Indian Premier League

The Indian Premier League (IPL, officially Vivo Indian Premier League for sponsorship reasons) is a professional Twenty20 cricket league in India contested during April and May of every year by teams representing Indian cities. The league was founded by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), however Lalit Modi, the founder and former Commissioner, was the brainchild behind the birth of this league in 2007, which has now become a mammoth, money-spinning cricket venture. Vivo, the Chinese based smartphone multinational company, is serving as the title sponsor since the ninth season of the league. The current IPL title holder is the Mumbai Indians, who won by one run in a final against the Rising Pune Supergiants .

The IPL is the most-attended cricket league in the world and ranks sixth among all sports leagues. In 2010, the IPL became the first sporting event in the world to be broadcast live on YouTube. The brand value of IPL was estimated to be US$4.5 billion in 2015 by American Appraisal, A Division of Duff & Phelps. According to BCCI, the 2015 IPL season contributed ₹11.5 billion (US$182 million) to the GDP of the Indian economy. Duff & Phelps added that the value of brand IPL has jumped to $4.16 billion after the 2016 edition, against $3.54 billion in 2015. The 19% jump is despite the fact that the US dollar to Indian rupee currency has depreciated by nearly 10%.

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Ipl.svg

History

SRH fans while an ipl match.jpg
Crowd during a match of the 2015 IPL season in Hyderabad, India.

Foundation

The Indian Cricket League was founded in 2007, with funding provided by Zee Entertainment Enterprises. The ICL was not recognised by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) or the International Cricket Council (ICC) and the BCCI were not pleased with its committee members joining the ICL executive board. To prevent players from joining the ICL, the BCCI increased the prize money in their own domestic tournaments and also imposed lifetime bans on players joining the ICL, which was considered a rebel league by the board. BCCI started a new Twenty20 league that would rival the Indian Cricket League. In early 2008, the BCCI announced the launch of the Indian Premier League, a new franchise based T20 league, which is among the first of its kind in the cricketing world. The league was based on the Premier League of England and the NBA in the United States.

In order to decide the owners for the new league, an auction was held on 24 January 2008 with the total base prices of the franchises costing around $400 million. At the end of the auction, the winning bidders were announced, as well as the cities the teams would be based in: Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Kolkata, Mohali, and Mumbai. In the end, the franchises were all sold for a total of $723.59 million. The Indian Cricket League soon folded in 2008.

Expansions and terminations

On 21 March 2010, it was announced that two new franchises – Pune Warriors India and Kochi Tuskers Kerala – would join the league before the fourth season in 2011. Sahara Adventure Sports Group bought the Pune franchise for $370 million while Rendezvous Sports World bought the Kochi franchise for $333.3 million. However, one year later, on 11 November 2011, it was announced that the Kochi Tuskers Kerala side would be terminated following the side breaching the BCCI's terms of conditions.

Then, on 14 September 2012, following the team not being able to find new owners, the BCCI announced that the 2009 champions, the Deccan Chargers, would be terminated. The next month, on 25 October, an auction was held to see who would be the owner of the replacement franchise, with Sun TV Network winning the bid for the Hyderabad franchise. The team would be named Sunrisers Hyderabad.

On 14 June 2015, it was announced that two-time champions, Chennai Super Kings, and the inaugural season champions, Rajasthan Royals, would be suspended for two seasons following their role in a match-fixing and betting scandal. Then, on 8 December 2015, following an auction, it was revealed that Pune and Rajkot would replace Chennai and Rajasthan for two seasons. The teams are the Rising Pune Supergiant and the Gujarat Lions.A major announcement was made by the Pune team owner Sanjeev Goenka where the existing captain MS Dhoni was replaced by Steve Smith as the new captain of the team.

Tournament format

Currently, with eight teams, each team plays each other twice in a home-and-away round-robin format in the league phase. At the conclusion of the league stage, the top four teams will qualify for the Playoffs. The top two teams from the league phase will play against each other in the first Qualifying match, with the winner going straight to the IPL final and the loser getting another chance to qualify for the IPL final by playing the second Qualifying match. Meanwhile, the third and fourth place teams from league phase play against each other in an eliminator match and the winner from that match will play the loser from the first Qualifying match. The winner of the second Qualifying match will move onto the final to play the winner of the first Qualifying match in the IPL Final match, where the winner will be crowned the Indian Premier League champions.

