International Space Station

Last updated on 22 June 2017
International Space Station after undocking of STS-132.jpg
A rearward view of the International Space Station backdropped by the limb of the Earth. In view are the station's four large, gold-coloured solar array wings, two on either side of the station, mounted to a central truss structure. Further along the truss are six large, white radiators, three next to each pair of arrays. In between the solar arrays and radiators is a cluster of pressurised modules arranged in an elongated T shape, also attached to the truss. A set of blue solar arrays are mounted to the module at the aft end of the cluster.
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The components of the ISS in an exploded diagram, with modules on-orbit highlighted in orange, and those still awaiting launch in blue or pink

Purpose

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Sunrise at Zvezda
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Fisheye view of several labs
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CubeSats are deployed by the NanoRacks CubeSat Deployer attached to the end of the Japanese robotic arm
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Comet Lovejoy photographed by Expedition 30 commander Dan Burbank
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Expedition 8 Commander and Science Officer Michael Foale conducts an inspection of the Microgravity Science Glovebox
Space Fire.jpg
A comparison between the combustion of a candle on Earth (left) and in a microgravity environment, such as that found on the ISS (right)
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ISS crew member storing samples
Mars500.jpg
A 3D plan of the Russia-based MARS-500 complex, used for ground-based experiments which complement ISS-based preparations for a manned mission to Mars
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Japan's Kounotori 4 berthing
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Original Jules Verne manuscripts displayed by crew inside Jules Verne ATV

Assembly

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Partially constructed ISS in December 2002
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S3-S4 Truss Installed in 2007
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Soyuz TMA-19 departs in 2010
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ISS in 2007, with fewer solar arrays
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Aft view showing a Progress spacecraft docked to Zvezda
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The Cupola arrived in 2010

Station structure

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Russian Orbital Segment Windows
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USOS International Space Station window locations

Pressurised modules

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Zarya as seen by Space Shuttle Endeavour during STS-88
ISS Unity module.jpg
Unity as pictured by Space Shuttle Endeavour
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Destiny interior in 2001
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Harmony node in 2011
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Tranquility node in 2011
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Columbus module in 2008
%E3%81%8D%E3%81%BC%E3%81%86 %E3%82%A8%E3%82%A2%E3%83%AD%E3%83%83%E3%82%AF Kibo airlock.jpg
Not large enough for crew using spacesuits, the airlock on Kibō has a sliding drawer for external experiments.
Kibo - Pressurized Module.jpg

Pressurized Module

Kibo - Experiment Logistics Module (Pressurized Section).jpg

Experiment Logistics Module

Kibo - Exposed Facility.jpg

Exposed Facility

Kibo - Experiment Logistics Module (Exposed Section).jpg

Experiment Logistics Module

Kibo - Remote Manipulator System.jpg

Remote Manipulator System

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The Cupola's design has been compared to the Millennium Falcon from Star Wars.
ISS-27 Dmitri Kondratyev and Paolo Nespoli photograph the Earth through the Cupola.jpg
Dmitri Kondratyev and Paolo Nespoli in the Cupola. Background left to right, Progress M-09M, Soyuz TMA-20, the Leonardo module and HTV-2.
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Leonardo installed
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The cancelled Habitation module under construction in 1997

Unpressurised elements

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ISS Truss Components breakdown showing Trusses and all ORUs in situ
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Construction of the Integrated Truss Structure over New Zealand.
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Commander Volkov stands on Pirs with his back to the Soyuz whilst operating the manual Strela crane holding photographer Kononenko. Zarya is seen to the left and Zvezda across the bottom of the image.
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Dextre, like many of the station's experiments and robotic arms, can be operated from Earth and perform tasks while the crew sleeps.

Station systems

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The interactions between the components of the ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS)
ROSSA.jpg
Russian solar arrays, backlit by sunset.
P4 deployed.jpg
One of the eight truss mounted pairs of USOS solar arrays
EATCS.png
ISS External Active Thermal Control System (EATCS) diagram
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The communications systems used by the ISS
* Luch satellite and the Space Shuttle are not currently in use
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Laptop computers surround the Canadarm2 console.

