattan". The New York Times. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- Burns, Ric, and Sanders, James. New York: An Illustrated History (2003), book version of 17-hour Burns PBS documentary, "NEW YORK: A Documentary Film"
- Burrows, Edwin G. & Wallace, Mike (1999), Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-195-11634-8, The standard scholarly history, 1390pp
- Ellis, Edward Robb. The Epic of New York City: A Narrative History (2004) 640pp; Excerpt and text search; Popular history concentrating on violent events & scandals
- Homberger, Eric. The Historical Atlas of New York City: A Visual Celebration of 400 Years of New York City's History (2005)
- Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. (2010), The Encyclopedia of New York City (2nd ed.), New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-11465-2
- Kouwenhoven, John Atlee. The Columbia Historical Portrait of New York: An Essay In Graphic History. *1953)
- Lankevich, George J. New York City: A Short History (2002)
- McCully, Betsy. City At The Water's Edge: A Natural History of New York (2005), environmental history excerpt and text search
- Reitano, Joanne. The Restless City: A Short History of New York from Colonial Times to the Present (2010), Popular history with focus on politics and riots excerpt and text search
- Filler, Martin (April 2015). New York: Conspicuous Construction. Analysis of architectural and social aspects of "ultra-luxury towers ... the smokestack-like protuberances that now disrupt the skyline of midtown Manhattan." The New York Review of Books
- Story, Louise and Saul, Stephanie (February 2015). Towers of Secrecy. A series of 6 articles "examining people behind shell companies buying high-end real estate" in midtown Manhattan. Part 1: Time Warner Center: Symbol of the Boom, Part 2: The Mysterious Malaysian Financier, Part 3: The Besieged Indian Builder, Part 4: The Mexican Power Brokers, Part 5: The Russian Minister and Friends, Summary: The Hidden Money Buying Up New York Real Estate. The New York Times
- Burke, Katie. ed. Manhattan Memories: A Book of Postcards of Old New York (2000); Postcards lacking the (c) symbol are not copyright and are in the public domain.
- Jackson, Kenneth T. and David S. Dunbar, eds. Empire City: New York Through the Centuries (2005), 1015 pages of excerpts
- Still, Bayrd, ed. Mirror for Gotham: New York as Seen by Contemporaries from Dutch Days to the Present (New York University Press, 1956) online edition Questia.com
- Virga, Vincent, ed. Historic Maps and Views of New York (2008)
- Stokes, I.N. Phelps. The Iconography of Manhattan Island, 1498–1909 compiled from original sources and illustrated by photo-intaglio reproductions of important maps plans views and documents in public and private collections (6 vols., 1915–28). A highly detailed, heavily illustrated chronology of Manhattan and New York City. see The Iconography of Manhattan Island All volumes are on line free at:
Content from Wikipedia