Teams

Current teams

Team City State Home ground Joined Coach Captain
Delhi Daredevils Delhi Delhi Feroz Shah Kotla 2008 India Rahul Dravid India Zaheer Khan
Kings XI Punjab Mohali Punjab PCA Stadium, Holkar Stadium 2008 India Virender Sehwag Australia Glenn Maxwell
Kolkata Knight Riders Kolkata West Bengal Eden Gardens 2008 South Africa Jacques Kallis India Gautam Gambhir
Mumbai Indians Mumbai Maharashtra Wankhede Stadium 2008 Sri Lanka Mahela Jayawardene India Rohit Sharma
Royal Challengers Bangalore Bangalore Karnataka M. Chinnaswamy Stadium 2008 New Zealand Daniel Vettori India Virat Kohli
Sunrisers Hyderabad Hyderabad Telangana Rajiv Gandhi Cricket Stadium 2013 Australia Tom Moody Australia David Warner
Rising Pune Supergiant Pune Maharashtra MCA Stadium 2016 New Zealand Stephen Fleming Australia Steve Smith
Gujarat Lions Rajkot Gujarat SCA Stadium, Green Park Stadium 2016 Australia Brad Hodge India Suresh Raina
Team City State Home ground Joined Exited Current Status
Kochi Tuskers Kerala Kochi Kerala Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium 2010 2011 Defunct, but could be back in 2018.
Deccan Chargers Hyderabad Telangana Rajiv Gandhi International Stadium 2008 2012 Defunct
Pune Warriors India Pune Maharashtra MCA Stadium 2010 2013 Defunct
Chennai Super Kings Chennai Tamil Nadu M. A. Chidambaram Stadium 2008 2015 Suspended for 2016, 2017 seasons, will be back in 2018.
Rajasthan Royals Jaipur Rajasthan Sawai Mansingh Stadium 2008 2015 Suspended for 2016, 2017 seasons, will be back in 2018.

Tournament seasons and results

Out of the thirteen teams those have played in the Indian Premier League since its inception, one team has won the competition three times, two teams have won the competition twice each and three other teams have won it once each. The Mumbai Indians are the most successful team in league's history in terms of the number of titles won. The Chennai Super Kings and Kolkata Knight Riders have won two titles each, and the other three teams who have won the tournament are the Deccan Chargers, Rajasthan Royals and Sunrisers Hyderabad. The Chennai Super Kings is the only team to have won the tournament and then defended it the next season, winning in 2010 and winning again in 2011. Also the Chennai Super Kings has the better win-loss ratio among all the teams and have qualified to semifinals/Play-offs in every season the team participated. The Chennai Super Kings have also made it to the IPL finals a record 6 times in the 8 years they have played.

The current champions are Mumbai Indians who beat Rising Pune Supergiant in the final of the 2017 season to secure their third title.

IPL season results
Season Final Final venue Number of teams Player of the series
Winner Winning margin Runner-up
2008
Details
Rajasthan Royals
164/7 (20 overs)
Won by 3 wickets
(Scorecard)
Chennai Super Kings
163/5 (20 overs)
DY Patil Stadium 8 Australia Shane Watson
2009
Details
Deccan Chargers
143/6 (20 overs)
Won by 6 runs
(Scorecard)
Royal Challengers Bangalore
137/9 (20 overs)
Wanderers Stadium
(South Africa)
8 Australia Adam Gilchrist
2010
Details
Chennai Super Kings
168/5 (20 overs)
Won by 22 runs
(Scorecard)
Mumbai Indians
146/9 (20 overs)
DY Patil Stadium 8 India Sachin Tendulkar
2011
Details
Chennai Super Kings
205/5 (20 overs)
Won by 58 runs
(Scorecard)
Royal Challengers Bangalore
147/8 (20 overs)
M. A. Chidambaram Stadium 10 Jamaica Chris Gayle
2012
Details
Kolkata Knight Riders
192/5 (19.4 overs)
Won by 5 wickets
(Scorecard)
Chennai Super Kings
190/3 (20 overs)
M. A. Chidambaram Stadium 9 Trinidad and Tobago Sunil Narine
2013
Details
Mumbai Indians
148/9 (20 overs)
Won by 23 runs
(Scorecard)
Chennai Super Kings
125/9 (20 overs)
Eden Gardens 9 Australia Shane Watson
2014
Details
Kolkata Knight Riders
200/7 (19.3 overs)
Won by 3 wickets
(Scorecard)
Kings XI Punjab
199/4 (20 overs)
M. Chinnaswamy Stadium 8 Australia Glenn Maxwell
2015
Details
Mumbai Indians
202/5 (20 overs)
Won by 41 runs
(Scorecard)
Chennai Super Kings
161/8 (20 overs)
Eden Gardens 8 Jamaica Andre Russell
2016
Details
Sunrisers Hyderabad
208/7 (20 overs)
Won by 8 runs
(Scorecard)
Royal Challengers Bangalore
200/7 (20 overs)
M. Chinnaswamy Stadium 8 India Virat Kohli
2017
Details
Mumbai Indians
129/8 (20 overs)
Won by 1 run
Rising Pune Supergiant
128/6 (20 overs)
Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium 8 India Krunal Pandya
2018
Details
Wankhede Stadium

Tournament and salary rules

A team can acquire players through five ways: The annual auction, signing domestic players, signing uncapped players, trading players, and signing replacements. In the trading window, a player can only be traded with his consent, with the franchise paying the difference if any between the old and new contract. If the new contract is worth more than the older one, the difference is shared between the player and the franchise selling the player.