Station operations

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Zarya and Unity were entered for the first time on 10 December 1998.
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Soyuz TM-31 being prepared to bring the first resident crew to the station in October 2000
STS-115 ISS after undocking.jpg
ISS was slowly assembled over a decade of spaceflights and crews
Tracy Caldwell Dyson in Cupola ISS.jpg
Expeditions have included male and female crew-members from many nations
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Graph showing the changing altitude of the ISS from November 1998 until January 2009
Animation of ISS orbit from a North American geostationary point of view (sped up 1800 times)
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Orbits of the ISS, shown in April 2013

Mission controls

ISS Centers.svg
Space centres involved with the ISS programme
ISS Unpressurized Platforms.png
Spare parts are called ORUs; some are externally stored on pallets called ELCs and ESPs.
STS-120 EVA Scott Parazynski.jpg
While anchored on the end of the OBSS during STS-120, astronaut Scott Parazynski performs makeshift repairs to a US solar array which damaged itself when unfolding.
Astronaut Mike Hopkins on Dec. 24 Spacewalk.jpg
Mike Hopkins on his Christmas Eve spacewalk

Fleet operations

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ISS orbit with calendar of expeditions and modules through 2014
Dragon and Cygnus docked on ISS.jpg
Dragon and Cygnus cargo vessels were docked at the ISS together for the first time in April 2016.
Progress M-14M.jpg
The Progress M-14M resupply vehicle as it approaches the ISS in 2012. Over 50 unpiloted Progress spacecraft have been sent with supplies during the lifetime of the station.
Endeavour docked to ISS.jpg
Space Shuttle Endeavour, ATV-2, Soyuz TMA-21 and Progress M-10M docked to the ISS, as seen from the departing Soyuz TMA-20

Life aboard

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Crewmember peers out of a window
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The crews of STS-127 and Expedition 20 enjoy a meal inside Unity.
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Space toilet in the Zvezda service module

Crew health and safety

Video of the Aurora Australis taken by the crew of Expedition 28 on an ascending pass from south of Madagascar to just north of Australia over the Indian Ocean.
Nikolai Budarin in a sleep station in Zvezda.jpg
Cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin at work inside Zvezda service module crew quarters
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Astronaut Frank De Winne is attached to the TVIS treadmill with bungee cords aboard the International Space Station

Threat of orbital debris

SDIO KEW Lexan projectile.jpg
A 7 g object (shown in centre) shot at 7 km/s (23,000 ft/s), the orbital velocity of the ISS, made this 15 cm (5.9 in) crater in a solid block of aluminium.
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Radar-trackable objects, including debris, with distinct ring of geostationary satellites
ISS impact risk.jpg
Example of risk management: A NASA model showing areas at high risk from impact for the International Space Station.

End of mission

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Many ISS resupply spacecraft have already undergone atmospheric re-entry, such as Jules Verne ATV

International co-operation

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Dated 29 January 1998

Sightings from Earth

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The ISS and HTV photographed using a telescope-mounted camera by Ralf Vandebergh
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A time exposure of a station pass

Notes

  1. ^ Privately funded travellers who have objected to the term include Dennis Tito, the first such traveller (Associated Press, 8 May 2001), Mark Shuttleworth, founder of Ubuntu (Associated Press, The Spokesman Review, 6 January 2002, p. A4), Gregory Olsen and Richard Garriott.[195][196] Canadian astronaut Bob Thirsk said the term does not seem appropriate, referring to his crewmate, Guy Laliberté, founder of Cirque du Soleil.[197] Anousheh Ansari denied being a tourist[198] and took offence at the term.[199]
  2. ^ ESA director Jörg Feustel-Büechl said in 2001 that Russia had no right to send 'amateurs' to the ISS. A 'stand-off' occurred at the Johnson Space Centre between Commander Talgat Musabayev and NASA manager Robert Cabana. Cabana refused to train Dennis Tito, a member of Musabayev's crew along with Yuri Baturin. The commander argued that Tito had trained 700 hours in the last year and was as qualified as any NASA astronaut, and refused to allow his crew to be trained on the American portions of the station without Tito. Cabana stated training could not begin, and the commander returned with his crew to their hotel.

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