Some of the team composition rules are as follows:

  • A minimum squad strength of 16 players, one physiotherapist and a coach.
  • No more than 10 foreign players on the squad and a maximum of 4 foreign players in the playing XI.
  • A minimum of 14 Indian players must be included in each squad.
  • A minimum of 6 players from the BCCI under-22 pool must be included in each squad.

IPL games utilise television timeouts and hence there is no time limit in which teams must complete their innings. However, a penalty may be imposed if the umpires find teams misusing this privilege. Each team is given a two-and-a-half-minute "strategic timeout" during each innings; one must be taken by the bowling team between the ends of the 6th and 9th overs, and one by the batting team between the ends of the 13th and 16th overs.

Salary cap

The total spending cap for a franchise in the first player auction was US$5 million. Under-22 players are to be remunerated with a minimum annual salary of US$20,000, whereas for others the minimum was US$50,000.

Prize money

The 2015 season of the IPL offered a total prize money of 40 crore (US$6.2 million), with the winning team netting 15 crore (US$2.3 million). The first and second runners up received 10 and 7.5 crores, respectively, with the fourth placed team also winning 7.5 crores. The others teams are not awarded any prize money. The IPL rules mandate that half of the prize money must be distributed among the players.

Individual awards

Orange Cap

The Orange Cap is awarded to the top run-scorer in the IPL during a season. It is an ongoing competition with the leader wearing the cap throughout the tournament until the final game, with the eventual winner keeping the cap for the season.

Purple Cap

The Purple Cap is awarded to the top wicket-taker in the IPL. It is an ongoing competition with the leader wearing the cap throughout the tournament until the final game, with the eventual winner keeping the cap for the season.

Broadcast

On 17 January 2008 it was announced that a consortium consisting of India's Sony Entertainment Television (Set Max) network and Singapore-based World Sport Group secured the global broadcasting rights of the Indian Premier League. The record deal has a duration of ten years at a cost of US$1.026 billion. As part of the deal, the consortium will pay the BCCI US$918 million for the television broadcast rights and US$108 million for the promotion of the tournament. The initial plan was for 20% of these proceeds would go to IPL, 8% as prize money and 72% would be distributed to the franchisees from 2008 until 2012, after which the IPL would go public and list its shares. However, in March 2010, IPL decided not to go public and list its shares. Sony-WSG then re-sold parts of the broadcasting rights geographically to other companies. Sony Pictures Networks India (SPN) has raked in Rs 1,200 crore as advertising revenue from the ninth edition of the tournament, a growth of twenty percent from last year. The broadcaster had mopped up Rs. 1,000 crore as advertising revenue in IPL 2015.

Territory Network
Afghanistan Lemar TV (2017)
African Union Africa (Sub-Sahara) SuperSport (2008–present)
Australia Australia Network Ten (2008)
One HD (2009-2010)
Bangladesh Bangladesh Maasranga (2014–2016)

Channel 9 (2016 – present)

Bhutan Bhutan SET Max (2008–present)
Sony SIX (2013–present)
Brunei Brunei Astro (2008–present)
Canada Canada Sportsnet (2011–2014)
West Indies Cricket Board Caribbean SportsMax (2008–present)
Hong Kong Hong Kong PCCW (2010–present)
India India Sony MAX (2008–present)
Sony SIX (2013–present)
Sony ESPN (2016–present)
Malaysia Malaysia Astro (2008–present)
Arab League Arab world OSN SPORTS (2015–present)
Nepal Nepal Sony MAX (2008–present)
Sony SIX (2013–present)
Sony ESPN (2016–present)
New Zealand New Zealand Sky Sport (2012–present)
Pakistan Pakistan Geo Super (2008–present)
Singapore Singapore StarHub (2008–present)
Singtel (2015–present)
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Carlton Sports Network (2012–present)
United Kingdom United Kingdom ITV4 (2011-2014)
Sky Sports (2015–present)
United States United States Willow.tv (2017–present)
Worldwide internet rights The Times Group (2011–2014)
Hotstar(2015–present)

IPL Governing Council

The IPL Governing Council is responsible for all the functions of the tournament. The members are Rajeev Shukla, Ajay Shirke, Sourav Ganguly, Anurag Thakur and Anirudh Chaudhry. In January 2016, the Supreme Court appointed Lodha Committee to recommend separate governing bodies for the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) and the Indian Premier League (IPL), where Justice RM Lodha suggested a One State-One Member pattern for the board.

See also

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